John Wiley & Sons Nanovaccinology as Targeted Therapeutics Cover NANOVACCINOLOGY AS TARGETED THERAPEUTICS The book presents the early-stage development of nanovacci.. Product #: 978-1-119-85734-1 Regular price: $195.33 $195.33 Auf Lager

Nanovaccinology as Targeted Therapeutics

Pal, Kaushik (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage August 2022
352 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-85734-1
John Wiley & Sons

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NANOVACCINOLOGY AS TARGETED THERAPEUTICS

The book presents the early-stage development of nanovaccines that could well be the new generation of vaccines which have a great potential for the prevention and treatment of many diseases.

Nanovaccinology as Targeted Therapeutics explores recent breakthroughs in the exciting new field of micro- and nanofabricated engineered nanomaterials. In addition to spectroscopic characterizations, significant topics for interdisciplinary research, especially in the fields of nanogels, which deal with polymer chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, pharmaceuticals, and medicine are explored, where their small dimensions prove highly advantageous. Nanovaccinology could potentially revolutionize conventional therapy and diagnostic methods due to its superior effectiveness over its macro-sized counterparts in almost all biomedical areas. Strong interest in this novel class of material has driven many studies to discover biogenic production methods and new areas of potential utilization in this area. Therefore, it is important to keep abreast of the development of these biomedical research aspects highlighted in the 19 chapters of this book written in diverse fields of studies, and their emerging applications utilized in next-generation techniques.

Audience
Biotechnologists, nanotechnologists, materials scientists, biochemists, medical biologists, drug delivery and formulation chemists, virologists and pharmacists.

Preface xv

1 Nanotechnology in Vaccine Development and Constraints 1
Tahmina Foyez and Abu Bin Imran

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Nanoparticles, an Alternative Approach to Conventional Vaccines 4

1.3 Nanoparticles as Vaccine Delivery Vehicle 5

1.4 Nanotechnology to Tackle the Challenges of Vaccine Delivery 6

1.4.1 Polymeric Nanoparticles 6

1.4.2 Inorganic Nanoparticles 7

1.4.3 Biomolecular Nanoparticles 8

1.4.4 Liposome 9

1.4.5 Virus-Like Particles 9

1.4.6 Micelles 9

1.4.7 Immunostimulating Complexes 10

1.4.8 Self-Assembled Proteins (SAPNs) 10

1.4.9 Emulsions 11

1.5 Constraints and Challenges of Nanovaccines 11

1.6 Concluding Remarks 12

Acknowledgments 13

References 13

2 Nanomedicine and Nanovaccinology Tools in Targeted Drug Delivery 21
Bogala Mallikharjuna Reddy

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Nanomaterial-Based Drug Delivery Tools 25

2.2.1 Inorganic Nanoparticles 26

2.2.2 Polymeric Nanoparticles 26

2.2.3 Dendrimers 27

2.2.4 Liposomes 28

2.2.5 Micelles 29

2.2.6 Emulsions 30

2.2.7 Carbon-Based Nanomaterials 30

2.2.8 Self-Assembled Proteins 31

2.2.9 Immunostimulating Complexes 32

2.2.10 Virus-Like Particles 33

2.3 Targeted Drug Delivery Applications 33

2.3.1 Cancer 36

2.3.2 Neurology 37

2.3.3 Cardiology 38

2.3.4 Ophthalmology 38

2.3.5 Pulmonology 39

2.3.6 Tissue Engineering 40

2.3.7 Viral Infections 40

2.3.8 Other Miscellaneous Types 41

2.4 Commercial Nanodelivery Tools 42

2.4.1 Industrial Manufacturing 42

2.4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages 44

2.4.3 Risks and Challenges 45

2.5 Conclusions and Future Prospects 46

Acknowledgments 47

References 47

3 Nanovaccinology and Superbugs 53
Sandhya Kalathilparambil Santhosh, Kaviya Parampath Kootery, Mridul Umesh, Preethi Mariam Alex, Meghna Mani, Adina Roy and Suma Sarojini

3.1 Introduction 54

3.2 Need for Nanovaccines 55

3.3 Types of Nanovaccines 57

3.3.1 Subunit Vaccines 57

3.3.2 Conjugate Vaccines 58

3.3.3 RNA Vaccines 58

3.3.4 Reverse Vaccinology 59

3.3.5 Biomimetic Nanovaccines 60

3.3.5.1 Biomimetic Membranes 60

3.3.5.2 Outer Membrane Vesicle Nanoparticles 61

3.3.6 Nanotoxoids 62

3.3.7 Liposomes 63

3.3.8 Polymeric Nanoparticles 63

3.3.9 Virus-Like Particle 64

3.3.10 Inorganic Nanoparticles 65

3.4 Mechanism of Action of Nanovaccines 65

3.5 Limitations of Nanovaccines 68

3.6 Conclusion 69

Acknowledgment 69

References 69

4 Current Research Trends on SARS-CoV2 Virus Against Nanovaccine Formulation 77
Pushpalatha C., Chhaya Kumar, Sowmya S.V., Dominic Augustine, Elizabeth Abbu Varghese and Jithya Suresh

4.1 Introduction 78

4.2 COVID-19/SARS-CoV2 Pathophysiology 78

4.3 Development of Nanovaccines Against SARS-CoV2 79

4.4 Biomimetic Nanovaccines Against SARS-CoV2 80

4.4.1 Virus-Like Particles 84

4.4.2 Nucleic Acids Vaccines 85

4.4.3 Protein Vaccines 86

4.5 Translatable Subunit Nanovaccine Against SARS-CoV2 86

4.6 Separable Microneedle Patch Nanovaccine 86

4.7 Polymer-Based Nanovaccines 87

4.8 Pharmaceutical Challenges of SARS-CoV2 Nanovaccines 88

4.9 Future Prospects of SARS-CoV2 Nanovaccines 89

4.10 Challenges and Limitations 89

4.11 Conclusion and Outlook 91

References 91

5 Nanovaccinology Against Infectious Disease 95
S. Chakroborty and P. Panda

5.1 Introduction 96

5.2 Nanovaccinology Against Bacterial Disease 97

5.3 Nanovaccinology Against Viral Disease 99

5.4 Nanovaccinology Against Cancer 101

5.5 Nanovaccinology Against Parasite-Born Disease 108

5.6 Nanovaccinology Against Autoimmune Disorders 109

5.7 Conclusion and Outlook 110

Acknowledgments 110

References 110

6 Preclinical and Commercial Trials of Cancer Diagnosis via Nano-Imaging and Nanovaccinology 115
Sowmya S.V., Pushpalatha C., Dominic Augustine, Sibikar P., Bharkhavy K.V. and Elizabeth Abbu Varghese

6.1 Introduction 116

6.2 Role of Nano-Imaging in Cancer Diagnosis, Progression, and Treatment 117

6.2.1 Gold Nanoparticles 117

6.2.2 Quantum Dots 118

6.2.3 Carbon Nanotubes 118

6.2.4 Nanowires 118

6.2.5 Cantilevers and Nanopores 118

6.2.6 Other Types of Nanoparticles 118

6.3 Challenges in the Translation of Nanotechnology-Based Imaging Methods Into Clinical Application 119

6.4 Nanovaccines for Cancer Immunotherapy 119

6.4.1 Composition of Nanovaccines in Cancer Therapy 120

6.4.1.1 Antigens 120

6.4.1.2 Immunostimulatory Adjuvants 121

6.4.1.3 Nanocarriers 121

6.5 Functionalities of Nanocarriers for the Delivery of Cancer Vaccines 122

6.5.1 Efficient Delivery of Vaccines by Nanocarriers 123

6.5.2 Co-Delivery of Antigens and Adjuvants via Nanocarriers 123

6.5.3 Nanocarriers Potentiate Immunomodulation Through Multivalent Antigens and/or Adjuvants 123

6.5.4 Self-Adjuvanted Nanocarriers 123

6.6 Nanovaccine Strategies in Cancer 123

6.6.1 STING Agonist-Based Nanovaccines 124

6.6.2 Neoantigen Nanovaccines 124

6.6.3 mRNA-Based Nanovaccines 124

6.6.4 aAPCs 124

6.6.5 Nanovaccines for Combination Therapy 124

6.7 Preclinical and Clinical Trials of Applications of Nanoimaging and Nanovaccinology in Cancer 125

6.8 Recent Developments in the Trials of Nanovaccinology in Cancer 126

6.9 Perspectives and Future Directions 127

6.10 Conclusions 127

References 127

7 Biomedical and Electronic Tune-Ups of 2C4NA Nanocrystalline Sample 131
Maalmarugan J., Egbert Selwin Rose A., Anbarasan P., Poorani R., Aarthi N., Ganesan H., Senthil Kannan K. and Flora G.

7.1 Introduction 132

7.2 Computational, Tribological, Fluorescence, and Influx Study 133

7.3 Antidiabetic (AD) Study, Anticancer Study, and Anti-Inflammatory Study 138

7.4 Conclusion 139

References 139

8 Biological, Electronic-Filter, Influx and Theoretical Practicalities of 2-Chloro-6-Nitroaniline (2C6NA) Crystals for Biomedical and Microelectronics Tasks 145
Maria Sumathi B., Maalmarugan J., Ganesan H., Saravanan P., Patel R.P., Sheeba M., Flora G. and Senthil Kannan K.

8.1 Introduction 146

8.2 Computational and Influx 146

8.3 Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antidiabetic, DPPH, FRAP, Anticancer 148

8.4 Conclusion 150

References 151

9 Antidiabetic, Anti-Oxidant, Computational, Filter, and Tribological Characterizations of Bis Glycine Lithium Bromide Monohydrate Nano (32 nm) Scaled Crystals 157
Dayana Lobo F., Senthil Kannan K., Mathivanan V., Jacintha Tamil Malar A., Christy S., Flora G., Ganesan H. and Maalmarugan J.

9.1 Introduction 158

9.2 Experimental 158

9.2.1 Synthesis 158

9.3 Results and Discussions 159

9.3.1 Single Crystalline XRD (SXRD) Study and Powder XRD (PXRD) Studies 159

9.3.2 Fluorescence (FL) Study for 32-nm Scale 160

9.3.3 Antidiabetic (AD) Study and Influx Study 160

9.3.4 AO-DPPH, FRAP of Antioxidant Activity 162

9.3.5 Tribology--Load Capacity by the Compressive Strength Model of the Polymeric Bearings, Software-Based Thermal Ellipsoidal Plot 162

9.4 Conclusion 164

References 164

10 Device Utility, Energy, and Bioutility of N2MNM4MBH Macro, Nano Models 169
Pauline Jenifer S., Flora G., Zozimus Divya Lobo C., Charles A., Senthil Kannan K., Anbuvel D., Prajith V. and Jemma Hermelin Jesy Diaz

10.1 Introduction 170

10.2 Synthesis and XRD 171

10.3 Influx 171

10.4 Computational 171

10.4.1 Antidiabetic Study 171

10.5 Conclusion 177

References 177

11 Biocurative, Tribological, Electro-Functionalities of ZnO-MIZN Nanoparticles 183
Senthil Kannan K., Prabhjeet Kaur Dhillon, Jemma Hermelin Jesy Diaz, Padmavathi P., Flora G., Irudhya Sahaya Lancy S., Jeeva Rani Thangam G. and Sheeba M.

11.1 Introduction 184

11.2 Antibacterial Activity 185

11.3 XRD and Magnetic Effect 186

11.4 Tribological Data for Nano Sample Coatings of ZnO-MIZN 189

11.5 Filter Utility 189

11.6 Conclusion 190

References 190

12 Nanotubular Device Effect, Super Cell Effectiveness, Hirshfeld Energy Analysis and Biomedicinal Efficacy of 2-Fluoro-5-Nitro-Aniline (2F5NA) Crystals 195
Flora G., Munikumari A., Sheeba M., Jemma Hermelin Jesy Diaz, Senthil Kannan K., Ponrathy T., Muthu Sheeba M. and Joshua Steve Abishek B.

12.1 Introduction 196

12.2 XRD and Computational 197

12.3 Bioutility 207

12.3.1 Antibacterial of 2F5NA Crystals 207

12.4 Conclusion 208

References 208

13 Nano, Peptide Link, Pharma Impact and Electron Density of AMPHB Macro, Nano Crystalline Samples 213
Senthil Kannan K., Dayana Lobo F., Gayathri A., Prathebha K., Jacintha Tamil Malar A., Maria Sumathi B., Flora G. and Egbert Selwin Rose A.

13.1 Introduction 214

13.2 Characterizations 215

13.2.1 XRD and Computational Impactness 215

13.2.2 Antidiabetic (AD), Anti-Inflammatory (AI), and Anti-Fungal (AF) Effect of AMPHB Macro and Nano Crystals 219

13.3 Conclusion 220

References 221

14 Super Lattice, Computational Interactions and Bio-Uses of CPDMDP Crystals 227
Flora G., Christy S., Shobana V., Divya R., Jemma Hermelin Jesy Diaz, Pauline Jenifer S., Senthil Kannan K. and Jacintha Tamil Malar A.

14.1 Introduction 228

14.2 Computational 229

14.3 Synthesis 234

14.4 XRD 234

14.5 Influx of CPDMDP of Both Scales 235

14.6 Antidiabetic Activity of Macro, Nano CPDMDP Crystals 235

14.7 Antioxidant Activity 236

14.8 Conclusion 237

References 237

15 Biological Effect Nanotubular, Vanderwall's Impact, of 4-Methyl-2-Nitroaniline (4M2NA) Nanocrystals 243
Senthil Kannan K., Pauline Jenifer S., Divya R., Raju K., Gayathri A., Jemma Hermelin Jesy Diaz, Maria Sumathi B. and Flora G.

15.1 Introduction 244

15.2 XRD and Computational Data 245

15.3 Biological Activity: Antidiabetic (AD), Anti-Inflammatory (AI), and Antifungal (AF) Effect 251

15.4 Conclusion, Outlook, and Future Aspects 251

References 251

16 Biomedical, Tribological, and Electronic Functionalities of Silver Nanoparticles 257
Flora G., Ganesan H., Maalmarugan J., Egbert Selwin Rose A., Dayana Lobo F., Divya R., Senthil Kannan K. and Sheeba M.

16.1 Introduction 258

16.2 Tribological Data 258

16.3 Influx 259

16.4 HeLa Cell Line, Bacterial and Fungal Utility 259

16.5 Conclusion 260

References 261

17 Commercialization of Nanovaccines: Utopia or a Reality? 267
Amjad Islam Aqib, Tean Zaheer, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Arslan and Khazeena Atta

17.1 Introduction 268

17.2 Development of Nanovaccines 270

17.3 Novel Adjuvants and Delivery System for Nanovaccines 270

17.4 Success Story 272

17.5 Nanovaccines in Human Health 273

17.6 Nanovaccines in Animal Health 274

17.7 Constraints in the Development and Application 276

17.8 Issues Related to Product Application 277

17.9 Characteristics of Nanoparticles Applicable to Public Health 278

17.10 Conclusion 279

References 280

18 Functionalization of Nanobiomaterials in Nanovaccinology 283
Jyothy G. Vijayan

Abbreviations 283

18.1 Introduction 284

18.2 Characteristics of Functionalized Bionanoparticles 285

18.3 Functionalization of NPs 285

18.3.1 Functionalization With Different Ligands 285

18.3.2 Polymer Functionalized NPs 286

18.4 Nanomaterials for Vaccine Synthesis 286

18.4.1 Gold NPS 286

18.4.2 Silica NPs 286

18.4.3 Calcium NPs 286

18.4.4 Polymeric NPs 286

18.4.5 Inorganic Magnetic NPs 287

18.4.6 Chitosan NPs 287

18.4.7 Liposomal NPs 287

18.5 Role of the Surface of NPs on Vaccine Development 288

18.6 Nanovaccines: Routes of Administration 288

18.6.1 Intradermal Routes 288

18.6.2 Intramuscular Routes 289

18.6.3 Subcutaneous Routes 289

18.6.4 Oral Routes 289

18.6.5 Nasal Routes 289

18.6.6 Tropical Routes 289

18.6.7 Ocular Routes 289

18.7 Nanovaccines for Different Applications 290

18.7.1 Nanovaccines Against Bacteria 290

18.7.2 Nanovaccines Against Pathogens 290

18.7.3 Nanovaccines Against Viruses 290

18.7.4 Nanovaccines Against Parasites 290

18.7.5 Nanovaccines Against Cancer 291

18.8 Emulsions 291

18.9 Nanogels 291

18.10 Virus-Like Particles (VLP) 292

18.11 Applications of Novel Nanovaccines 293

18.12 Applications of Functionalized Nanovaccines 293

18.12.1 For Cancer Therapy 293

18.12.2 Against Different Infectious Diseases 294

18.13 Pros and Cons of Using Vaccines 294

18.13.1 Toxicity of NPs 294

18.14 Future Aspects 295

18.15 Conclusions 295

References 296

19 Oral Nanovaccines Delivery for Clinical Trials and Commercialization 301
Dominic Augustine, Pushpalatha C., Sowmya S.V., Chhaya Kumar, Elizabeth AbbuVarghese and Gayathri V.S.

19.1 Introduction 302

19.2 Barriers to Oral Vaccines 302

19.3 Evolution of Oral Nanovaccines 304

19.4 Oral Delivery of Nanovaccines 305

19.5 Immune Response to Oral Nanovaccines 306

19.6 Oral Nanovaccines Carriers 307

19.6.1 Natural Nanovaccine Carriers 307

19.6.2 Synthetic Nanovaccine Carriers 308

19.7 Formulation Strategies and Characterization of Oral Nanovaccines 310

19.8 Regulations and Challenges for Oral Nanovaccines Delivery 312

19.9 Future Perspectives 314

19.10 Conclusion 314

References 315

Index 319
Kaushik Pal received his PhD from the University of Kalyani. India in 2014. He is now at the University Centre for Research and Development (UCRD), Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Mohali, Punjab. He has published more than 120 research articles in international journals as well as 23 books. He was recently awarded Honoris Causa Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) from Higher National Youth Skills Institute (IKTBN) Sepang, Govt. of Malaysia as well as the Gold Medal awarded by the Prime Minister of Malaysia.