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Fundamentals of Groundwater

Schwartz, Franklin W. / Zhang, Hubao

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2. Auflage Januar 2024
512 Seiten, Hardcover
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ISBN: 978-1-119-82013-0
John Wiley & Sons

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Fundamentals of Groundwater

A thoroughly updated classic on the fundamentals of groundwater

The second edition of Fundamentals of Groundwater delivers an expert discussion of the fundamentals of groundwater in the hydrologic cycle and applications to contemporary problems in hydrogeology. The theme of the book is groundwater, broadly defined, and it covers the theory and practice of groundwater--from basic principles of physical and chemical hydrogeology to their application in traditional and emerging areas of practice.

This new edition contains extensive revisions, including new discussions of human impacts on aquifers, and strategies and concepts for sustainable development of groundwater. It also covers the theory of groundwater flow--including concepts of hydraulic head and the Darcy equation--and ground water/surface water interactions, as well as geochemistry and contamination.

Readers will also find
* A thorough introduction to the techniques of water resource investigations and regional groundwater flow
* Comprehensive explorations of groundwater chemistry and its applications in regional characterization and assessments of health impacts
* Practical discussions of groundwater contamination and water sustainability more generally
* Fulsome treatments of newly emerged contaminants, like PFAS, pathogens, agricultural contaminants, methane, arsenic, uranium, and redox processes

Perfect for undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in hydrogeology, groundwater, geoscience, applied geoscience, and groundwater and contaminant processes, Fundamentals of Groundwater also benefits environmental consultants, geochemists, engineers, and geologists.

Preface xv

About the Companion Website xvii

1 Introduction to Groundwater 1

1.1 Why Study Groundwater? 1

1.2 Brief History of Groundwater 4

1.2.1 On Books 4

1.2.2 On the Early Evolution of Hydrogeological Knowledge 5

1.2.3 1960-2005 Computers and Contaminants 6

1.2.4 2005 and Onward: Research Diversified 8

References 9

2 Hydrologic Processes at the Earth's Surface 12

2.1 Basin-Scale Hydrologic Cycle 12

2.2 Precipitation 15

2.2.1 Snowpack Distributions 20

2.3 Evaporation, Evapotranspiration, and Potential Evapotranspiration 20

2.4 Infiltration, Overland Flow, and Interflow 23

2.5 Simple Approaches to Runoff Estimation 25

2.6 Stream Flow and the Basin Hydrologic Cycle 30

2.6.1 Measuring Stream Discharge 30

2.6.2 Hydrograph Shape 32

2.6.3 Estimation of Baseflow 35

2.7 Flood Predictions 37

Exercises 38

References 40

3 Basic Principles of Groundwater Flow 42

3.1 Porosity of a Soil or Rock 42

3.2 Occurrence and Flow of Groundwater 45

3.3 Darcy's Experimental Law 46

3.3.1 Darcy Column Experiments 47

3.3.2 Linear Groundwater Velocity or Pore Velocity 48

3.3.3 Hydraulic Head 49

3.3.4 Components of Hydraulic Head 50

3.4 Hydraulic Conductivity and Intrinsic Permeability 51

3.4.1 Intrinsic Permeability 52

3.4.2 Hydraulic Conductivity Estimated from Association with Rock Type 53

3.4.3 Empirical Approaches for Estimation 53

3.4.4 Laboratory Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity 55

3.5 Darcy's Equation for Anisotropic Material 56

3.6 Hydraulic Conductivity in Heterogeneous Media 57

3.7 Investigating Groundwater Flow 61

3.7.1 Water Wells, Piezometers, and Water Table Observation Wells 61

3.7.2 Potentiometric Surface Maps 62

3.7.3 Water-Level Hydrograph 63

3.7.4 Hydrogeological Cross Sections 65

References 67

4 Aquifers 69

4.1 Aquifers and Confining Beds 69

4.2 Transmissive and Storage Properties of Aquifers 70

4.2.1 Transmissivity 70

4.2.2 Storativity (or Coefficient of Storage) and Specific Storage 72

4.2.3 Storage in Confined Aquifers 73

4.2.4 Storage in Unconfined Aquifers 74

4.2.5 Specific Yield and Specific Retention 74

4.3 Principal Types of Aquifers 75

4.4 Aquifers in Unconsolidated Sediments 75

4.4.1 Alluvial Fans and Basin Fill Aquifers 75

4.4.2 Fluvial Aquifers 79

4.5 Examples Alluvial Aquifer Systems 80

4.5.1 Central Valley Alluvial Aquifer System 80

4.5.2 High Plains Aquifer System 81

4.5.3 Indo-Gangetic Basin Alluvial Aquifer System 82

4.5.4 Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer 83

4.5.5 Aquifers Associated with Glacial Meltwater 85

4.6 Aquifers in Semiconsolidated Sediments 87

4.7 Sandstone Aquifers 88

4.7.1 Dakota Sandstone 88

4.8 Carbonate-Rock Aquifers 89

4.8.1 Enhancement of Permeability and Porosity by Dissolution 90

4.8.2 Karst Landscapes 91

4.8.3 Floridan Aquifer System 93

4.8.4 Edwards-Trinity Aquifer System 94

4.8.5 Basin and Range Carbonate Aquifer 96

4.9 Basaltic and Other Volcanic-Rock Aquifers 97

4.10 Hydraulic Properties of Granular and Crystalline Media 99

4.10.1 Pore Structure and Permeability Development 99

4.11 Hydraulic Properties of Fractured Media 100

4.11.1 Factors Controlling Fracture Development 101

References 102

5 Theory of Groundwater Flow 106

5.1 Differential Equations of Groundwater Flow in Saturated Zones 106

5.1.1 Useful Knowledge About Differential Equations 107

5.1.2 More About Dimensionality 109

5.1.3 Deriving Groundwater Flow Equations 109

5.2 Boundary Conditions 113

5.3 Initial Conditions for Groundwater Problems 114

5.4 Flow-net Analysis 115

5.4.1 Flow Nets in Isotropic and Homogeneous Media 115

5.4.2 Flow Nets in Heterogeneous Media 118

5.4.3 Flow Nets in Anisotropic Media 119

5.5 Mathematical Analysis of Some Simple Flow Problems 120

5.5.1 Groundwater Flow in a Confined Aquifer 120

5.5.2 Groundwater Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer 121

5.5.3 Groundwater Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer with Recharge 123

References 125

6 Theory of Groundwater Flow in Unsaturated Zones and Fractured Media 126

6.1 Basic Concepts of Flow in Unsaturated Zones 126

6.1.1 Changes in Moisture Content During Infiltration 128

6.2 Characteristic Curves 128

6.2.1 Water Retention or theta(psi) Curves 128

6.2.2 K(psi) Curves 130

6.2.3 Moisture Capacity or C(psi) Curves 132

6.3 Flow Equation in the Unsaturated Zone 133

6.4 Infiltration and Evapotranspiration 134

6.5 Examples of Unsaturated Flow 136

6.5.1 Infiltration and Drainage in a Large Caisson 136

6.5.2 Unsaturated Leakage from a Ditch 137

6.6 Groundwater Flow in Fractured Media 137

6.6.1 Cubic Law 137

6.6.2 Flow in a Set of Parallel Fractures 139

6.6.3 Equivalent-Continuum Approach 141

References 142

7 Geologic and Hydrogeologic Investigations 144

7.1 Key Drilling and Push Technologies 144

7.1.1 Auger Drilling 144

7.1.2 Mud/Air Rotary Drilling 145

7.1.3 Direct-Push Rigs 146

7.2 Piezometers and Water-Table Observation Wells 150

7.2.1 Basic Designs for Piezometers and Water-Table Observation Wells 150

7.3 Installing Piezometers and Water-Table Wells 152

7.3.1 Shallow Piezometer in Non-Caving Materials 152

7.3.2 Shallow Piezometer in Caving Materials 152

7.3.3 Deep Piezometers 153

7.4 Making Water-Level Measurements 154

7.5 Geophysics Applied to Site Investigations 155

7.5.1 Electric Resistivity Method 155

7.5.2 Capacitively Coupled Resistivity Profiling 158

7.5.3 Electromagnetic Methods 159

7.5.4 Large-Scale, Airborne Electromagnetic Surveys 160

7.5.5 Borehole Geophysical and Flow Meter Logging 162

7.5.6 Flowmeter Logging 164

7.6 Groundwater Investigations 166

7.6.1 Investigative Methods 167

References 168

8 Regional Groundwater Flow 170

8.1 Groundwater Basins 170

8.2 Mathematical Analysis of Regional Flow 171

8.2.1 Water-Table Controls on Regional Groundwater Flow 171

8.2.2 Effects of Basin Geology on Groundwater Flow 175

8.3 Recharge 179

8.3.1 Desert Environments 179

8.3.2 Semi-Arid Climate and Hummocky Terrain 180

8.3.3 Recharge in Structurally Controlled Settings 181

8.3.4 Distributed Recharge in Moist Climates 181

8.3.5 Approaches for Estimating Recharge 181

8.4 Discharge 183

8.4.1 Inflow to Wetlands, Lakes, and Rivers 183

8.4.2 Springs and Seeps 183

8.4.3 Evapotranspiration 185

8.5 Groundwater Surface-Water Interactions 186

8.6 Freshwater/Saltwater Interactions 189

8.6.1 Locating the Interface 190

8.6.2 Upconing of the Interface Caused by Pumping Wells 192

References 193

9 Response of Confined Aquifers to Pumping 195

9.1 Aquifers and Aquifer Tests 195

9.1.1 Units 196

9.2 Thiem's Method for Steady-State Flow in a Confined Aquifer 197

9.2.1 Interpreting Aquifer Test Data 198

9.3 Theis Solution for Transient Flow in a Fully Penetrating, Confined Aquifer 199

9.4 Prediction of Drawdown and Pumping Rate Using the Theis Solution 201

9.5 Theis Type-Curve Method 201

9.6 Cooper-Jacob Straight-Line Method 204

9.7 Distance-Drawdown Method 206

9.8 Estimating T and S Using Recovery Data 208

References 214

10 Leaky Confined Aquifers and Partially-Penetrating Wells 216

10.1 Transient Solution for Flow Without Storage in the Confining Bed 216

10.1.1 Interpreting Aquifer-Test Data 218

10.2 Steady-State Solution 221

10.3 Transient Solutions for Flow with Storage in Confining Beds 223

10.4 Effects of Partially Penetrating Wells 229

References 235

11 Response of an Unconfined Aquifer to Pumping 236

11.1 Calculation of Drawdowns by Correcting Estimates for a Confined Aquifer 236

11.2 Determination of Hydraulic Parameters Using Distance/Drawdown Data 238

11.3 A General Solution for Drawdown 239

11.4 Type-Curve Method 241

11.5 Straight-Line Method 245

11.6 Aquifer Testing with a Partially-Penetrating Well 247

References 250

12 Slug, Step, and Intermittent Tests 251

12.1 Hvorslev Slug Test 251

12.2 Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos Test 255

12.3 Bower and Rice Slug Test 257

12.4 Step and Intermittent Drawdown Tests 259

12.4.1 Determination of Transmissivity and Storativity 260

12.4.2 Estimating Well Efficiency 263

References 268

13 Calculations and Interpretation of Hydraulic Head in Complex Settings 269

13.1 Multiple Wells and Superposition 269

13.2 Drawdown Superimposed on a Uniform Flow Field 271

13.3 Replacing a Geologic Boundary with an Image Well 272

13.3.1 Impermeable Boundary 272

13.3.2 Recharge Boundary 277

13.4 Multiple Boundaries 278

13.5 Calculation and Interpretation of Hydraulic Problems Using Computers 279

13.5.1 Numerical Models for Groundwater Simulations 279

13.5.2 Interpreting Aquifer Tests 281

References 282

14 Depletion of Groundwater Resources 283

14.1 Water-Level Declines from Overpumping 283

14.1.1 Challenges in the Investigation of Water-level Changes 285

14.2 Land Subsidence 285

14.2.1 Conceptual Model 286

14.2.2 Terzaghi Principle of Effective Stress 288

14.2.3 Subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley of California 289

14.2.4 Challenges in the Investigation of Subsidence 293

14.3 Connected Groundwaters and Surface Waters 294

14.3.1 Declines in Streamflow 294

14.3.2 Induced Infiltration of Streamflow 295

14.3.3 Capture Zone for a Well 298

14.3.4 Pumping of the High Plains Aquifer System and Streamflow Reduction 298

14.3.5 Streamflow Declines in Beaver-North Canadian River Basin 300

14.3.6 Challenges in the Investigation of Streamflow Loss 301

14.4 Destruction of Riparian Zones 301

14.5 Seawater Intrusion 303

14.5.1 Salinas River Groundwater Basin 304

14.6 Introduction to Groundwater Modeling 306

14.6.1 Conceptual Model 306

14.6.2 Model Design 308

14.6.3 Model Calibration and Verification 308

14.6.4 Predictions in Modeling 309

14.7 Application of Groundwater Modeling 309

References 312

15 Groundwater Management 315

15.1 The Case for Groundwater Sustainability 315

15.2 Groundwater Sustainability Defined 317

15.2.1 Sustainability Initiatives 317

15.2.2 Sustainability Indicators for the Sierra Vista Subwatershed in Arizona 318

15.2.3 Socioeconomic Policies and Instruments 320

15.3 Overview of Approaches for Sustainable Management 321

15.3.1 Indicator Tracking 321

15.3.2 Water Balance Analyses 322

15.3.3 Model-Based Analyses of Sustainability 326

15.4 Strategies for Groundwater Sustainability 327

15.4.1 Increasing Inflows 327

15.4.1.1 Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) 327

15.4.1.2 Traditional MAR Approaches 329

15.4.1.3 "Sponge City" and Opportunities for Unmanaged Aquifer Recharge 330

15.4.2 Reducing Outflows 331

15.4.2.1 Replacing Groundwater with Surface Water 331

15.4.2.2 Reduction in Water Used for Irrigation 331

15.4.3 Scaling Issues with Sustainability 331

15.5 Global Warming Vulnerabilities 332

15.6 Chemical Impacts to Sustainability 334

15.6.1 Salinization 334

15.6.2 Geogenic and Aenthropogenic Contamination 335

15.6.3 Salinity and Contamination--Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) Alluvial Aquifer 336

15.6.4 Seawater Intrusion 339

References 342

16 Water Quality Assessment 345

16.1 Dissolved Constituents in Groundwater 346

16.1.1 Concentration Scales 346

16.2 Constituents of Interest in Groundwater 348

16.2.1 Gases and Particles 348

16.2.2 Routine Water Analyses 350

16.2.3 Contamination: Expanding the Scope of Chemical Characterization 351

16.2.3.1 Contaminated Sites 351

16.2.4 Comprehensive Surveys of Water Quality 352

16.3 Water Quality Standards 353

16.3.1 Health-Based Screening Levels--USGS 353

16.3.2 Secondary Standards for Drinking Water 354

16.3.3 Standards for Irrigation Water 355

16.4 Working with Chemical Data 356

16.4.1 Relative Concentration and Health-Based Screening 356

16.4.2 Scatter Diagrams and Contour Maps 358

16.4.3 Contour Maps 359

16.4.4 Piper Diagrams 360

16.5 Groundwater Sampling 362

16.5.1 Selecting Water Supply Wells for Sampling 362

16.6 Procedures for Water Sampling 363

16.6.1 Well Inspection and Measurements 363

16.6.2 Well Purging 363

16.6.3 Sample Collection, Filtration, and Preservation 364

References 364

17 Key Chemical Processes 366

17.1 Overview of Equilibrium and Kinetic Reactions 366

17.1.1 Law of Mass Action and Chemical Equilibrium 367

17.1.2 Complexities of Actual Groundwater 368

17.1.3 Deviations from Equilibrium 369

17.1.4 Kinetic Reactions 371

17.2 Acid-Base Reactions 372

17.3 Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation 374

17.3.1 Organic Compounds in Water 375

17.4 Surface Reactions 375

17.4.1 Sorption Isotherms 376

17.4.2 Sorption of Organic Compounds 377

17.4.3 Ion Exchange 379

17.4.4 Clay Minerals in Geologic Materials 380

17.4.5 Sorption to Oxide and Oxyhydroxide Surfaces 381

17.5 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 382

17.5.1 Kinetics and Dominant Couples 384

17.5.2 Biotransformation of Organic Compounds 385

17.5.3 pe-pH and E H -pH Diagrams 385

17.5.4 Quantifying Redox Conditions in Field Settings 386

17.5.5 Redox Zonation 388

17.6 Microorganisms in Groundwater 389

17.6.1 Quantifying Microbial Abundances 390

17.6.2 Microbial Ecology of the Subsurface 390

References 392

18 Isotopes and Applications 395

18.1 Stable and Radiogenic Isotopes 395

18.2 18 O and Deuterium in the Hydrologic Cycle 397

18.2.1 Behavior of D and 18 O in Rain 400

18.3 Variability in 18 O and Deuterium in Groundwater 401

18.3.1 Spatial and/or Temporal Variability of delta 18 O and deltaD Compositions in Aquifers 401

18.3.2 Connate Water in Units with Low Hydraulic Conductivity 402

18.4 Evaporation and the Meteoric Water Line 403

18.4.1 Other Deviations from GMWL 404

18.4.2 Illustrative Applications with Deuterium and Oxygen- 18 404

18.4.2.1 Role of Wetland in Streamflow 404

18.4.2.2 Integrated Study of Recharge Dynamics in a Desert Setting 405

18.5 Radiogenic Age Dating of Groundwater 406

18.5.1 Exploring Old and New Concepts of Age for Groundwater 408

18.5.2 Carbon- 14 409

18.5.3 Chlorine-36 and Helium-4: Very Old Groundwater 411

18.5.4 Tritium 412

18.5.5 Categorial Assessments Using Tritium Ages 414

18.6 Indirect Approaches to Age Dating 416

18.6.1 Isotopically Light Glacial Recharge 417

18.6.2 Chlorofluorocarbons and Sulfur Hexafluoride 417

References 420

19 Mass Transport: Principles and Examples 423

19.1 Subsurface Pathways 423

19.2 Advection 425

19.3 Dispersion 427

19.3.1 Tracer Tests 427

19.3.2 Dispersion at Small and Large Scales 429

19.4 Processes Creating Dispersion 429

19.5 Statistical Patterns of Mass Spreading 431

19.6 Measuring, Estimating, and Using Dispersivity Values 433

19.6.1 Sources with a Continuous Release 433

19.6.2 Available Dispersivity Values 434

19.7 Dispersion in Fractured Media 435

19.8 Chemical Processes and Their Impact on Water Chemistry 437

19.8.1 Gas Dissolution and Redistribution 437

19.8.2 Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation 438

19.8.3 Cation Exchange Reactions 439

19.8.4 Dissolution/Utilization of Organic Compounds 439

19.8.5 Redox Reactions 439

19.9 Examples of Reactions Affecting Water Chemistry 441

19.9.1 Chemical Evolution of Groundwater in Carbonate Terrains 441

19.9.2 Shallow Brines in Western Oklahoma 441

19.9.3 Chemistry of Groundwater in an Igneous Terrain 442

19.9.4 Evolution of Shallow Groundwater in an Arid Prairie Setting 443

19.10 A Case Study Highlighting Redox Processes 444

19.10.1 Iron and Manganese 444

19.10.2 Arsenic 445

19.10.3 Nitrate 446

19.10.4 Machine Learning for Mapping Redox Conditions 447

References 450

20 Introduction to Contaminant Hydrogeology 452

20.1 Point and Nonpoint Contamination Problems 452

20.2 Families of Contaminants 455

20.2.1 Minor/Trace Elements 455

20.2.2 Nutrients 455

20.2.3 Other Inorganic Species 456

20.2.4 Organic Contaminants 456

20.2.4.1 Petroleum Hydrocarbons 456

20.2.4.2 Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds 457

20.2.4.3 Halogenated Aromatic Compounds 457

20.2.4.4 Polychlorinated Biphenyls 458

20.2.4.5 Health Effects 458

20.2.5 Biological Contaminants 458

20.2.6 Radionuclides 458

20.3 Presence or Absence of Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) 459

20.4 Roles of Source Loading and Dispersion in Shaping Plumes 460

20.4.1 Source Loading 460

20.5 How Chemical Reactions Influence Plumes 461

20.5.1 Biodegradation of Organic Contaminants 462

20.5.2 Degradation of Common Contaminants 462

20.5.3 Reactions Influencing Plume Development 463

20.6 Nonaqueous Phase Liquids in the Subsurface 464

20.6.1 Features of NAPL Spreading 464

20.6.2 Occurrence of DNAPLs in the Saturated Zone 466

20.6.3 Secondary Contamination Due to NAPLs 466

20.7 Approaches for the Investigation of Contaminated Sites 466

20.7.1 Preliminary Studies 467

20.7.2 Reconnaissance Geophysics 467

20.7.3 Soil Gas Characterization 467

20.7.4 Distribution of Dissolved Contaminants 468

20.7.5 Plume Maps 470

20.7.6 Mapping the Distribution of NAPLs 471

20.8 Field Example of an LNAPL Problem 473

References 478

Index 481
Franklin W. Schwartz, PhD, is Professor and Ohio Eminent Scholar in Hydrogeology at The Ohio State University in Columbus. He is the co-author of Fundamentals of Groundwater and Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology. His research interests include groundwater sustainability, geo-environments and health, and water and societies.

Hubao Zhang, PhD, is a software engineer at Rain Bird. He has extensive experience working in environmental consulting and groundwater modeling and is the co-author of Fundamentals of Groundwater.

F. W. Schwartz, Ohio State University, USA; H. Zhang, Sahuarita, USA