John Wiley & Sons Advances in Remote Sensing Technology and the Three Poles Cover ADVANCES IN REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGY AND THE THREE POLES Covers recent advances in remote sensing .. Product #: 978-1-119-78772-3 Regular price: $179.44 $179.44 Auf Lager

Advances in Remote Sensing Technology and the Three Poles

Pandey, Manish / Pandey, Prem C. / Ray, Yogesh / Arora, Aman / Jawak, Shridhar D. / Shukla, Uma K. (Herausgeber)

Cover

1. Auflage Januar 2023
480 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-78772-3
John Wiley & Sons

Jetzt kaufen

Preis: 192,00 €

Preis inkl. MwSt, zzgl. Versand

Weitere Versionen

epubmobipdf

ADVANCES IN REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGY AND THE THREE POLES

Covers recent advances in remote sensing technology applied to the "Three Poles", a concept encompassing the Arctic, Antarctica, and the Himalayas

Advances in Remote Sensing Technology and the Three Poles is a multidisciplinary approach studying the lithosphere, hydrosphere (encompassing both limnosphere, and oceanosphere), atmosphere, biosphere, and anthroposphere, of the Arctic, the Antarctic and the Himalayas. The drastic effects of climate change on polar environments bring to the fore the often subtle links between climate change and processes in the hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere, while unanswered questions of the polar regions will help plan and formulate future research projects.

Sample topics covered in the work include:
* Terrestrial net primary production of the Arctic and modeling of Arctic landform evolution
* Glaciers and glacial environments, including a geological, geophysical, and geospatial survey of Himalayan glaciers
* Sea ice dynamics in the Antarctic region under a changing climate, the Quaternary geology and geomorphology of Antarctica
* Continuous satellite missions, data availability, and the nature of future satellite missions, including scientific data sharing policies in different countries
* Software, tools, models, and remote sensing technology for investigating polar and other environments

For postgraduates and researchers working in remote sensing, photogrammetry, and landscape evolution modeling, Advances in Remote Sensing Technology and the Three Poles is a crucial resource for understanding current technological capabilities in the field along with the latest scientific research that has been conducted in polar areas.

About the Editors xvii

Notes on Contributors xx

Foreword xxv

Preface xxvi

List of Acronyms xxviii

Section I Earth Observation (EO) and Remote Sensing (RS) Applications in Polar Studies 1

1 The Three Poles: Advances in Remote Sensing in Relation to Spheres of the Planet Earth 3
Manish Pandey, Prem C. Pandey, Yogesh Ray, Aman Arora, Shridhar Digmabar Jawak, and Uma Kant Shukla

1.1 Introduction 3

1.1.1 Earth as a System and Components of the Earth System 4

1.1.2 Role of the "Three Poles" and the Three Poles Regions in the Earth System 4

1.1.2.1 Defining the Three Poles, Three Poles Regions, and Their Geographical Extent 4

1.1.2.2 Interaction Among Components of the Earth System and Role of the Three Poles 5

1.1.3 Advancement of RS Technologies in Relation to Their Application in the Three Poles Regions 6

1.1.3.1 Remote Sensing Technology Advancements 6

1.1.3.2 Role of Remote Sensing (RS) in Mapping/Monitoring/Quantitative Analysis of Sub-Systems of Our Planet in the Three Poles Regions 7

1.2 Aim of the Book and Its Five Sections 11

1.3 Overview of the Contributing Chapters Covering Research About Different Aspects of the Sub-Systems of Our Planet in the Three Poles Regions 11

1.4 Summary and Recommendations 14

References 15

2 Continuous Satellite Missions, Data Availability, and Nature of Future Satellite Missions with Implications to Polar Regions 24
Jagriti Mishra, Takuya Inoue, and Avinash Kumar Pandey

2.1 Introduction 24

2.1.1 Types of Orbit 24

2.1.1.1 High Earth Orbit (HEO) 25

2.1.1.2 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) 25

2.1.1.3 Semi-Synchronous Orbit 25

2.1.1.4 Molniya Orbit 25

2.1.1.5 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) 25

2.1.1.6 Polar Orbit and Sun-Synchronous Orbit 25

2.1.1.7 Lagrange's Point 26

2.2 Satellite Missions and Data Availability 26

2.3 Future Satellite Missions 26

2.4 Applicability of Satellite Products in Three Poles Regions 32

2.5 Challenges and Limitations 33

2.6 Summary 34

Acknowledgments 34

References 34

3 Assessing the Accuracy of Digital Elevation Models for Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas 36
Prodip Mandal and Shraban Sarkar

3.1 Introduction 36

3.2 Study Area 37

3.3 Materials and Methods 38

3.3.1 Generation of Cartosat-1 DEM and Orthoimage 38

3.3.2 TanDEM-X 40

3.3.3 Alos Palsar 40

3.3.4 DGPS Survey for Obtaining Ground Control Points (GCPs) 40

3.3.5 Datum Transformation 40

3.3.6 Accuracy Assessment Methods 40

3.3.6.1 Vertical Accuracy 41

3.3.6.2 Spatial Accuracy 41

3.4 Results and Discussion 41

3.4.1 Vertical Accuracy Assessment: Comparison of DEMs With Reference to GCPs 41

3.4.2 Vertical Accuracy of DEMs for Different Land Use Classes 41

3.4.2.1 Dense Forest 41

3.4.2.2 Open Forest 43

3.4.2.3 Tea Garden 43

3.4.2.4 Built-up Area 43

3.4.3 Spatial Accuracy Assessment: Comparison of DEMs With Reference to Stream Networks 43

3.5 Conclusions 45

Acknowledgments 46

References 46

4 An Overview of Morphometry Software Packages, Tools, and Add-ons 49
Satarupa Mitra, Shailendra Pundir, Rahul Devrani, Aman Arora, Manish Pandey, Romulus Costache, and Saeid Janizadeh

4.1 Introduction 49

4.2 Overview of Morphometry Tools and Toolboxes 50

4.3 Stand-Alone Tools 52

4.4 Tools that Run within Coding Bases 54

4.5 Conclusion 55

References 55

5 Landscape Modeling, Glacier and Ice Sheet Dynamics, and the Three Poles: A Review of Models, Softwares, and Tools 58
Satarupa Mitra, Rahul Devrani, Manish Pandey, Aman Arora, Romulus Costache, and Saeid Janizadeh

5.1 Introduction 58

5.2 Taxonomy 59

5.2.1 Geomorphic Process-Based Models 60

5.2.2 Classification Based on Process of Modeling 60

5.2.2.1 Based on Geomorphic Processes 60

5.2.2.2 Based on Modeling Process 60

5.3 Working Principles for Geomorphological Models 61

5.3.1 Soil Production 61

5.3.2 Hillslope Transport 62

5.3.3 Land Sliding 62

5.3.4 Fluvial Incision and Transport 62

5.3.5 Glacial Erosion 62

5.4 Landscape Evolution Models 63

5.4.1 DEM-Based Models 63

5.4.2 Siberia 63

5.4.3 Golem 64

5.4.4 Cascade 64

5.4.5 ZScape 64

5.4.6 Child 64

5.4.7 Caesar 65

5.4.8 Apero 65

5.4.9 SIGNUM (Simple Integrated Geomorphological Numerical Model) 65

5.4.10 TTLEM (TopoToolbox Landscape Evolution Model) 1.0 65

5.5 Other Models 65

5.5.1 Delim 65

5.5.2 Eros 66

5.5.3 Landscape Evolution Model Using Global Search 66

5.5.4 eSCAPE 66

5.5.5 r.sim.terrain 1.0 66

5.6 Combined/Application-Specific Models 66

5.7 Machine Learning Models 66

5.8 LEMs Developed for Glaciated Landscapes 66

5.9 Some Significant Glacier Evolution Models 68

5.10 Models Developed for Alpine Regions 71

5.11 Models Developed for the Arctic Regio 72

5.12 Models Developed for the Antarctic Region 72

5.13 Conclusion and Future Prospects 75

Acknowledgment 75

Declaration of Competing Interest 75

References 76

6 Spectral Indices Across Remote Sensing Platforms and Sensors Relating to the Three Poles: An Overview of Applications, Challenges, and Future Prospects 83
Mallikarjun Mishra, Kiran Kumari Singh, Prem C. Pandey, Rahul Devrani, Avinash Kumar Pandey, KN Prudhvi Raju, Prabhat Ranjan, Aman Arora, Romulus Costache, Saeid Janizadeh, Nguyen Thuy Linh, and Manish Pandey

6.1 Introduction 83

6.2 Database and Methodology 84

6.3 Rationale of Different Spectral Indices Across RS Sensors and Platforms 85

6.4 RS Sensors and Platforms: Characteristics (Spatial, Temporal, Spectral, and Radiometric Resolutions) 87

6.5 Most Widely and Popularly Used Spectral Indices 87

6.5.1 Spectral Indices and Lithosphere 87

6.5.2 Spectral Indices and Hydrosphere 88

6.5.3 Spectral Indices and Atmosphere 90

6.5.4 Spectral Indices and Biosphere 91

6.5.5 Spectral Indices and Anthroposphere 103

6.6 Thematic Evolution and Trends 105

6.6.1 Thematic and Network Maps 105

6.7 Summary and Recommendations 110

Acknowledgments 111

References 111

Section II Antarctica: the Southernmost Continent Having the South Pole Environment and Remote Sensing 117

7 Glacier Dynamics in East Antarctica: A Remote Sensing Perspective 119
Kiledar Singh Tomar, Sangita Singh Tomar, Ashutosh Venkatesh Prasad, and Alvarinho J. Luis

7.1 Introduction 119

7.2 Satellite Remote Sensing of Glacier Dynamics in East Antarctica 120

7.3 Glacier Velocity Estimation Using Remote Sensing 121

7.3.1 Glacier Velocity Estimation Using SAR Interferometry 121

7.3.2 Glacier Velocity Estimation Using Offset Tracking 121

7.4 Remote Sensing Based Dynamics of PRG: A Case Study 122

7.4.1 Data and Methods 123

7.4.2 Results and Discussion 123

7.4.2.1 Ice Front Location 123

7.4.2.2 Glacier Velocity Over the Period of 2016-2019 124

7.4.3 Summary and Conclusion 124

References 125

8 Terrestrial Deglaciation Signatures in East Antarctica 128
Uday Sharma, Yogesh Ray, and Manish Pandey

8.1 Introduction 128

8.2 Geomorphology 128

8.2.1 East Antarctica 129

8.3 Landform Variation Concerning Various Sectors and Elevation 132

8.3.1 Dronning Maud Land 132

8.3.2 Enderby Land 133

8.3.3 Mac. Robertson Land, Amery Ice Shelf, and Prince Elizabeth Land 133

8.3.4 Wilkes Land 135

8.4 Chronology 135

8.4.1 Dronning Maud Land 136

8.4.2 Enderby Land 137

8.4.3 Mac. Robertson Land, Amery Ice Shelf 's and Princess Elizabeth Land 137

8.4.4 Wilkes Land 138

8.5 Discussion 138

8.6 Conclusion 139

Acknowledgments 140

References 140

9 Geospatial Tools for Monitoring Vertebrate Populations in Antarctica With a Note on the Ecological Component of the Indian Antarctic Program 144
Anant Pande, Ankita Anand, Shailendra Saini, and Kuppusamy Sivakumar

9.1 Introduction 144

9.2 Novel Geospatial Tools for Biodiversity Monitoring in Antarctica 145

9.2.1 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles 145

9.2.2 Satellite Imagery 147

9.3 Spatial Mapping of Seabirds Under the Indian Antarctic Program 149

9.4 Recommendations to Incorporate New Tools for Antarctic Wildlife Monitoring Program 151

9.5 Conclusion 152

Acknowledgments 152

References 152

10 Bryophytes of Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica and Future Prospects 155
Devendra Singh

10.1 Introduction 155

10.2 Study Area 156

10.3 Materials and Methods 156

10.4 Taxonomic Treatment 156

10.5 Phytosociological Studies 174

10.6 Results and Discussion 175

10.7 Future Prospects 175

Acknowledgments 177

References 177

11 Antarctic Sea Ice Variability and Trends Over the Last Four Decades 179
Swathi M., Juhi Yadav, Avinash Kumar, and Rahul Mohan

11.1 Introduction 179

11.2 Datasets and Methods 180

11.2.1 Sea Ice Extent Analysis 180

11.2.2 Analysis of Physical Parameters 181

11.3 Results and Discussion 182

11.3.1 Sea Ice Variability in the Southern Ocean 182

11.3.2 Sea Ice Distribution With Respect to Ocean-Atmospheric Temperature 182

11.4 Summary and Conclusions 187

Acknowledgments 188

References 189

Section III Himalayas: The Third Pole Environment and Remote Sensing 191

12 Some Unresolved Problems in the Himalaya: A Synoptic View 193
Om N. Bhargava

12.1 Introduction 193

12.2 Stratigraphic Ages, Basin Configuration, and Palaeontology 193

12.3 Sedimentology 195

12.4 Tectonics and Structure 195

12.5 Magmatism and Geochronology 196

12.6 Metamorphism 196

12.7 Mineral Deposits 196

12.8 Palaeomagnetic Studies 197

12.9 Glaciological Studies 197

12.10 Geomorphological Studies 197

12.11 Conclusion 198

Acknowledgments 198

References 198

13 Fluctuations of Kolahoi Glacier, Kashmir Valley, Its Assessment With Tree-Rings of Pinus wallichiana and Comparable Satellite Imageries and Field Survey Records 203
Uttam Pandey, Santosh K. Shah, and Nivedita Mehrotra

13.1 Introduction 203

13.2 Tree-Ring Sampling Site and Data Acquisition 204

13.3 Tree-Ring Chronology and Its Assessments 206

13.4 Fluctuations of Kolahoi Glacier: Existing Records and Its Assessment With Tree-Rings 207

13.5 Conclusions 210

Acknowledgements 210

References 210

14 Applications of ICESat-2 Photon Data in the Third Pole Environment 213
Giribabu Dandabathula

14.1 Introduction 213

14.2 Brief Background About NASA's ICESat-2 Mission 214

14.3 Terrain Profiling From ICESat-2 Photon Elevations Over a Mountainous Region 216

14.4 Longitudinal Profiling of Rivers in a Mountainous Region 216

14.5 Inland Water Level Detection in Mountainous Regions Using ICESat-2 Photon Data 216

14.6 Inferring Annual Variations of Water Levels in Mountain Lakes Using ICESat-2's ATL13 Data Product 218

14.7 Inferring Lake Ice Phenology in Mountainous Regions Using ICESat-2 Photon Data 221

14.8 Estimating Tree Heights in Mountain Regions Using ICESat-2 Photon Data 223

14.9 Utilization of ICESat-2 Photon Data to Generate Digital Elevation Models 223

14.10 Conclusion 225

Acknowledgments 226

References 226

15 Extreme Hydrological Event-Induced Temporal Variation in Soil Erosion of the Assiganga River Basin, NW Himalaya 230
Rohit Kumar, Rahul Devrani, Astha Dangwal, Benidhar Deshmukh, and Som Dutt

15.1 Introduction 230

15.2 Study Area 231

15.3 Methodology and Dataset 233

15.3.1 Soil Erodibility (K Factor) 234

15.3.2 Rainfall Erosivity (R Factor) 234

15.3.3 Slope Length and Steepness Factor (LS Factor) 235

15.3.4 Crop Management (C Factor) and Support Practices (P Factor) 237

15.4 Results and Discussion 239

15.4.1 Pre-Post R, C, and P Variation 239

15.4.2 Soil Loss Spatial Pattern and Extent 240

15.5 Conclusion 243

Acknowledgments 243

References 243

16 Understanding the Present and Past Climate-Human-Vegetation Dynamics in the Indian Himalaya: A Comprehensive Review 247
Mehta Bulbul, Yadav Ankit, Aljasil Chirakkal, Ambili Anoop, and Praveen K. Mishra

16.1 Introduction 247

16.2 Study Site 248

16.3 Climate Vegetation Interaction in the Indian Himalaya 248

16.3.1 Present-Day Conditions 248

16.3.2 The Holocene Epoch 249

16.3.2.1 Western Himalaya 249

16.3.2.2 Eastern Himalaya 252

16.3.2.3 Central Himalaya 253

16.4 Conclusions 253

References 254

17 Flash Flood Susceptibility Mapping of a Himalayan River Basin Using Multi-Criteria Decision-Analysis and GIS 257
Pratik Dash, Kasturi Mukherjee, and Surajit Ghosh

17.1 Introduction 257

17.2 Study Area 258

17.3 Data and Methodology 259

17.3.1 Data 259

17.3.2 Multicriteria Analysis 259

17.3.3 Selection and Classification of Flood Predictors 259

17.3.4 Flood Hazard Index 260

17.3.5 Validation 260

17.4 Results and Discussion 260

17.4.1 Flood Controlling Factors 260

17.4.2 Multicriteria Analysis 264

17.4.3 Flood Susceptibility Mapping 264

17.4.4 Validation 265

17.5 Conclusion 266

References 266

18 The Role of Himalayan Frontal Thrust in the Upliftment of Kimin Formation and the Migration of Sedimentary Basin in Arunachal Himalaya, Around Bandardewa, Papumpare District, Arunachal Pradesh 268
Mondip Sarma, Sajeed Zaman Borah, Devojit Bezbaruah, Tapos Kumar Goswami, and Upendra Baral

18.1 Introduction 268

18.2 Geology 269

18.2.1 Siwaliks of Arunachal Himalaya 269

18.2.2 Geology of the Study Area 269

18.3 Materials and Method 272

18.4 Study of Alluvial Fan 273

18.4.1 Description of Lithosections 273

18.4.1.1 Kimin Formation 273

18.4.1.2 Terrace Deposits 274

18.4.2 Grain Size Analysis 275

18.4.3 Cumulative Curve 275

18.4.4 Calculation of Size Parameters 275

18.4.4.1 Graphic Mean 275

18.4.4.2 Graphic Standard Deviations 275

18.4.4.3 Graphic Skewness 275

18.4.4.4 Graphic Kurtosis 275

18.4.5 Inter-Relationship of Size Parameters 275

18.4.6 cm Plot 278

18.5 Discussion and Conclusions 279

Acknowledgments 280

References 280

19 Himalayan River Profile Sensitivity Assessment by Validating of DEMs and Comparison of Hydrological Tools 283
Rahul Devrani, Rohit Kumar, Maneesh Kuruvath, Parv Kasana, Shailendra Pundir, Manish Pandey, and Sukumar Parida

19.1 Introduction 283

19.2 Study Area 284

19.3 Methodology (LSDTopoTools) 284

19.4 Details of DEM Datasets Used 286

19.4.1 Alos-palsar 286

19.4.2 Aster 286

19.4.3 CartoDEM 287

19.4.4 Copernicus DEM 287

19.4.5 Nasa Dem 287

19.4.6 Srtm 289

19.5 Result and Discussion 289

19.5.1 Assessment of DEMs Generated Watershed Boundary and Slope 289

19.5.2 Sensivity of Longitudinal River Profiles Using Different DEMs 289

19.6 Conclusion 295

Acknowledgments 295

References 295

20 Glacier Ice Thickness Estimation in Indian Himalaya Using Geophysical Methods: A Brief Review 299
Aditya Mishra, Harish Chandra Nainwal, and R. Shankar

20.1 Introduction 299

20.2 Geophysical Methods for Estimation of Glacier Ice Thickness 300

20.2.1 Gravity 300

20.2.2 Magnetic 300

20.2.3 Resistivity 300

20.2.4 Seismic 300

20.2.5 Ground Penetrating Radar 300

20.3 Geophysical Methods in the Indian Himalaya Region 300

20.4 GPR Surveys in the Debris Covered Glaciers 302

20.5 A Case Study on Debris-Covered Satopanth Glacier 303

20.6 Conclusions and Future Prospects 304

Acknowledgments 304

References 305

21 Landscapes and Paleoclimate of the Ladakh Himalaya 308
Anil Kumar, Rahul Devrani, and Pradeep Srivastava

21.1 Introduction 308

21.2 Geology of the Ladakh Himalaya 308

21.2.1 Karakoram Region 310

21.3 Past Climate Variability 310

21.3.1 Early Holocene (~11.7 to 8.2 ka) 310

21.3.2 Mid-Holocene (~8.2-4.2 ka) 310

21.3.3 Late-Holocene (~4.2 ka-Present) 311

21.4 Modern Climatic and Vegetation 311

21.5 Landscapes in the Ladakh Region 312

21.6 Glaciation and Associated Landforms 315

21.7 Flood History and Disaster 315

21.8 Conclusion 316

Acknowledgment 316

References 316

22 A Review of Remote Sensing and GIS-Based Soil Loss Models With a Comparative Study From the Upper and Marginal Ganga River Basin 321
Rohit Kumar, Rahul Devrani, and Benidhar Deshmukh

22.1 Introduction 321

22.2 Geospatial Models 323

22.2.1 USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) 324

22.2.2 RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) 324

22.2.2.1 Rainfall Erosivity Factor "R" 325

22.2.2.2 Soil Erodibility "K" 325

22.2.2.3 Slope Length and Steepness "LS" 325

22.2.2.4 Crop Management (C) 326

22.2.2.5 Support Practices "P" 326

22.2.3 MUSLE (Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation) 326

22.3 A Case Study in Upper and Marginal Ganga River Basins Using RUSLE Model 326

22.3.1 Study Area (Upper and Marginal Ganga River Basins) 326

22.3.2 Dataset and Methodology 327

22.3.3 Rate of Soil Loss in Rishiganga Basin (RG) 328

22.3.4 Rate of Soil Loss in Lower Chambal Basin (LC) 329

22.4 Discussion 331

22.5 Conclusion 333

Acknowledgments 334

References 334

23 Wetlands as Potential Zones to Understand Spatiotemporal Plant-Human-Climate Interactions: A Review on Palynological Perspective from Western and Eastern Himalaya 340
Sandhya Misra, Anupam Sharma, Ravi Shankar Maurya, and Krishna G. Misra

23.1 Introduction 340

23.2 Importance of Wetlands 340

23.3 Climate of Himalaya 341

23.4 Vegetation Types in the Himalayan Region 341

23.5 Wetlands as Sites for Floristic Analysis 341

23.6 Wetlands as Sites for Past Vegetation-Climate-Human Interaction 342

23.7 Conclusions 347

Acknowledgments 348

References 348

24 Investigation of Land Use/Land Cover Changes in Alaknanda River Basin, Himalaya During 1976-2020 351
Varun Narayan Mishra

24.1 Introduction 351

24.2 Materials and Methods 352

24.2.1 Study Area 352

24.2.2 Data Used 352

24.2.3 Methods 353

24.2.3.1 LULC Classification Scheme 353

24.2.3.2 LULC Change Investigation 353

24.3 Results and Discussion 353

24.3.1 LULC Status 354

24.3.2 LULC Change 354

24.4 Conclusions 355

References 355

Section IV the Arctic: the Northernmost Ocean Having the North Pole Environment and Remote Sensing 357

25 Hydrological Changes in the Arctic, the Antarctic, and the Himalaya: A Synoptic View from the Cryosphere Change Perspective 359
Shyam Ranjan, Manish Pandey, and Rahul Raj

25.1 Introduction 359

25.2 Cryosphere and Its Influence on Socio-Ecological-Economical (GLASOECO) System 360

25.2.1 Cryospheric Change and Its Influence on Agriculture and Livestock 360

25.2.2 Cryospheric Change and Its Influence on Ecosystem and Environment 361

25.2.3 Cryospheric Change and Its Influence on the Economy 362

25.2.4 Cryospheric Change as a Risk to Energy Security 362

25.3 Hydrological Changes in the Arctic and the Antarctic Regions 363

25.3.1 Hydrological Changes in the Arctic 363

25.3.2 Hydrological Changes in the Antarctic 363

25.4 Hydrological Changes in the Third Pole (Himalaya) 363

25.4.1 Runoff Flooding 364

25.4.2 Future Hydrological Change in the Third Pole 364

25.5 Conclusion 365

Acknowledgments 365

References 365

26 High-Resolution Remote Sensing for Mapping Glacier Facies in the Arctic 371
Shridhar Digambar Jawak, Sagar Filipe Wankhede, Alvarinho J. Luis, and Keshava Balakrishna

26.1 Introduction 371

26.1.1 Glacier Facies Mapping Using Multispectral Data 372

26.1.2 Image Classification 372

26.1.3 Training Samples and Operator Skill 373

26.1.4 The Test of Operator Influence 373

26.2 The Geographical Area and Geospatial Data 374

26.3 Methodology 374

26.3.1 Radiometric Calibration and Digitization 375

26.3.2 Operator Selections 376

26.3.3 Classification and Reference Point Selection 376

26.4 Results and Discussion 376

26.5 Inferences and Recommendations 378

26.6 Conclusion 378

References 378

27 Supraglacial Lake Filling Models: Examples From Greenland 381
Prateek Gantayat

27.1 Introduction 381

27.2 Methods 381

27.2.1 Supraglacial Lake FillING (SLING) 381

27.2.2 Surface Routing and Lake Filling Model (SRLF) 383

27.2.3 Surface Routing and Lake Filling With Channel Incision (SRLFCI) 384

27.3 Study Area 384

27.4 Data Used 384

27.5 Results 386

27.5.1 Results For SLING Model 386

27.5.2 Results For SRLF Model 387

27.5.3 Results For SRLFCI Model 387

27.6 Discussion 387

27.7 Conclusions 388

Acknowledgments 388

References 388

28 Arctic Sea Level Change in Remote Sensing and New Generation Climate Models 390
S. Chatterjee, R.P. Raj, A. Bonaduce, and R. Davy

28.1 Introduction 390

28.2 Remote Sensing of Arctic Ocean Sea-Level Changes 390

28.3 Results and Discussion 392

28.3.1 Observed Trend and Variability 392

28.3.2 Arctic Ocean Sea Level and Large-Scale Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation 392

28.3.3 Arctic Ocean Sea Level in CMIP6 395

28.4 Conclusions 396

Acknowledgments 398

References 398

29 Spatio-Temporal Variations of Aerosols Over the Polar Regions Based on Satellite Remote Sensing 401
Rohit Srivastava

29.1 Introduction 401

29.2 Data and Methodology 402

29.3 Results and Discussion 403

29.3.1 Seasonal Variations of Relative Humidity (RH) Over Northern and Southern Polar Regions 403

29.3.1.1 Arctic 403

29.3.1.2 Antarctic 403

29.3.2 Seasonal Variations of Winds over Northern and Southern Polar Regions 404

29.3.2.1 Arctic 404

29.3.2.2 Antarctic 405

29.3.3 Seasonal Variations of Global Fire Activities 405

29.3.4 Aerosol Variations Over the Northern and Southern Polar Region 407

29.3.5 Seasonal Aerosol Variations Over the Northern and Southern Polar Regions 407

29.3.5.1 Arctic 407

29.3.5.2 Antarctic 408

29.4 Conclusions 409

Acknowledgments 410

References 410

Section V the Research Institutions on the "three Poles," Data Pools, Data Sharing Policies, Career in Polar Science Research and Challenges 413

30 Multi-Disciplinary Research in the Indian Antarctic Programme and Its International Relevance 415
Anand K. Singh, Yogesh Ray, Shailendra Saini, Rahul Mohan, and M. Javed Beg

30.1 Introduction 415

30.2 India in the International Bodies for Antarctica 415

30.3 Multi-Disciplinary Antarctic Research in the Last Decade 416

30.4 International Relevance 417

30.5 Concluding Remarks 418

References 418

31 Indian and International Research Coordination in the Arctic 420
Archana Singh, David T. Divya, and K.P. Krishnan

31.1 The Changing Arctic and Inherited Interest 420

31.2 International Research Coordination 421

31.3 Arctic Research Coordination at the National Level 422

31.4 Coordination Among Students, Young Researchers, and Educators 424

Acknowledgments 425

Declaration of Competing Interest 425

References 425

Index 427
Manish Pandey is a Research (Assistant) Professor at the University Center for Research & Development (UCRD), Chandigarh University located in Mohali, Punjab, India.

Prem C. Pandey is Assistant Professor in the School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar Institute of Eminence, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Yogesh Ray is Scientist E at the National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR), Ministry of Earth Sciences (Govt. of India), Goa, India.

Aman Arora is a Scientific Officer/Scientist at Bihar Mausam Sewa Kendra (Govt. of Bihar), Patna, Bihar, India.

Shridhar D. Jawak is currently working as a Senior Adviser in Remote Sensing at the Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System (SIOS), Longyearbyen, Norway.

Uma K. Shukla is a Professor of sedimentology at the Center for Advanced Study in Geology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

M. Pandey, Chandigarh University, India; P. C. Pandey, Shiv Nadar Institute of Eminence, India; Y. Ray, Ministry of Earth Sciences (Government of India), India; A. Arora, Bihar Mausam Sewa Kendra (Government of Bihar), India; S. D. Jawak, Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System (SIOS), Norway; U. K. Shukla, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India