John Wiley & Sons Fundamentals of Applied Pathophysiology for Paramedics Cover An essential introduction to pathophysiology for paramedics Paramedics are specialists in out-of-ho.. Product #: 978-1-119-86280-2 Regular price: $41.96 $41.96 Auf Lager

Fundamentals of Applied Pathophysiology for Paramedics

Peate, Ian / Sawyer, Simon (Herausgeber)

Fundamentals

Cover

1. Auflage April 2024
464 Seiten, Softcover
Lehrbuch

ISBN: 978-1-119-86280-2
John Wiley & Sons

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An essential introduction to pathophysiology for paramedics

Paramedics are specialists in out-of-hospital emergency healthcare; they are also capable of operating as generalist clinicians whose work is indispensable in a variety of healthcare settings. The response to the COVID-19 pandemic, especially, has revealed the versatility of the paramedic workforce. Contemporary paramedic practice continues to break new ground as the workforce is called upon to undertake critical roles in support of the wider healthcare sector. However, to perform their crucial work paramedics require a strong understanding of pathophysiology to enable them to make rapid and effective clinical decisions.

Fundamentals of Applied Pathophysiology for Paramedics is a comprehensive introduction to this subject for aspiring, early-career, and experienced paramedics. This textbook links theory to practice and supports high-quality care in dynamic, fast-paced environments. Drawing on the latest available evidence and clinical best practice, it promises to support current paramedics, and prepare student paramedics for their future as healthcare professionals.
* User-friendly organisation of topics broken down by body systems
* Detailed discussion of patient-focused issues, common and specialised diseases, and more
* Physiological and psychological alerts to aid in diagnosis and response

Fundamentals of Applied Pathophysiology for Paramedics is ideal for all paramedic students and early career paramedics.

Contributors xiv

About the Editors xviii

Preface xix

Acknowledgements xxi

Chapter 1 Learning the Language: Terminology 1
Ian Peate

Introduction 1

Anatomy and Physiology 2

Anatomy 2

Physiology 8

Terminology 10

Pathophysiology 11

The Determinants of Health 14

Using a Medical Dictionary, Hints and Tips 15

Summary 17

References 17

Further Reading 18

Online Resources 18

Glossary 18

Multiple Choice Questions 18

Chapter 2 Cell and Body Tissue Physiology 20
Terry Dore and Ian Peate

Introduction 20

Cell Anatomy and Function 21

The Cell Membrane 22

The Cytoplasm 23

The Nucleus 23

Cellular Reproduction 24

Differentiation 26

Cellular Organelles 26

Body Tissues 28

The Ageing Process 29

Summary 30

References 30

Further Reading 31

Online Resources 31

Glossary 31

Multiple Choice Questions 32

Chapter 3 Homeostasis 34
Sadie Diamond- Fox and Alexandra Gatehouse

Introduction 34

Homeostatic Mechanisms 35

Thermoregulation 36

Blood Glucose Homeostasis 38

Arterial Blood Pressure Homeostasis 41

Plasma Osmolality and Electrolyte Homeostasis 42

Acid-Base Homeostasis 45

Blood Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide Homeostasis 45

Summary 48

References 48

Further Reading 49

Online Resources 49

Glossary 49

Multiple Choice Questions 50

Chapter 4 Trauma and Inflammation 52
Kylie Kendrick and Scott Stewart

Introduction 52

Pathophysiology of Trauma and Inflammation 54

Management 57

Summary 61

References 61

Further Reading 64

Online Resources 64

Glossary 64

Multiple Choice Questions 66

Chapter 5 Shock 68
Matt Wilkinson- Stokes

Introduction 68

Shock 69

Pathophysiology of Shock 70

Burn Shock 76

Stages of Shock 78

Identification of Shock 81

Management of Shock 82

Summary 85

Acknowledgement 86

References 86

Online Resources 87

Glossary 87

Multiple Choice Questions 87

Chapter 6 The Nervous System and Its Associated Disorders 89
Tom E. Mallinson

Introduction 89

Central Nervous System 90

Peripheral Nervous System 97

Disorders of the Nervous System 101

Traumatic Brain Injury 102

Stroke 111

Dementia 113

Seizures and Epilepsy 117

Summary 120

References 120

Further Reading 121

Online Resources 122

Glossary 122

Multiple Choice Questions 123

Chapter 7 The Cardiovascular System and Its Associated Disorders 125
Tom E. Mallinson

Introduction 125

Gross Anatomy 126

Cardiac Cycle 129

Diseases of the Heart 134

Electrical 143

Diseases of the Vasculature 145

Summary 146

References 146

Further Reading 147

Online Resources 147

Glossary 148

Multiple Choice Questions 149

Chapter 8 The Blood and Associated Disorders 151
David Yore

Introduction 151

Functions of Blood 152

Composition of Blood 152

Blood Groups 155

White Blood Cells 156

Haemostasis 158

Areas of Internal Bleeding of Concern 161

Care and Management of Internal Bleeding 163

Anaemia 166

Sepsis 169

External Considerations 170

Intracranial Bleeding 170

Leukaemia 171

Haemophilia 172

Summary 173

References 174

Further Reading 174

Online Resources 174

Glossary 175

Multiple Choice Questions 176

Chapter 9 The Renal System and Associated Disorders 178
Liam Rooney

Introduction 178

Kidneys 179

Regulating Blood Pressure: the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 182

Ureters 183

Urinary Bladder 184

Urethra 185

Disorders of the Renal System 186

Renal Calculi 186

Urinary Tract Infections 190

Glomerular Disease 192

Diabetic Nephropathy 192

Acute Kidney Injury 193

Chronic Kidney Disease 193

Tumours 194

Ageing and the Renal System 195

Trauma 195

Summary 195

References 196

Further Reading 196

Online Resources 196

Glossary 197

Multiple Choice Questions 197

Chapter 10 The Respiratory System and Associated Disorders 199
Ian Macleod and Simon Sawyer

Introduction 200

Anatomy and Physiology 201

Disease Processes of the Respiratory System 205

Summary 215

References 215

Further Reading 216

Online Resources 216

Glossary 216

Multiple Choice Questions 217

Chapter 11 The Gastrointestinal System and Associated Disorders 219
Ian Peate and Neil Coleman

Introduction 220

Components of the Gastrointestinal System 221

Conditions of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract 227

Conditions of the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract 229

The Acute Abdomen 231

Accessory Organs 232

Summary 236

References 237

Further Reading 237

Online Resources 237

Glossary 237

Multiple Choice Questions 238

Chapter 12 The Endocrine System and Associated Disorders 240
Sadie Diamond- Fox and Alexandra Gatehouse

Introduction 241

Physiology of the Endocrine System 241

Hormones 241

Control of Hormones 245

Introduction to Common Endocrine Pathologies 247

Clinical Features of Endocrine Disorders 247

Pituitary Disorders 247

Thyroid Disorders 249

Parathyroid Disorders 253

Adrenal Disorders 253

Pancreatic Disorders 256

Summary 260

References 260

Further Reading 260

Online Resources 261

Glossary 261

Multiple Choice Questions 261

Chapter 13 The Reproductive Systems and Associated Disorders 263
Tim Millington and Aimee Yarrington

The Female Reproductive System 264

Antepartum Haemorrhage 274

The Male Reproductive System 276

Summary 287

References 287

Further Reading 289

Online Resources 289

Glossary 289

Multiple Choice Questions 289

Chapter 14 Pain 291
Rory Prevett

Introduction 291

The Physiology and Pathophysiology of Pain 292

Nociceptor Transduction 293

Transmission 293

Modulation 293

Perception 295

Pain Theories 296

Pathophysiology 297

Pain Assessment 300

Adult Assessment 300

Paediatric Assessment 303

The Biopsychosocial Approach 306

Pain Management 306

Summary 310

References 310

Further Reading 311

Online Resources 311

Glossary 311

Multiple Choice Questions 311

Chapter 15 The Musculoskeletal System and Associated Disorders 313
George Bell- Starr and Ashley Ingram

Introduction 313

The Musculoskeletal System 314

Bone Development and Structure 314

Joints 316

Muscle 318

The Nervous System 319

Common Musculoskeletal Presentations 319

Lower Back Pain 321

Arthritis 321

Osteoporosis 322

Assessing Musculoskeletal Presentations 323

Treating Musculoskeletal Presentations 325

Summary 328

References 328

Further Reading 329

Online Resources 329

Glossary 329

Multiple Choice Questions 330

Chapter 16 Fluid, Electrolyte Balance and Associated Disorders 332
Noleen P. Jones

Introduction 332

Body Fluid Compartments 333

Composition of Body Fluid 333

Body Fluid Balance 334

Osmosis 335

Electrolytes 336

Diffusion 337

Hormones That Regulate Fluid and Electrolytes 337

Oedema 339

Pulmonary Oedema 339

Peripheral Oedema 340

Disorders Associated with Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance 340

Nausea and Vomiting 343

Nausea 343

Vomiting 343

Clinical Investigations 346

Caring for the Patient with Oedema 346

Pulmonary Oedema 347

Peripheral Oedema 348

Summary 350

References 351

Further Reading 351

Online Resources 352

Glossary of Terms 352

Multiple Choice Questions 353

Chapter 17 The Skin and Associated Disorders 355
Melanie Stephens and Derek Fox

Introduction 356

Anatomy and Physiology 356

Function of the Skin 361

Wound Healing 361

Assessment 362

Wound Assessment 366

Skin Infections: Viral, Bacterial and Fungal 367

Generalised Pustular Psoriasis 369

Wounds 369

Types of Wounds 370

Factitious/Iatrogenic/Self- Harm Wounds 372

Summary 375

References 376

Further Reading 377

Online Resources 377

Glossary 377

Multiple Choice Questions 378

Chapter 18 The Ears and Eyes 380
Carl Clare

Introduction 380

The Senses of Equilibrium and Hearing 381

The Structure of the Ear 381

Equilibrium 384

Hearing 384

Disorders of the Ear 388

Ménière's Disease 391

The Sense of Sight 392

Lacrimal Apparatus 394

The Eye 394

The Processing of Visual Information 399

Disorders of the Eye 399

Summary 402

References 403

Further Reading 403

Online Resources 403

Glossary 404

Multiple Choice Questions 404

Chapter 19 Death and Dying 406
Sarah Lumley and Simon Sawyer

Introduction 406

The Process of Dying 407

The Grieving Process 408

Palliative Care 409

Advance Decision to Refuse Treatment 409

Assisted Dying 411

Sudden Unexpected Death in Paediatrics 411

Paramedic Management of Death and Dying 412

Summary 417

References 418

Further Reading 419

Online Resources 419

Glossary 419

Multiple Choice Questions 420

Multiple Choice Answers 422

Index 430
ABOUT THE EDITORS

Ian Peate is Visiting Professor of Nursing at St George's University of London and Kingston University London; Visiting Professor, Northumbria University; Senior Clinical Fellow, University of Hertfordshire; Professorial Fellow, University of Roehampton; Editor-in-Chief of the British Journal of Nursing, Consultant Editor of the Journal of Paramedic Practice, and Consultant Editor of the International Journal of Advancing Practice.

Dr. Simon Sawyer is the Director of Education at the Australian Paramedical College in Queensland, Australia. Simon has worked as an Advanced Life Support Paramedic since 2012. Simon completed a PhD in Paramedicine and holds an Adjunct Senior Lecturer position with the Paramedicine Department at Griffith University.

I. Peate, University of Hertfordshire, UK; S. Sawyer, Australian Paramedical College, Queensland; Griffith University, Australia