John Wiley & Sons Research Methods for Construction Cover The new and enhanced edition of the popular textbook on research methods in construction and related.. Product #: 978-1-119-81473-3 Regular price: $45.70 $45.70 Auf Lager

Research Methods for Construction

Fellows, Richard F. / Liu, Anita M. M.

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5. Auflage Dezember 2021
384 Seiten, Softcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-81473-3
John Wiley & Sons

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The new and enhanced edition of the popular textbook on research methods in construction and related disciplines

Research Methods for Construction is designed to help construction students develop the research skills needed to achieve success in their research projects. Providing clear guidance on research formulation, methodologies, and methods, this comprehensive textbook addresses the theoretical, philosophical, and practical aspects of research in many areas of construction. The authors explain the requirements for data and analysis and describe the methods used for scientific and engineering experiments, modelling and simulations, research on management and socio-economic issues, and more.

Now in its fifth edition, Research Methods for Construction is fully revised to reflect contemporary developments and emerging areas of construction research. New and expanded chapters cover topics including data protection and ethics, theory borrowing, sensemaking, and directionally motivated reasoning. This edition includes additional models and details relating to translation, and offers fresh discussion of axiology, determinism, and stochasticism. Providing students with coherent, well-structured account of construction research, this market-leading textbook:
* Emphasizes and instils rigor into construction students' problem-solving, reports, and publications
* Assists researchers in selecting appropriate methods to execute research
* Articulates the stages of construction research processes: producing a proposal, executing the research, and reporting the results
* Examines qualitative and quantitative approaches and statistical considerations for a wide range of construction research
* Discusses current ethical, legal, and regulatory issues pertaining to research in construction

The fifth edition of Research Methods for Construction is the ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students embarking on a research project, at bachelors, masters or doctoral level, in construction, surveying, architecture, civil engineering, and other built environment disciplines.

Contents

About the Authors ix

Preface to the Fifth Edition xi

Part 1 Producing a Proposal 1

1 Introduction 3

1.1 The concept of research 3

1.1.1 Research: a careful search/investigation 4

1.1.2 Research: contribution to knowledge 4

1.1.3 A learning process 6

1.1.4 Contextual factors affecting research 6

1.2 Classifications of research 7

1.2.1 Pure and applied research 7

1.2.2 Quantitative and qualitative research 8

1.2.3 Other categories of research 11

1.3 Theories and paradigms 12

1.3.1 Development of knowledge 13

1.3.2 Testing a theory 16

1.3.3 Paradigms 19

1.3.4 Positivism 20

1.3.5 Interpretivism 21

1.3.6 Pragmatism 23

1.3.7 Models and hypotheses 23

1.4 Research styles 25

1.4.1 Action research 25

1.4.2 Ethnographic research 26

1.4.3 Surveys 27

1.4.4 Case studies 28

1.4.5 Experiments 29

1.5 Quantitative and qualitative approaches 31

1.5.1 Quantitative approaches 32

1.5.2 Qualitative approaches 32

1.5.3 Triangulated studies 32

1.5.4 Data sources 33

1.6 Where to begin 35

1.7 Summary 36

References 37

2 Topic for Study 41

2.1 Selection of a topic 41

2.1.1 Resources 41

2.1.2 Subject selection 43

2.1.3 Choosing a topic 46

2.1.4 Evaluating alternatives 46

2.1.5 Refining a topic 47

2.2 Writing the proposal 48

2.2.1 Aim 49

2.2.2 Proposition 49

2.2.3 Objectives 50

2.2.4 Hypotheses 51

2.2.5 Methodology and methods 53

2.2.6 Programme 55

2.2.7 Deliverables and industrial or practitioner support 55

2.3 Summary 56

References 56

Part 2 Executing the Research 59

3 Initial Research 61

3.1 The research process 61

3.1.1 Initial phase 64

3.1.2 Data and information 66

3.1.3 Dynamic process 68

3.2 Initial search 69

3.2.1 Definitions and assumptions 71

3.2.2 Theory and literature reviews 71

3.2.3 Analysing data from a search 72

3.3 Literature based discovery 75

3.4 Assembling the theoretical framework 76

3.4.1 Theory borrowing 79

3.4.2 Theorising 83

3.5 Philosophy and paradigms 84

3.5.1 Ontology, epistemology, and axiology 86

3.5.2 Positivism 88

3.5.3 Realism 89

3.5.4 Interpretivism 91

3.5.5 Constructivism 92

3.5.6 Phenomenalism 93

3.5.7 Postmodernism 95

3.5.8 Pragmatism 96

3.6 Fuzzy thinking 96

3.7 Theoretical models and constructs 97

3.7.1 Theoretical model 98

3.7.2 Constructs 100

3.8 Proper referencing 101

3.9 Summary 103

Notes 104

References 104

4 Approaches to Empirical Work 110

4.1 Starting data collection 110

4.2 Experience 111

4.3 Reasoning and inference 112

4.3.1 Sensemaking 114

4.3.2 Motivated reasoning 115

4.3.3 Determinism and stochasticism 117

4.3.4 Complexity 119

4.4 Systems of methods 122

4.5 Research design 123

4.5.1 Context 126

4.5.2 Variance and errors 126

4.5.3 Empiricism, rationalism, and verification 127

4.6 Qualitative and quantitative approaches 129

4.6.1 When are qualitative approaches employed? 130

4.6.2 When are quantitative approaches employed? 134

4.7 Experimental 135

4.7.1 Experiments and quasi-experiments 135

4.7.2 Variables 138

4.7.3 Experimental control 141

4.7.4 Replication 142

4.7.5 Between-subjects design (simple randomised experiments) 143

4.7.6 Between-subjects design (matched randomised groups) 143

4.7.7 Within-subject design (repeated measure design) 144

4.7.8 Factorial experiments 145

4.8 Survey 145

4.9 Secondary 147

4.9.1 Archival 149

4.9.2 Meta-analysis 150

4.10 Case study 151

4.11 Ethnographic 155

4.11.1 Ethnography 156

4.11.2 Ethnomethodology 158

4.12 Action 158

4.13 Grounded theory (development of theory from data) 159

4.14 Narrative 162

4.15 Modelling 163

4.15.1 Classification of models 163

4.15.2 Deterministic and stochastic models 164

4.15.3 The modelling process 165

4.16 Simulation 166

4.16.1 Dynamism 166

4.16.2 Heuristics 166

4.16.3 Approaches 167

4.17 Level of research 168

4.18 Practice-based research 171

4.19 Summary 175

References 176

5 Hypotheses 182

5.1 Essentials of a valid hypothesis 182

5.2 Roles of hypotheses 185

5.3 Objective testing of hypotheses 187

5.4 Role of sampling 188

5.5 Common statistical measures 191

5.5.1 Normal distribution 196

5.6 Null hypotheses 198

5.7 Validities 199

5.8 Summary 202

References 202

6 Data Collection 204

6.1 Data requirements 204

6.2 Sources of quantitative data 207

6.3 Collecting data from respondents 210

6.3.1 Questionnaires 213

6.3.2 Interviews 215

6.4 Case studies 218

6.5 Triangulation 218

6.6 Sampling 219

6.6.1 Sample size 223

6.7 Scales of measurement 227

6.7.1 Scaling techniques (non-metric and metric) 229

6.7.2 Non-comparative (metric) scales 229

6.7.3 Comparative (non-metric) scales 230

6.7.4 Common scaling methods 231

6.7.5 Development of multi-item scales 233

6.8 Obtaining data 235

6.9 Translation 243

6.10 Response styles and biases 244

6.11 Summary 246

References 247

7 Data Analysis 251

7.1 Analysing data 251

7.2 Plotting data 256

7.3 Statistical methods 260

7.4 Non-parametric tests 261

7.4.1 Sign test 261

7.4.2 Rank-sum tests 262

7.4.3 Chi-square (Chi²) test 266

7.4.4 Goodness of fit 267

7.5 Parametric tests 267

7.5.1 t-Test 268

7.5.2 Analysis of variance (ANOVA) 268

7.5.3 Regression and correlation 271

7.5.4 Multiple regression 276

7.5.5 Time series 277

7.5.6 Index numbers 282

7.5.7 Simple average index 283

7.5.8 Chained index 287

7.6 Other analytical techniques 289

7.6.1 Cluster analysis 289

7.6.2 Factor analysis 290

7.6.3 Path analysis 292

7.6.4 Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) 295

7.7 Analysis of qualitative data 296

7.7.1 Analysing documents (from texts) 297

7.7.2 Conversation analysis 299

7.7.3 Discourse analysis 300

7.7.4 Social network analysis 301

7.7.5 Multi-level research 303

7.7.6 Meta-analysis 304

7.7.7 Longitudinal research 304

7.8 Summary 305

References 306

8 Ethics in Research 310

8.1 The concepts of morals and ethics 310

8.2 Research ethics 314

8.2.1 Theory and literature 317

8.2.2 Data collection, use, and disposal 318

8.3 Data analysis, intellectual property, and data protection 320

8.3.1 Data analysis, results, and reporting 320

8.3.2 Intellectual property 322

8.3.3 Data protection 322

8.4 Equality, diversity, and inclusion 323

8.5 Summary 327

References 328

Part 3 Reporting the Results 331

9 Results, Inferences, and Conclusions 333

9.1 Requirements for valid results 333

9.2 Potential sources of error 334

9.3 Reliability 335

9.4 Results 336

9.4.1 Producing the results 336

9.4.2 Introductory results 337

9.4.3 Substantive results 338

9.4.4 Inferences 339

9.4.5 Causal relationships 340

9.4.6 Interpretation 341

9.5 Conclusions 345

9.5.1 How to write conclusions 345

9.5.2 Further research 347

9.6 Summary 347

References 348

10 Reports and Presentations 349

10.1 Report production 349

10.2 Communication 350

10.3 Contents of the report 352

10.3.1 How to begin 352

10.3.2 Text of the report 353

10.3.3 Theory and literature 354

10.3.4 Reporting on methodology and methods 356

10.3.5 Reporting on data sourcing and data collection 356

10.3.6 Presentation of results 357

10.3.7 Discussion of results 358

10.3.8 Conclusions 358

10.3.9 Limitations 359

10.3.10 Recommendations 359

10.3.11 Introduction 360

10.3.12 Remainder of the report 360

10.4 Oral presentation 361

10.5 Summary 362

References 362

Index 363
Richard Fellows is Emeritus Professor of Construction Business Management, Loughborough University, UK. He is an experienced quantity surveyor and in his academic career has taught at several universities in the UK and other countries. His research interests concern economics, contracts and law, and the management of people in construction - especially cultural issues as drivers of behaviour and performance. He was a founder and for many years was joint coordinator of the CIB group, W112 - Culture in Construction. Richard is an editor of a leading construction journal and frequent reviewer of papers for international conferences and journals.

Anita Liu graduated from the University of Reading and returned to Hong Kong to work in a quantity surveying consultancy, for the Hong Kong government, and for a major contractor. She then moved into academia, obtaining an MSc and a PhD from the University of Hong Kong. She became Chair Professor of Commercial Management and Quantity Surveying at Loughborough University and subsequently Head of Department and Professor in the Department of Real Estate and Construction at The University of Hong Kong. She was also joint co-coordinator of CIB group W112: Culture in Construction.

R. F. Fellows, formerly University of Bath; A. M. M. Liu, University of Hong Kong