John Wiley & Sons Introduction to UAV Systems Cover Introduction to UAV Systems The latest edition of the leading resource on unmanned aerial vehicle s.. Product #: 978-1-119-80261-7 Regular price: $116.82 $116.82 Auf Lager

Introduction to UAV Systems

Fahlstrom, Paul G. / Gleason, Thomas J. / Sadraey, Mohammad H.

Aerospace Series (PEP)

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5. Auflage April 2022
464 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-80261-7
John Wiley & Sons

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Introduction to UAV Systems

The latest edition of the leading resource on unmanned aerial vehicle systems

In the newly revised Fifth Edition of Introduction to UAV Systems, an expert team of aviators, engineers, and researchers delivers the fundamentals of UAV systems for both professionals and students in UAV courses. Suitable for students in Aerospace Engineering programs, as well as Flight and Aeronautics programs, this new edition now includes end-of-chapter questions and online instructor ancillaries that make it an ideal textbook.

As the perfect complement to the author's Design of Unmanned Aerial Systems, this book includes the history, classes, and missions of UAVs. It covers fundamental topics, like aerodynamics, stability and control, propulsion, loads and structures, mission planning, payloads, and communication systems. Brand-new materials in areas including autopilots, quadcopters, payloads, and ground control stations highlight the latest industry technologies.

The authors also discuss:
* A thorough introduction to the history of unmanned aerial vehicles, including their use in various conflicts, an overview of critical UAV systems, and the Predator/Reaper
* A comprehensive exploration of the classes and missions of UAVs, including several examples of UAV systems, like Mini UAVs, UCAVs, and quadcopters
* Practical discussions of air vehicles, including coverage of topics like aerodynamics, flight performance, stability, and control
* In-depth examinations of propulsion, loads, structures, mission planning, control systems, and autonomy

Perfect for professional aeronautical and aerospace engineers, as well as students and instructors in courses like Unmanned Aircraft Systems Design and Introduction to Unmanned Aerial Systems, Introduction to UAV Systems is an indispensable resource for anyone seeking coverage of the latest industry advances and technologies in UAV and UAS technology.

Preface

Aerospace Series List

Acknowledgments

List of Acronyms

Part One

Introduction

1. History and Overview

1.1. Overview

1.2. History

1.2.1. Early History

1.2.2. The Vietnam War

1.2.3. Resurgence

1.2.4. Joint Operations

1.2.5. Desert Storm

1.2.6. Bosnia

1.2.7. Afghanistan and Iraq

1.2.8. Long-Range Long-Endurance Operations

1.3. Overview of UAV Systems

1.3.1. Air Vehicle

1.3.2. Mission Planning and Control Station

1.3.3. Launch and Recovery Equipment

1.3.4. Payloads

1.3.5. Data Links

1.3.6. Ground Support Equipment

1.4. The Aquila

1.4.1. Aquila Mission and Requirements

1.4.2. Air Vehicle

1.4.3. Ground Control Station

1.4.4. Launch and Recovery

1.4.5. Payload

1.4.6. Other Equipment

1.4.7. Summary

1.5. Global Hawk

1.5.1. Mission Requirements and Development

1.5.2. Air Vehicle

1.5.3. Payloads

1.5.4. Communications System

1.5.5. Development Setbacks

1.5. Predator Family

1.5.1. Predator Development

1.5.2. Reaper

1.5.3. Features

1.6. Top UAV Manufacturers

1.7. Ethical Concerns of UAVs

Questions

2 Classes and Missions of UAVs

2.1. Overview

2.2. Classes of UAV Systems

2.2.1. Classification Criteria

2.2.2. Classification by Range and Endurance

2.2.3. Classification by Missions

2.2.4. The Tier System

2.3. Examples of UAVs by Size Group

2.3.1. Micro UAVs

2.3.2. Mini UAVs

2.3.3. Very Small UAVs

2.3.4. Small UAVs

2.3.5. Medium UAVs

2.3.6. Large UAVs

2.4. Expendable UAVs

Questions

Part Two

The Air Vehicle

3 Aerodynamics

3.1. Overview

3.2. Aerodynamic Forces

3.3. Mach Number

3.4. Airfoil

3.5. Pressure Distribution

3.6. Drag Polar

3.7. The Real Wing and Airplane

3.8. Induced Drag

3.9. Boundary Layer

3.10. Friction Drag

3.11. Total Air-Vehicle Drag

3.12. Flapping Wings

3.13. Aerodynamic Efficiency

Questions

4 Performance

4.1. Overview

4.2. Cruising Flight

4.3. Range

4.3.1. Range for a Non-Electric-Engine Propeller-Driven Aircraft

4.3.2. Range for a Jet-Propelled Aircraft

4.4. Endurance

4.4.1. Endurance for a Non-Electric-Engine Propeller-Driven Aircraft

4.4.2. Endurance for a Jet-Propelled Aircraft

4.5. Climbing Flight

4.6. Gliding Flight

4.7. Launch

4.8. Recovery

Questions

5 Flight Stability and Control

5.1. Overview

5.2. Trim

5.2.1. Longitudinal Trim

5.2.2. Directional Trim

5.2.3. Lateral Trim

5.2.4. Summary

5.3. Stability

5.3.1. Longitudinal Static Stability

5.3.2. Directional Static Stability

5.3.3. Lateral Static Stability

5.3.4. Dynamic Stability

5.4. Control

5.4.1. Aerodynamic Control

5.4.2. Pitch Control

5.4.3. Directional Control

5.4.4. Lateral Control

Questions

6 Propulsion

6.1. Overview

6.2. Propulsion Systems Classification

6.3. Thrust Generation

6.4. Powered Lift

6.5. Sources of Power

6.5.1. Four-Cycle Engine

6.5.2. Two-Cycle Engine

6.5.3. Rotary Engine

6.5.4. Gas Turbine Engines

6.5.5. Electric Motors

6.6. Sources of Electric Energy

6.6.1. Batteries

6.6.2. Solar Cells

6.6.3. Fuel Cells

6.7. Power and Thrust

6.7.1. Relation between Power and Thrust

6.7.2. Propeller

6.7.3. Variations of Power and Thrust with Altitude

Questions

7 Air Vehicle Structures

7.1. Overview

7.2. Structural Members

7.2.1. Skin

7.2.3. Fuselage Structural Members

7.2.3. Wing and Tail Structural Members

7.2.4. Other Structural Members

7.3. Basic Flight Loads

7.4. Dynamic Loads

7.5. Structural Materials

7.5.1. Overview

7.5.2. Aluminum

7.6. Composite Materials

7.6.1. Sandwich Construction

7.6.2. Skin or Reinforcing Materials

7.6.3 Resin Materials

7.6.4. Core Materials

7.7. Construction Techniques

7.8. Basic Structural Calculations

7.8.1. Normal and Shear Stress

7.8.2. Deflection

7.8.3. Bulking load

7.8.4. Factor of Safety

7.8.5. Structural Fatigue

Questions

Part Three

Mission Planning and Control

8 Mission Planning and Control Station

8.1. Introduction

8.2. MPCS Subsystems

8.3. MPCS Physical Configuration

8.4. MPCS Interfaces

8.5. MPCS Architecture

8.5.1. Fundamentals

8.5.2. Local Area Networks

8.5.3. Levels of Communication

8.5.4. Bridges and Gateways

8.6. Elements of a LAN

8.6.1. Layout and Logical Structure (Topology)

8.6.2. Communications Medium

8.6.3. Network Transmission and Access

8.7. OSI Standard

8.7.1. Physical Layer

8.7.2. Data-Link Layer

8.7.3. Network Layer

8.7.4. Transport Layer

8.7.5. Session Layer

8.7.6. Presentation Layer

8.7.7. Application Layer

8.8. Mission Planning

8.9. Pilot-In-Command

Questions

9 Control of Air Vehicle and Payload

9.1. Overview

9.2. Levels of Control

9.3. Remote Piloting the Air Vehicle

9.3.1. Remote Manual Piloting

9.3.2. Autopilot-Assisted Control

9.3.3. Complete Automation

9.3.4. Summary

9.4. Autopilot

9.4.1. Fundamental

9.4.2. Autopilot Categories

9.4.3. Inner and Outer Loops

9.4.4. Overall Modes of Operation

9.4.5. Control Process

9.4.6. Control Axes

9.4.7. Controller

9.4.8. Actuator

9.4.9. Open-Source Commercial Autopilots

9.5. Sensors Supporting the Autopilot

9.5.1. Altimeter

9.5.2. Airspeed Sensor

9.5.3. Attitude Sensors

9.5.4. GPS

9.5.5. Accelerometers

9.6. Navigation and Target Location

9.7. Controlling Payloads

9.7.1. Signal Relay Payloads

9.7.2. Atmospheric, Radiological, and Environmental Monitoring

9.7.3. Imaging and Pseudo-Imaging Payloads

9.8. Controlling the Mission

9.9. Autonomy

Questions

Part Four Payloads

10 Reconnaissance/Surveillance Payloads

10.1. Overview

10.2. Imaging Sensors

10.3. Target Detection, Recognition, and Identification

10.3.1. Sensor Resolution

10.3.2. Target Contrast

10.3.3. Transmission through the Atmosphere

10.3.4. Target Signature

10.3.5. Display Characteristics

10.3.6. Range Prediction Procedure

10.3.7. A few Considerations

10.3.8. Pitfalls

10.4. The Search Process

10.4.1. Types of Search

10.4.2. Field of View

10.4.3. Search Pattern

10.4.4. Search Time

10.5. Other Considerations

10.5.1. Location and Installation

10.5.2. Stabilization of the Line of Sight

10.5.3. Gyroscope and Gimbal

10.5.4. Gimbal-Gyro Configuration

10.5.5. Thermal Design

10.5.6. Environmental Conditions Affecting Stabilization

10.5.7. Boresight

10.5.8. Stabilization Design

Questions

11 Weapon Payloads

11.1. Overview

11.2. History of Lethal Unmanned Aircraft

11.3. Mission Requirements for Armed Utility UAVs

11.4. Design Issues Related to Carriage and Delivery of Weapons

11.4.1. Payload Capacity

11.4.2. Structural Issues

11.4.3. Electrical Interfaces

11.4.4. Electromagnetic Interference

11.4.5. Launch Constraints for Legacy Weapons

11.4.6. Safe Separation

11.4.7. Data Links

11.4.8. Payload Location

11.5. Signature Reduction

11.5.1. Acoustical Signatures

11.5.2. Visual Signatures

11.5.3. Infrared Signatures

11.5.4. Radar Signatures

11.5.5. Emitted Signals

11.5.6. Active Susceptibility Reduction Measures

11.6. Autonomy for Weapon Payloads

11.6.1. Fundamental Concept

11.6.2. Rules of Engagement

Questions

12 Other Payloads

12.1. Overview

12.2. Radar

12.2.1. General Radar Considerations

12.2.2. Synthetic Aperture Radar

12.3. Electronic Warfare

12.4. Chemical Detection

12.5. Nuclear Radiation Sensors

12.6. Meteorological and Environmental Sensors

12.7. Pseudo-Satellites

12.8. Robotic Arm

12.9. Package and Cargo

12.10. Urban Air Mobility

Questions

Part Five

Data Links

13 Data-Link Functions and Attributes

13.1. Overview

13.2. Background

13.3. Data-Link Functions

13.4. Desirable Data-Link Attributes

13.4.1. Worldwide Availability

13.4.2. Resistance to Unintentional Interference

13.4.3. Low Probability of Intercept (LPI)

13.4.4. Security

13.4.5. Resistance to Deception

13.4.6. Anti-ARM

13.4.7. Anti-Jam

13.4.8. Digital Data Links

13.4.9. Signal Strength

13.5. System Interface Issues

13.5.1. Mechanical and Electrical

13.5.2. Data-Rate Restrictions

13.5.3. Control-Loop Delays

13.5.4. Interoperability, Interchangeability, and Commonality

13.6. Antennas

13.6.1. Omnidirectional Antenna

13.6.2. Parabolic Reflectors

13.6.3. Array/Directional Antennas

13.6.4. Lens Antennas

13.7. Data Link Frequency

Questions

14 Data-Link Margin

14.1. Overview

14.2. Sources of Data-Link Margin

14.2.1. Transmitter Power

14.2.2. Antenna Gain

14.2.3. Processing Gain

14.3. Anti-Jam Margin

14.3.1. Definition of Anti-Jam Margin

14.3.2. Jammer Geometry

14.3.3. System Implications of AJ Capability

14.3.4. Anti-Jam Uplinks

14.4. Propagation

14.4.1. Obstruction of the Propagation Path

14.4.2. Atmospheric Absorption

14.4.3. Precipitation Losses

14.5. Data-Link Signal-to-Noise Budget

Questions

15 Data-Rate Reduction

15.1. Overview

15.2. Compression Versus Truncation

15.3. Video Data

15.3.1. Gray Scale

15.3.2. Encoding of Gray Scale

15.3.3. Effects of Bandwidth Compression on Operator Performance

15.3.4. Frame Rate

15.3.5. Control Loop Mode

15.3.6. Forms of Truncation

15.3.7. Summary

15.4. Non-Video Data

15.5. Location of the Data-Rate Reduction Function

Questions

16 Data-Link Tradeoffs

16.1. Overview

16.2 Basic Tradeoffs

16.3. Pitfalls of "Putting Off" Data-Link Issues

16.4. Future Technology

Questions

Part Six

Launch and Recovery

17 Launch Systems

17.1. Overview

17.2. Conventional Takeoff XXX

17.3. Basic Considerations

17.4. Launch Methods for Fixed-Wing Air Vehicles

14.4.1. Overview

17.4.2. Rail Launchers

17.4.3. Pneumatic Launchers

17.4.4. Hydraulic-Pneumatic Launchers

17.4.5. Zero Length RATO Launch of UAVs

17.4.6. Tube Launch

17.5. Rocket Assisted Takeoff xxx

17.5.1. RATO Configuration

17.5.2. Ignition Systems

17.5.3. Expended RATO Separation

17.5.4. Other Launch Equipment

17.5.5. Energy (Impulse) Required

17.5.6. Propellant Weight Required

17.5.7. Thrust, Burning Time, and Acceleration

17.6. Vertical Takeoff

Questions

18 Recovery Systems

18.1. Overview

18.2. Conventional Landing

18.3. Vertical Net Systems

18.4. Parachute Recovery

18.5. VTOL UAVs

18.6. Mid-Air Retrieval

18.7. Shipboard Recovery

18.8. Break-Apart Landing

18.9. Skid and Belly Landing

18.10. Suspended Cables

Questions

19 Launch and Recovery Tradeoffs

19.1. UAV Launch Method Tradeoffs

19.2. Recovery Method Tradeoffs

19.3. Overall Conclusions

Questions

20 Rotary-Wing UAVs and Quadcopters

20.1. Overview

20.2. Rotary-Wing Configurations

20.2.1. Single Rotor

20.2.2. Twin Co-axial Rotors

20.2.3. Twin Tandem Rotors

20.2.4. Multi-copter

20.3. Hybrid UAVs

20.3.1. Tilt Rotor

20.3.2. Tilt Wing

20.3.3. Thrust Vectoring

20.3.4. Fixed-Wing Quadcopter Combination

20.4. Quadcopters

20.4.1. Overview

20.4.2. Aerodynamics

20.4.3. Control

Questions

References
The late Paul G. Fahlstrom was a Naval Aviator (Marine Pilot) who held positions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the Department of Transportation.

The late Thomas J. Gleason, PhD was Founder of Gleason Research Associates, an engineering and scientific analysis firm conducting evaluations related to missile and sensor systems.

Mohammad H. Sadraey is Associate Professor of Aeronautical Engineering at Southern New Hampshire University. He has authored five books, including Aircraft Design: A Systems Engineering Approach and Aircraft Performance Analysis.

P. G. Fahlstrom, UAV Manager US Army Material Command (ret); T. J. Gleason, Gleason Research Associates, Inc; M. H. Sadraey, Daniel Webster College, USA