John Wiley & Sons Nanotechnology Applications for Solar Energy Systems Cover Nanotechnology Applications for Solar Energy Systems Understand the latest developments in solar na.. Product #: 978-1-119-79114-0 Regular price: $214.02 $214.02 Auf Lager

Nanotechnology Applications for Solar Energy Systems

Sheikholeslami, Mohsen (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Mai 2023
448 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-79114-0
John Wiley & Sons

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Nanotechnology Applications for Solar Energy Systems

Understand the latest developments in solar nanotechnology with this comprehensive guide

Solar energy has never seemed a more critical component of humanity's future. As global researchers and industries work to develop sustainable technologies and energy sources worldwide, the need to increase efficiency and decrease costs becomes paramount. Nanotechnology has the potential to play a considerable role in meeting these challenges, leading to the development of solar energy systems that overcome the limitations of existing technologies.

Nanotechnology Applications for Solar Energy Systems is a comprehensive guide to the latest technological advancements and applications of nanotechnology in the field of solar energy. It analyzes nanotechnology applications across a full range of solar energy systems, reviewing feasible technological advancements for enhanced performance of solar energy devices, and discussing emerging nanomaterials such as graphene and graphene derivatives.

Nanotechnology Applications for Solar Energy Systems readers will also find:
* Detailed treatment of nanotechnology applications in systems including solar concentrating collectors, linear Fresnel reflectors, parabolic trough collectors, and more
* Coverage of methods to enhance the performance of solar energy devices including solar ponds and solar steam generators
* A comprehensive review of nanomaterials classification and the properties of nanomaterials in heat transfer and efficiency enhancement

Nanotechnology Applications for Solar Energy Systems is critical for researchers in fields related to solar energy, engineers and industry professionals developing solar technology, and academics working in related fields such as chemistry, physics, materials science, and electrical engineering.

About the Editor xiii

List of Contributors xv

Preface xix

1 Solar Energy Applications 1

Swati Singh, Punit Singh, and Zafar Said

1.1 Introduction and Recent Advances 1

1.2 Solar Energy Applications 5

1.2.1 Electricity Production Using Photovoltaics at Large Scale 5

1.2.2 Small-Scale Electricity Production for Houses and Commercial Buildings 6

1.2.3 Off-Grid Applications Using Photovoltaics 6

1.2.4 Concentrating Solar Thermal Electricity 7

1.2.5 Solar Thermochemical Processes 7

1.2.6 Solar Water Heating 8

1.2.7 Heating of Solar Architecture 8

1.2.8 Air Conditioning Through Water Evaporation 8

1.2.9 Artificial Photosynthesis 9

1.2.10 Decomposing Waste and Biofuels Production 9

1.3 Classification of Solar Energy Devices 10

1.3.1 Concentrating Solar Power 10

1.3.2 Building Integrated Solar Systems 10

1.3.3 Solar-Thermal Collectors 11

1.3.4 Solar Thermochemistry 11

1.3.5 Solar Thermal Energy Storage 12

1.3.6 Solar-Driven Water Distillation 12

1.4 Benefits and Opportunities 13

1.5 Challenges 16

1.6 Future Aspects 18

1.7 Conclusion 18

References 19

2 Application of Nanofluid for Solar Stills 25

Mohammad Javad Raji Asadabadi, Mohsen Sheikholeslami, and Ladan Momayez

2.1 Introduction25

2.2 Desalination Technology25

2.2.1 What is a Solar Still?26

2.2.2 Parameters Affecting Pure Water Yield of Basin Type SSs27

2.2.3 Pure Water Augmentation of Solar Still Units28

2.3 Nanofluid33

2.3.1 Nanofluid Basics34

2.3.2 Nanofluid Characteristics35

2.3.3 Nanofluid Application in Solar Desalination35

References43

3 Classification of Concentrating Solar Collectors Based on Focusing Shape and Studying on Their Performance, Financial Evaluation, and Industrial Adoption 49

Z. Ebrahimpour and Mark Mba-Wright

3.1 Introduction49

3.1.1 Overview of Concentrating Solar Collectors49

3.1.2 Some of the Applications of Concentrating Solar Collectors50

3.2 Line Focus Concentrating Solar Collectors51

3.2.1 Linear Fresnel Reflector51

3.2.2 Parabolic Trough Collector53

3.2.3 Compound Parabolic55

3.3 Point Focus and Other Concentrating Solar Collectors57

3.3.1 Central Receiver System57

3.3.2 Solar Dish59

3.3.3 Fresnel Lens60

3.4 Improving the Thermal Performance of Solar Concentrating Collectors62

3.5 Industrial Adoption and Costs of Solar Concentrating Collectors63

3.6 Conclusions and Recommendations63

References66

4 Nanotechnology for Heat Transfer 71

Zafar Said, Maham Aslam Sohail, and Evangelos Bellos

4.1 Introduction71

4.2 Classification of Nanomaterials72

4.2.1 Zero-dimensional (0D)72

4.2.2 One-dimensional (1D)72

4.2.3 Two-dimensional (2D)72

4.2.4 Three-dimensional (3D)73

4.3 Heat Transfer Characteristics and Applications of Nanotechnology on the Heat Transfer Enhancement73

4.3.1 Convective Heat Transfer75

4.3.2 Boiling Heat Transfer77

4.3.3 Thermal Conductivity77

4.3.4 Viscosity78

4.4 A Review of Studies and Recent Advances Using Nanomaterials in Energy Conversion, Energy Storage, and Heat Transfer Development79

4.5 Recent Advances79

4.6 Challenges and Future Scope86

4.7 Conclusion87

References87

5 Nanofluids in Linear Fresnel Reflector 99

Evangelos Bellos, Zafar Said, and Christos Tzivanidis

5.1 Introduction and Recent Advances of Linear Fresnel Reflectors99

5.2 The Idea of Using Nanofluids in Solar Collectors108

5.3 A Review of Studies with Nanofluid-based Linear Fresnel Reflector112

5.4 Remarks and Future Scope118

5.4.1 Advantages of LFR118

5.4.2 Disadvantages of LFR118

5.5 Conclusions121

References121

6 Thermal Management and Performance Enhancement of Parabolic Trough Concentrators Using Nanofluids 125

Muhammed A. Hassan

6.1 Introduction125

6.2 Recent Advances of Parabolic Trough Collectors127

6.3 Application of Nanofluids in PTCs131

6.4 State-of-Art Studies on Using Nanofluids in Parabolic Trough Collectors 136

6.5 Conclusions and Future Scope139

References142

7 Developing Innovations in Parabolic Trough Collectors (PTCs) Based on Numerical Studies 145

Sanaz Akbarzadeh, Maziar Dehghan, Mohammad Sadegh Valipour, and Huijin Xu

7.1 Introduction145

7.2 An Introduction to Simulation Software148

7.3 Numerical Studies148

7.3.1 Design Parameters and Working Conditions in PTCs150

7.3.2 Using Inserts in PTCs154

7.3.3 Using Surface Modification Methods in PTCs157

7.3.4 Using Nanofluids in PTCs160

7.3.5 Using Nanofluids and Other Passive Methods in PTCs162

7.3.6 PTCs Integrated into Cooling Systems165

7.3.7 PTCs Integrated into Concentrated Solar Power Plants166

7.3.8 PTCs Integrated into Solar-powered Cycles168

7.3.9 PTCs Integrated into Solar Industrial Process Heat Plants170

7.3.10 PTCs Integrated into Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) System175

7.3.11 PTCs Integrated into Desalination Systems175

7.4 Challenges 179

7.5 Conclusion 179

7.6 Future Directions 183

References 183

8 Nanofluids in Solar Thermal Parabolic Trough Collectors (PTCs) 191

Maziar Dehghan, Sanaz Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh Valipour, and Hafiz Muhammad Ali

8.1 Introduction 191

8.2 Fundamentals of PTCs 194

8.2.1 Components of a PTC 194

8.2.2 Mathematical Formulations of PTCs 195

8.2.3 Experimental Analysis (Standard Test Methods) 203

8.3 Heat Transfer Fluids (HTFs) in PTCs 203

8.3.1 Thermal Oils 204

8.3.2 Liquid-water Steam 204

8.3.3 Pressurized Gasses 204

8.3.4 Molten Salts 204

8.3.5 Nanofluids 204

8.4 Heat Transfer Improvement Methods in PTCs 206

8.4.1 Design Parameters 206

8.4.2 The Application of Nanofluids in PTCs 208

8.4.3 Combination of Nanofluids and Other Thermal Efficiency Enhancement Methods 219

8.5 Economic Analysis 225

8.6 Challenges 228

8.7 Conclusion 228

8.8 Future Directions 229

Acknowledgment 230

References 230

9 Applications of Nanotechnology in the Harvesting of Solar Energy 239

Seyede Mohaddese Mousavi, Zahra Sayah Alborzi, Saba Raveshiyan, and Younes Amini

9.1 Introduction 239

9.1.1 Overview of the Status of the Solar Energy 239

9.1.2 Nanotechnology Overview 240

9.2 Solar Harvesting Technology Using Nanomaterials 242

9.3 Various Modern Solar Harvesting Technologies 242

9.3.1 Solar Collectors 242

9.3.2 Fuel Cells 243

9.3.3 Photocatalysis 243

9.3.4 Solar Photovoltaics 246

9.4 Production Methods of Solar Cell Technology 247

9.4.1 First Generation Solar Cell: Silicon Solar Cells 247

9.4.2 Second Generation Solar Cells: Thin-film Solar Cell 248

9.4.3 Third Generation Solar Cells 250

9.5 Challenges in Using Nanotechnology 251

9.6 Conclusion 252

References 253

10 Tubular Solar Thermal System: Recent Development and Its Utilization 257

Arun Kumar Tiwari and Amit Kumar

10.1 Introduction 257

10.2 Different Tubular Solar System 258

10.2.1 Evacuated Tubular Collector 258

10.2.2 Tubular Solar Still 259

10.2.3 Tubular System for Concentrating Solar Power 262

10.3 Heat Transfer Fluid for the Tubular System 264

10.3.1 Nanofluid 264

10.3.2 Nano-enhanced Molten Salt 264

10.3.3 Liquid Metal 265

10.4 Conclusion 266

References 266

11 Nanofluids in Flat Plate Solar Collectors 273

L. Syam Sundarand Zafar Said

11.1 Nanofluid in Flat Plate Collector 273

11.2 Introduction and Recent Advances of Flat Plate Collectors 273

11.3 Application of Nanofluids in the Flat Plate Collector 276

11.4 A Review of Studies Using Nanomaterials in Flat Pale Collector 281

11.5 Remarks and Future Scope 284

11.6 Conclusion 284

References 285

12 Recent Advances in the Simulation of Solar Photovoltaic Cell Cooling Systems Using Nanofluids 289

Javad Mohammadpour and Fatemeh Salehi

12.1 Introduction 289

12.2 Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) System 291

12.3 Performance Parameters 291

12.4 An Overview of Numerical Approaches 292

12.5 Previous Research on PVT Systems 294

12.5.1 PVT Nanofluid-Based Systems 294

12.5.2 PVT Multiple-Nanofluid-Based Systems 295

12.5.3 PVT/ PCM Nanofluid-Based Systems 298

12.5.4 Economic Analysis in PVT Studies 299

12.6 Future Works 304

12.7 Conclusions 306

References 306

13 Multiphase Modeling of Powder Flow in an Ejector of Solar-driven Refrigeration System by Eulerian-Lagrangian Approach 313

Mohit Biglarian, Ahmadreza Najafi, Morsal Momeni Larimi, and Masih Parhizkari

13.1 Introduction 313

13.2 Governing Equations 314

13.2.1 Continuity Equation 314

13.2.2 Momentum Equation 314

13.3 Geometry Design and Meshing 315

13.3.1 Generation of the Model 315

13.3.2 Mesh Generation and Study 315

13.3.3 Grid Independency 318

13.3.4 Validation 319

13.4 Results 319

13.4.1 Optimization of the Nozzle 319

13.4.2 Investigation of the Relation between Outlet Velocity and Entrainment Parameter (N) 326

13.4.3 Unsteady Case 327

13.5 Conclusion 335

Declaration of interests 335

References 335

14 Radiative Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Flow through Stretchable Disks: An Application to Solar Thermal Systems 337

S. A. Shehzad, A. Rauf, and M. Omar

14.1 Introduction 337

14.2 Problem Formulation 339

14.3 Numerical Solution 343

14.4 Results and Discussion 344

14.5 Conclusions 351

References 352

15 Cooling of PV/T System with Nanofluid and PCM 355

Mohit Barthwal, Dibakar Rakshit, and Sujit Kr. Verma

15.1 Introduction 355

15.1.1 Overview 355

15.1.2 Need for Cooling of Photovoltaics 356

15.2 Application of Nanofluid and PCM for Cooling of PV/T System 359

15.2.1 Nanofluids 359

15.2.2 Phase Change Materials 360

15.3 A Review of Studies Using Nanofluid and PCM for Cooling of PV/T System 361

15.4 Remarks and Future Scope 374

15.5 Conclusion 376

Acknowledgment 376

References 377

16 Revival of Functional Nanofluid Photothermal Materials for Solar Still Applications 381

Muhammad Sultan Irshad, Naila Arshad, and Xianbao Wang

16.1 Nanofluid Based Solar Stills 381

16.2 General Factors for Efficient Solar Still 384

16.2.1 Environmental Factors 384

16.2.2 Physical Factors 385

16.3 Development and Modifications 386

16.3.1 Conventional Single-effect Solar Still 386

16.3.2 Solar Reflectors 387

16.3.3 Wicked Type Solar Stills 388

16.4 Application of Nanofluids in Solar Still 388

16.4.1 Methodologies for the Fabrication of Nanofluids 389

16.4.2 Optical Properties of Nanofluids 389

16.4.3 Photothermal of Nanofluids 391

16.5 Carbon-based Nanofluid 391

16.6 Metallic/ Metal Oxide Nanofluids 392

16.7 Magnetic Nanofluids 394

16.8 Solar Thermal Collectors 395

16.9 Solar-driven Steam Generators 397

16.10 Remarks and Future Scope 398

16.11 Conclusion 399

References 400

17 Nanotechnology in Solar Lighting 403

Chao Shen, Changyun Ruan, and Guoquan Lv

17.1 Optical Fiber Lighting Based on Sunlight 403

17.2 Radiation Properties of Nanoparticles 405

17.3 Spectral Control of Nanofluid 406

17.3.1 Full Spectrum Absorption Based on Nanofluids 406

17.3.2 Thermal/Electrical Decoupling Control Based on Nanofluids 407

17.4 Design of a Solar Lighting/Heating System 408

17.5 Selection of Nanofluids for the Solar Lighting/Heating System 409

17.6 System Efficiency of the Solar Lighting/Heating System 410

17.7 Spectral Characteristics of Output Light of the Solar Lighting/Heating System 411

17.8 Future Research 413

17.9 Conclusion 414

References 415

Index 421
Mohsen Sheikholeslami, PhD is Associate Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Head of the Renewable Energy Systems and Nanofluid Applications in Heat Transfer Laboratory at Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran. He has been selected three times as a Web of Science Highly Cited Researcher, and has published widely on nanomaterials and energy transfer.

M. Sheikholeslami, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran