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Progress in Adhesion and Adhesives, Volume 6

Mittal, K. L. (Herausgeber)

Adhesion and Adhesives - Fundamental and Applied Aspects (Band Nr. 6)

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1. Auflage September 2021
912 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-84665-9
John Wiley & Sons

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With the voluminous research being published, it is difficult, if not impossible, to stay abreast of current developments in a given area. The review articles in this book consolidate information to provide an alternative way to follow the latest research activity and developments in adhesion science and adhesives.

With the ever-increasing amount of research being published, it is a Herculean task to be fully conversant with the latest research developments in any field, and the arena of adhesion and adhesives is no exception. Thus, topical review articles provide an alternate and very efficient way to stay abreast of the state-of-the-art in many subjects representing the field of adhesion science and adhesives.

The 19 chapters in this Volume 6 follow the same order as the review articles originally published in RAA in the year 2020 and up to June 2021. The subjects of these 19 chapters fall in the following areas:
* Adhesives and adhesive joints
* Contact angle
* Reinforced polymer composites
* Bioadhesives
* Icephobic coatings
* Adhesives based on natural resources
* Polymer surface modification
* Superhydrophobic surfaces

The topics covered include: hot-melt adhesives; adhesively-bonded spar-wingskin joints; contact angle hysteresis; fiber/matrix adhesion in reinforced thermoplastic composites; bioadhesives in biomedical applications; mucoadhesive pellets for drug delivery applications; bio-inspired icephobic coatings; wood adhesives based on natural resources; adhesion in biocomposites; vacuum UV surface photo-oxidation of polymers and other materials; vitrimers and their relevance to adhesives; superhydrophobic surfaces by microtexturing; structural acrylic adhesives; mechanically durable water-repellent surfaces; mussel-inspired underwater adhesives; and cold atmospheric pressure plasma technology for modifying polymers.

Audience
This book will be valuable and useful to researchers and technologists in materials science, nanotechnology, physics, surface and colloid chemistry in multiple disciplines in academia, industry, various research institutes and other organizations.

Preface xxi

1 Hot-Melt Adhesives: Fundamentals, Formulations, and Applications: A Critical Review 1
Swaroop Gharde, Gaurav Sharma and Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian

1.1 Introduction to Hot-Melt Adhesives (HMAs) 2

1.2 Formulation of Hot-Melt Adhesives 4

1.2.1 Theories or Mechanisms of Adhesion 4

1.2.1.1 Mechanical Interlocking Theory 4

1.2.1.2 Electrostatic Theory 5

1.2.1.3 Diffusion Theory 5

1.2.1.4 Physical Adsorption or Wetting Theory 5

1.2.1.5 Chemical Bonding 5

1.2.2 Intermolecular Forces between Adhesives and Adherend 5

1.2.3 Thermodynamic Model of Adhesion 6

1.2.4 Bonded Joints 7

1.2.5 Surface Preparation for HMA Application 8

1.2.5.1 Solvent Degreasing 9

1.2.5.2 Chemically-Active Surface 9

1.3 Fundamental Aspects of Adhesive Behavior of HMAs 10

1.3.1 Mechanical and Physical Behaviors 10

1.3.2 Blending Behavior and the Effects of Other Ingredients 11

1.3.3 Polymeric Behavior 12

1.4 Preparation of HMAs Using Various Polymers 12

1.4.1 HMAs by Grafting Acrylic and Crotonic Acids on Metallocene Ethylene-Octene Polymers 12

1.4.1.1 Solution Grafting 13

1.4.1.2 Melt Grafting 14

1.4.1.3 Preparation of HMAs 14

1.4.2 Cross-Linked Polyurethane Hot-Melt Adhesives (PUR-HMAs) 14

1.4.3 Soybean Protein Isolate and Polycaprolactone Based HMAs (SPIP-HMAs) 15

1.5 Mechanical Analysis of Hot-Melt Adhesives 16

1.5.1 Fracture Mechanics of HMAs 16

1.5.1.1 Fracture Energy Measurement 18

1.5.2 Stress-Strain, and Frequency-Temperature Sweep Tests for Viscoelasticity 18

1.6 Industrial Applications of Hot-Melt Adhesives 20

1.6.1 Medical Applications 20

1.6.2 Electronic Applications 21

1.6.3 Anticorrosion Applications 21

1.6.4 Food Packaging Applications 21

1.6.5 Textile Applications 22

1.7 Current Challenges and Future Scope of HMAs 22

1.8 Summary 23

Acknowledgment 24

References 24

2 Optimization of Adhesively Bonded Spar-Wingskin Joints of Laminated FRP Composites Subjected to Pull-Off Load: A Critical Review 29
S. Rakshe, S. V. Nimje and S. K. Panigrahi

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Finite Element Analysis of SWJ 31

2.2.1 Geometry and Configuration 31

2.2.2 Finite Element Modeling 32

2.2.3 Validation and Convergence Study 33

2.3 Taguchi Method of Optimization 34

2.3.1 Optimization of Material and Lamination Scheme 35

2.3.2 Geometrical Parameter 36

2.4 Results and Discussion 38

2.4.1 Material and Lamination Scheme 38

2.4.1.1 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 39

2.4.2 Geometrical Parameter 41

2.4.2.1 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 42

2.5 Conclusions 44

References 45

3 Contact Angle Hysteresis - Advantages and Disadvantages: A Critical Review 47
Andrew Terhemen Tyowua and Stephen Gbaoron Yiase

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Contact Angle and Hysteresis Measurement 49

3.2.1 Theoretical Treatment of Static Contact Angles 51

3.2.2 Modeling of Dynamic Contact Angles 53

3.2.3 Modelling Contact Angle Hysteresis 57

3.3 Advantages of Contact Angle Hysteresis 59

3.4 Disadvantages of Contact Angle Hysteresis 59

3.5 Summary 61

3.6 Acknowledgements 62

References 62

4 Test Methods for Fibre/Matrix Adhesion in Cellulose Fibre-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Materials: A Critical Review 69
J. Müssig and N. Graupner

4.1 Introduction 70

4.2 Terms and Definitions 70

4.2.1 Fibres 71

4.2.2 Fibre Bundle 71

4.2.3 Equivalent Diameter 72

4.2.4 Critical Length 72

4.2.5 Aspect Ratio and Critical Aspect Ratio 72

4.2.6 Single Element versus Collective 73

4.2.7 Interface and Interphase 75

4.2.8 Adhesion and Adherence 75

4.2.9 Practical & Theoretical Fibre/Matrix Adhesion 75

4.3 Test Methods for Fibre/Matrix Adhesion 76

4.3.1 Overview 76

4.3.2 Single Fibre/Single Fibre Bundle Tests 77

4.3.2.1 Pull-Out Test 77

4.3.2.2 Microbond Test 88

4.3.3 Test Procedures for Fibre/Matrix Adhesion 91

4.3.3.1 Pull-Out Test 92

4.3.3.2 Microbond Test 93

4.3.3.3 Evaluation of Characteristic Values from Pull-Out and Microbond Tests 94

4.3.3.4 Fragmentation Test 98

4.4 Comparison of IFSS Data 103

4.5 Influence of Fibre Treatment on the IFSS 107

4.6 Summary 118

Acknowledgements 119

References 119

5 Bioadhesives in Biomedical Applications: A Critical Review 131
Aishee Dey, Proma Bhattacharya and Sudarsan Neogi

5.1 Introduction 131

5.2 Theories of Bioadhesion 132

5.2.1 Factors Affecting Bioadhesion 134

5.3 Different Polymers Used as Bioadhesives 134

5.3.1 Collagen-Based Bioadhesives 135

5.3.2 Chitosan-Based Bioadhesives 137

5.3.3 Albumin-Based Bioadhesives 138

5.3.4 Dextran-Based Bioadhesives 139

5.3.5 Gelatin-Based Bioadhesives 140

5.3.6 Poly(ethylene glycol)-Based Bioadhesives 142

5.3.7 Poly(acrylic acid)-Based Bioadhesives 142

5.3.8 Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-Based Bioadhesives 145

5.4 Summary 147

References 148

6 Mucoadhesive Pellets for Drug Delivery Applications: A Critical Review 155
Inderbir Singh, Gayatri Devi, Bibhuti Ranjan Barik, Anju Sharma and Loveleen Kaur

6.1 Introduction 155

6.2 Mucoadhesive Polymers 157

6.3 Pellets 159

6.3.1 Preparation and Evaluation of Pellets 160

6.3.2 Mucoadhesive Pellets for Drug Delivery Applications 161

6.4 Summary and Prospects 166

Conflict of Interest 166

References 166

7 Bio-Inspired Icephobic Coatings for Aircraft Icing Mitigation: A Critical Review 171
Liqun Ma, Zichen Zhang, Linyue Gao, Yang Liu and Hui Hu

7.1 Introduction 172

7.2 The State-of-the-Art Icephobic Coatings/Surfaces 174

7.2.1 Lotus-Leaf-Inspired Superhydrophobic Surfaces (SHS) with Micro-/Nano-Scale Surface Textures 176

7.2.2 Pitcher-Plant-Inspired Slippery Liquid-Infused Porous Surfaces (SLIPS) 177

7.3 Impact Icing Process Pertinent to Aircraft Inflight Icing Phenomena 179

7.4 Preparation of Typical SHS and SLIPS Coatings/Surfaces 181

7.5 Measurements of Ice Adhesion Strengths on Different Icephobic Coatings/Surfaces 182

7.6 Icing Tunnel Testing to Evaluate the Icephobic Coatings/Surfaces for Impact Icing Mitigation 184

7.7 Characterization of Rain Erosion Effects on the Icephobic Coatings 189

7.8 Summary and Conclusions 196

Acknowledgments 198

References 198

8 Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources: A Critical Review Part I. Protein-Based Adhesives 203
Manfred Dunky

List of Abbreviations 203

8.1 Overview and Challenges for Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources 205

8.1.1 Definition of Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources 205

8.1.2 Motivation to Use Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources 207

8.1.3 Combined Use of Synthetic and Naturally-Based Wood Adhesives 208

8.1.4 Review Articles on Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources 209

8.1.5 Motivation for this Review Article in Four Parts in the Journal "Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives" 211

8.1.6 Overview on Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources 212

8.1.7 Requirements, Limitations, and Opportunities for Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources 214

8.1.8 Synthetic and Natural Crosslinkers 214

8.1.9 Future of Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources 219

8.2 Protein-Based Adhesives 222

8.2.1 Introduction 222

8.2.1.1 Chemical Structure of Proteins 223

8.2.1.2 Proteinaceous Feedstock 224

8.2.1.3 Wood Bonding with Proteins 224

8.2.2 Plant-Based Proteins 228

8.2.2.1 Overview on Plant-Based Protein Sources and Types 228

8.2.2.2 Soy Proteins 228

8.2.2.3 Soy Protein as Wood Adhesive 239

8.2.2.4 Thermal Treatment of Soy Proteins 243

8.2.3 Animal-Based Proteins 246

8.2.3.1 Types and Sources of Animal-Based Proteins 246

8.2.3.2 Mussels (Marine) Proteins 246

8.2.3.3 Slaughterhouse Waste as Source of Proteins 257

8.2.3.4 Proteins from Specified Risk Materials (SRMs) 260

8.2.4 Properties of Protein-Based Adhesives 261

8.2.5 Denaturation and Modification of Proteins 261

8.2.5.1 Modification of Proteins 265

8.2.5.2 Crosslinking of Proteins 265

8.2.6 Proteins in Combination with Other Natural Adhesives and Natural Crosslinkers 286

8.2.7 Proteins in Combination with Synthetic Adhesive Resins and Crosslinkers 286

8.2.8 Application of Protein-Based Wood Adhesives 286

8.3 Summary 316

General Literature (Overview and Review Articles) for Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources 316

Protein-Based Adhesives 317

Plant Proteins (including Soy) 318

Animal Proteins and Other Sources 318

References 318

9 Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources: A Critical Review Part II. Carbohydrate-Based Adhesives 337
Manfred Dunky

List of Abbreviations 337

9.1 Types and Sources of Carbohydrates Used as Wood Adhesives 338

9.2 Modification of Starch for Possible Use as Wood Adhesive 348

9.3 Citric Acid as Naturally-Based Modifier and Co-Reactant 348

9.4 Combination and Crosslinking of Carbohydrates with Natural and Synthetic Components 348

9.5 Degradation and Repolymerization of Carbohydrates 348

9.6 Summary 373

General Literature (Overview and Review Articles) for Carbohydrate-Based Adhesives 373

References 373

10 Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources: A Critical Review Part III. Tannin- and Lignin-Based Adhesives 383
Manfred Dunky

List of Abbreviations 384

10.1 Introduction 385

10.2 Tannin-Based Adhesives 385

10.2.1 Chemistry of Condensed Tannins 386

10.2.2 Types of Condensed Tannins 390

10.2.3 Extraction, Purification, and Modification Methods for Tannins 390

10.2.4 Hardening and Crosslinking of Tannins 400

10.2.5 Hardening of Tannins by Hexamethylenetetramine (Hexamine) 418

10.2.6 Autocondensation of Tannins 419

10.2.7 Combination of Tannins with Natural Components 421

10.2.8 Combination of Tannins with Synthetic Components and Crosslinkers 421

10.3 Lignin-Based Adhesives 421

10.3.1 Chemistry and Structure of Lignin 430

10.3.2 Lignin as Adhesive 432

10.3.3 Analysis of Molecular Structure 437

10.3.4 Modification of Lignin 437

10.3.5 Lignin as Sole Adhesive and Chemical Activation of the Wood Surface 452

10.3.6 Laccase Induced Activation of Lignin 452

10.3.7 Pre-Methylolation of Lignin 469

10.3.8 Incorporation of Lignin into PF Resins 481

10.3.9 Reactions of Lignin With Various Aldehydes and Other Naturally-Based Components 481

10.3.10 Reaction of Lignin With Synthetic Components and Crosslinkers 481

10.4 Summary 481

General Literature (Overview and Review Articles) for Tannin and Lignin 499

References 501

11 Adhesion in Biocomposites: A Critical Review 531
Siji K. Mary, Merin Sara Thomas, Rekha Rose Koshy, Prasanth K.S. Pillai, Laly A. Pothan and SabuThomas

11.1 Introduction 531

11.2 Biocomposite Processing Methods 533

11.3 Factors Enhancing Adhesion Property in Biocomposites 536

11.3.1 Effect of Chemical Modification 537

11.3.2 Effect of Enzymatic Modification 539

11.3.3 Effect of Physical Modification 539

11.4 Physical and Chemical Characterization 542

11.5 Adhesion in Polymer Biocomposites with Specific Applications 545

11.5.1 Biomedical Applications 546

11.5.2 Dye Adsorption and Removal 547

11.5.3 Automotive Applications 548

11.6 Summary 549

References 549

12 Vacuum UV Surface Photo-Oxidation of Polymeric and Other Materials for Improving Adhesion: A Critical Review 559
Gerald A. Takacs, Massoud J. Miri and Timothy Kovach

12.1 Introduction 559

12.2 Vacuum UV Photo-Oxidation Process 561

12.2.1 VUV Background 561

12.2.2 VUV Radiation 561

12.2.2.1 Emission from Excited Atoms 561

12.2.2.2 Emission from High Pressure Rare Gas Plasmas 563

12.2.2.3 Emission from Rare-Gas Halides and Halogen Dimers 564

12.2.3 VUV Optical Filters 564

12.2.4 Penetration Depths of VUV Radiation in Polymers 565

12.2.5 Analytical Methods for Surface Analysis 565

12.2.6 VUV Photochemistry of Oxygen 565

12.2.7 Reaction of O Atoms and Ozone with a Polymer Surface 566

12.3 Adhesion to VUV Surface Photo-Oxidized Polymers 567

12.3.1 Fluoropolymers 567

12.3.2 Nafion(r) 568

12.3.3 Polyimides 569

12.3.4 Metal-Containing Polymers 569

12.3.5 Polyethylene (PE) 570

12.3.6 Polystyrene 571

12.3.7 Other Polymers 571

12.3.7.1 Polypropylene (PP) 571

12.3.7.2 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) 571

12.3.7.3 Poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) (PEN) 571

12.3.7.4 Cyclo-Olefin Polymers 572

12.3.7.5 Polybenzimidazole (PBI) 572

12.4 Applications of VUV Surface Photo-Oxidation to Other Materials 573

12.4.1 Carbon Nanotubes and Diamond 573

12.4.2 Metal Oxides 574

12.5 Prospects 575

12.5.1 Sustainable Polymers 575

12.6 Summary 576

References 576

13 Bio- and Water-Based Reversible Covalent Bonds Containing Polymers (Vitrimers) and Their Relevance to Adhesives - A Critical Review 587
Natanel Jarach, Racheli Zuckerman, Naum Naveh, Hanna Dodiuk and Samuel Kenig

List of Abbreviations 587

13.1 Introduction 588

13.1.1 RCBPs Classification 589

13.1.2 Reversible Bonds 590

13.1.2.1 General Reversible Covalent Bonds 590

13.1.2.2 Dynamic Reversible Covalent Bonds 590

13.1.3 RCBPs Applications 591

13.1.3.1 Recyclability 591

13.1.3.2 Self-Healing Materials 592

13.1.3.3 Shape-Memory Materials 592

13.1.3.4 Smart Composites 593

13.1.3.5 Adhesives 593

13.1.3.6 Dynamic Hydrogels and Biomedical Materials 594

13.2 Bio-Based RCBPs 595

13.2.1 Bio-Based Polymers 595

13.2.1.1 Classification of Bio-Based Polymers 596

13.2.1.2 Common Synthetic Bio-Based Polymers 596

13.2.2 Bio-Based RCBPs 599

13.2.2.1 Bio-Based DA RCBPs 600

13.2.2.2 Bio-Based Acylhydrazone-Containing RCBPs 601

13.2.2.3 Bio-Based Imine (Schiff-Base)-Containing RCBPs 601

13.2.2.4 Bio-Based ß-Hydroxy Ester Containing RCBPs 604

13.2.2.5 Bio-Based Disulfide-Containing RCBPs 606

13.3 Water-Based RCBPs 607

13.3.1 Solvents in Polymer Industry 607

13.3.1.1 Organic and Inorganic Solvents Used in RCBPs Synthesis 608

13.3.1.2 Water-Based Polymers 608

13.3.2 Water-Based RCBPs 609

13.3.2.1 Acylhydrazone-Containing Water-Based RCBPs 609

13.3.2.2 Schiff-Base-Containing Water-Based RCBPs 609

13.4 Summary 611

13.5 Authors Contributions 611

13.6 Funding 611

13.7 Conflict of Interest 611

References 612

14 Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Microtexturing: A Critical Review 621
Anustup Chakraborty, Alan T. Mulroney and Mool C. Gupta

14.1 Introduction 622

14.1.1 Background 622

14.1.2 State-of-the-Art 626

14.1.2.1 Microtexture Geometry 627

14.1.2.2 Ice Adhesion 627

14.1.2.3 Optical Transparency 628

14.1.2.4 Anti-Condensation Surfaces 628

14.2 Fabrication of Microtextured Surfaces 628

14.2.1 Surface Materials 628

14.2.2 Methods of Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surfaces 630

14.2.2.1 Plasma Treatment 630

14.2.2.2 Laser Ablation 631

14.2.2.3 Chemical Etching 632

14.3 Properties of Microtextured Surfaces 634

14.3.1 Antifogging 634

14.3.2 Antibacterial 634

14.3.3 Antireflection 634

14.3.4 Self-Cleaning 636

14.3.5 Effect of Temperature on Surface Properties 636

14.4 Applications 639

14.4.1 Anti-Icing 639

14.4.2 Drag Reduction 640

14.4.3 Anti-Corrosion 641

14.4.4 Solar Cells 641

14.4.5 Water-Repellent Textiles 641

14.5 Future Outlook 643

Acknowledgments 644

References 644

15 Structural Acrylic Adhesives: A Critical Review 651
D.A. Aronovich and L.B. Boinovich

15.1 Introduction 651

15.2 Compositions and Chemistries 653

15.2.1 Base Monomer 654

15.2.2 Thickeners and Elastomeric Components 656

15.2.3 Adhesive Additives 663

15.2.4 Initiators 665

15.2.5 Aerobically Curable Systems 670

15.2.6 Fillers 671

15.3 Physico-Mechanical Properties of SAAs 673

15.4 Adhesives for Low Surface Energy Materials 677

15.4.1 Initiators Based on Trialkylboranes 677

15.4.2 Alternative Types of Boron-Containing Initiators 686

15.4.3 Additives Modifying the Curing Stage 687

15.4.4 Hybrid SAAs 690

15.5 Comparison of the Properties of SAAs and Other Reactive Adhesives 693

15.6 Summary and Outlook 698

References 698

16 Current Progress in Mechanically Durable Water-Repellent Surfaces: A Critical Review 709
Philip Brown and Prantik Mazumder

16.1 Introduction 709

16.2 Fundamentals of Superhydrophobicity and SLIPs 710

16.2.1 Intermolecular Forces and Wetting 710

16.2.2 Young's Contact Angle and Surface Chemistry Limitation 712

16.2.3 Superhydrophobicity by Texturing 715

16.2.4 Hysteresis and Tilt Angle 717

16.2.5 Slippery Liquid-Infused Porous Surfaces (SLIPs) 719

16.3 Techniques to Achieve Water-Repellent Surfaces 720

16.3.1 Superhydrophobic Composite Coatings 720

16.3.2 Superhydrophobic Textured Surfaces 724

16.3.3 Liquid-Impregnated Surfaces/SLIPs 728

16.4 Durability Testing 729

16.5 Future Trends 732

16.6 Summary 734

References 734

17 Mussel-Inspired Underwater Adhesives- from Adhesion Mechanisms to Engineering Applications: A Critical Review 739
Yanfei Ma, Bozhen Zhang, Imri Frenkel, Zhizhi Zhang, Xiaowei Pei, Feng Zhou and Ximin He

17.1 Introduction 740

17.2 Adhesion Mechanisms of Mussel and the Catechol Chemistry 741

17.2.1 Hydrogen Bonding and Metal Coordination 742

17.2.2 Hydrophobic Interaction 743

17.2.3 Cation/Anion/pi-pi Interactions 743

17.2.4 The Flexibility of the Molecular Chain 744

17.3 Catechol-Functionalized Adhesive Materials 744

17.3.1 Permanent/High-Strength Adhesives 745

17.3.2 Temporary/Smart Adhesives 748

17.3.2.1 pH-Responsive Adhesives 748

17.3.2.2 Electrically Responsive Adhesives 750

17.3.2.3 Thermally Responsive Adhesives 750

17.3.2.4 Photo-Responsive Adhesives 750

17.3.3 Applications 751

17.4 Summary and Outlook 753

References 754

18 Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources: A Critical Review Part IV. Special Topics 761
Manfred Dunky

List of Abbreviations 762

18.1 Liquified Wood 765

18.2 Pyrolysis of Wood 769

18.3 Replacement of Formaldehyde in Resins 772

18.4 Unsaturated Oil Adhesives 791

18.5 Natural Polymers 793

18.5.1 Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) 793

18.5.2 Natural Rubber 795

18.6 Poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs) 796

18.7 Thermoplastic Adhesives Based on Natural Resources 797

18.7.1 Polyurethanes (PURs) 798

18.7.2 Polyamides (PAs) 806

18.7.3 Epoxies 808

18.8 Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs) and Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNFs) 808

18.8.1 Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNFs) as Sole Adhesives 810

18.8.2 Cellulose Nanofibrils as Components of Adhesives 812

18.9 Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) 812

18.10 Summary 819

General Literature (Overview and Review Articles) for Wood Adhesives Based on Natural Resources 820

References 820

19 Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Technology for Modifying Polymers to Enhance Adhesion: A Critical Review 841
Hom Bahadur Baniya, Rajesh Prakash Guragain and Deepak Prasad Subedi

19.1 Introduction 842

19.2 Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Discharge 844

19.2.1 Corona Discharge 844

19.2.2 Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) 845

19.2.3 Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (CAPPJ) 845

19.2.4 Polymer Surface Modification by CAPPJ 845

19.3 Experimental Setup for the Generation of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet 846

19.4 Methods and Materials for Surface Modification of Polymers 847

19.5 Direct Method for the Determination of Temperature of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (CAPPJ) 848

19.6 Results and Discussion 848

19.6.1 Temperature Determination of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (CAPPJ) 848

19.6.2 Electrical Characterization of the CAPPJ 849

19.6.2.1 Power Balance Method 849

19.6.2.2 Current Density Method 850

19.6.2.3 Determination of Energy Dissipation in the Cold Plasma Discharge per Cycle by the Lissajous Figure Method 851

19.6.3 Optical Characterization of CAPPJ 852

19.6.3.1 Line Intensity Ratio Method 852

19.6.3.2 Stark Broadening Method 856

19.6.3.3 Boltzmann Plot Method 858

19.6.3.4 Determination of the Rotational Temperature 859

19.6.3.5 Determination of the Vibrational Temperature 860

19.7 Surface Characterization/Adhesion Property of Polymers 862

19.7.1 Contact Angle Measurements and Surface Free Energy Determination 862

19.7.1.1 Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) 862

19.7.1.2 Polypropylene (PP) 864

19.7.1.3 Polyamide (PA) 867

19.7.1.4 Polycarbonate (PC) 869

19.7.2 FTIR Analysis 871

19.7.2.1 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Analysis of PET 871

19.7.2.2 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Analysis of PP 872

19.7.3 SEM Analysis 872

19.7.3.1 SEM Images of the Control and APPJ Treated PET 872

19.7.3.2 SEM Images of the Control and APPJ Treated PP 872

19.8 Summary 873

Acknowledgements 874

Data Availability 874

Conflict of Interest 874

References 874
Kashmiri Lal Mittal was employed by the IBM Corporation from 1972 through 1993. Currently, he is teaching and consulting worldwide in the broad areas of adhesion as well as surface cleaning. He has received numerous awards and honors including the title of doctor honoris causa from Maria Curie-SkBodowska University, Lublin, Poland. He is the editor of more than 140 books dealing with adhesion measurement, adhesion of polymeric coatings, polymer surfaces, adhesive joints, adhesion promoters, thin films, polyimides, surface modification surface cleaning, and surfactants. Dr. Mittal is also the Founding Editor of the journal Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives.