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Fundamentals of Public Communication Campaigns

Matusitz, Jonathan


1. Auflage September 2022
576 Seiten, Softcover

ISBN: 978-1-119-87807-0
John Wiley & Sons

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The most comprehensive and up-to-date textbook on public communication campaigns currently available

Fundamentals of Public Communication Campaigns provides students and practitioners with the theoretical and practical knowledge needed to create and implement effective messaging campaigns for an array of real-world scenarios. Assuming no prior expertise in the subject, this easily accessible textbook clearly describes more than 700 essential concepts of public communication campaigns. Numerous case studies illustrate real-world media campaigns, such as those promoting COVID-19 vaccinations and social distancing, campaigns raising awareness of LGBTQ+ issues, entertainment and Hollywood celebrity campaigns, and social activist initiatives including the #MeToo movement and Black Lives Matter (BLM).

Opening with a thorough introduction to the fundamentals of public communication campaigns, the text examines a wide array of different health communication campaigns, social justice and social change campaigns, and counter-radicalization campaigns. Readers learn about the theoretical foundations of public communication campaigns, the roles of persuasion and provocation, how people's attitudes can be changed through fear appeals, the use of ethnographic research in designing campaigns, the ethical principles of public communication campaigns, the potential negative effects of public messaging, and much more.
* Describes each of the 10 steps of public communication campaigns, from defining the topic and setting objectives to developing optimal message content and updating the campaign with timely and relevant information
* Covers public communication campaigns from the United States as well as 25 other countries, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, India, Israel, Singapore, South Korea, and the United Kingdom
* Offers a template for creating or adapting messages for advertising, public relations, health, safety, entertainment, social justice, animal rights, and many other scenarios
* Incorporates key theories such as the Diffusion of Innovations (DoI) theory, social judgment theory (SJT), the Health Belief Model (HBM), social cognitive theory (SCT), and self-determination theory (SDT)
* Includes in-depth case studies of communication campaigns of Islamophobia, antisemitism, white supremacism, and violent extremism.

Fundamentals of Public Communication Campaigns is the perfect textbook for undergraduate students across the social sciences and the humanities, and a valuable resource for general readers with interest in the subject.

Introduction 1

Public Communication Campaigns 1

Changes in the Media Landscape 2

What This Textbook Offers 2

A Comprehensive Focus 3

An Easy Focus 3

An International Focus 3

A Practical Focus 4

A Theoretical Focus 4

Summary of All Chapters 5

Notes 7

Part I Introducing Public Communication Campaigns 9

Chapter 1 Definitions, Strategies, and Background Information 11

What Are Public Communication Campaigns? 11

A Method of Reform and Governance 12

Public Communication Campaigns vs. Advertising 12

Two Main Types of Public Communication Campaigns 12

Communication 13

Definitions 13

Communication as a Mediator of Social Change 14

Community-Based and Interpersonal Communication 14

Messaging 15

The "Public" Aspect of Campaigns 15

Public Communication 16

Public Sphere 16

Segmented Communication 17

Personal Messaging 17

Focal Segments 18

Experiential Identity 19

Diffusion of Innovations (DoI): An Introduction 19

Five Steps of Diffusion 19

Four Elements of DoI 20

Diffusion of Innovations (DoI): Social Capital 21

Social Network Analysis 21

Centralized, Decentralized, and All-Channel Networks 21

Case Study: The Guy-to-Guy Project 22

Diffusion of Innovations (DoI): Opinion Leadership 23

Friends and Colleagues as Opinion Leaders 23

Social Influencers in the Internet Era 24

Public Communication Campaigns in History 24

Case Study 1: The United States 25

Case Study 2: The Temperance Movement 26

Case Study 3: Singapore 27

Current Strategies of Communication Campaigns 28

Social Marketing 28

Marketing Perspectives 29

Five Types of Social Marketing 29

Social Norms Marketing 30

Social Norms 31

Types of Social Norms 32

Peer Groups 33

Third-Person Effect 33

The Theory of Planned Behavior 34

Notes 35

Chapter 2 The 10 Steps of Public Communication Campaigns 47

Step 1: Define and Select Your Topic 48

Step 2: Set Goals and Objectives 49

Step 3: Analyze and Understand the Situation Beforehand 50

Planning 50

Formative Research 51

Communication Design 51

Step 4: Define Your Audience(s) 52

Audience Analysis 52

Audience Beliefs 53

Audience Values 54

Audience Needs 54

Audience Adaptation 55

Audience Perception 55

Step 5: Understand the Timeline and Budget 56

Allocating the Budget 57

Government Funding 57

Step 6: Choose Appropriate Media 58

What Medium to Use? 58

Media Advocacy 58

Audience Engagement on Social Networks 59

Building a Website for the Campaign? 60

Uses & Gratifications (U&G) Theory 61

Step 7: Develop Optimal Message Content 62

Keep the Message Simple 62

Emphasize Benefits over Risks 63

Avoid Confusion 63

Copyright and Intellectual Property Issues 63

Step 8: Avoid Monologic Communication and Interact with Your Audience(s) 64

Monologic Communication 64

Dialogic Communication 64

Communal Mindset 65

Step 9: Update the Campaign with Timely, Relevant, and Accurate Information 66

Boost the Confidence to Make Changes 66

Update Campaign Memes 67

Step 10: Evaluate the Overall Campaign 67

What Is Meant by "Evaluation"? 67

Beginning at the Outset of the Campaign 69

Different Platforms for Evaluation 69

Notes 70

Chapter 3 Persuasion in Public Communication Campaigns 80

Three Types of Messages 81

Three Paths of Persuasion 81

Logos, Pathos, and Ethos 82

Logos 82

Pathos 82

Ethos 83

Behavior Change Communication (BCC) 83

Behavioral Intention 84

Belief Change 84

Priming 85

Repeated Exposure 85

Self-Affirmation Theory 86

The Three Components 86

Self-Integrity 86

The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) 87

Central Route 87

Peripheral Route 88

The Transtheoretical Model 88

The Five Stages 88

Application to the Struggles of Obesity 89

Understanding Attitude 89

Attitude Object 90

Attitude Change 90

Ego 91

Social Judgment Theory (SJT) 91

The Three-Part Latitude 92

Persuasion as a Two-Stage Process 92

Attitude Accessibility Theory 92

Examples 93

Biased Message Processing 93

Expectancy Theory 94

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 94

Three Components of Expectancy Theory 94

The 10 Ethical Principles of Public Communication Campaigns 95

1--Ethical Campaigners Are Factual 95

2--Ethical Campaigners Are Honest 96

3--Ethical Campaigners Act with Integrity 96

4--Ethical Campaigners Balance the Message 96

5--Ethical Campaigners Demonstrate Respect 97

6--Ethical Campaigners Give Informed Choices 97

7--Ethical Campaigners Do Not Violate Individuals' Autonomy 98

8--Ethical Campaigners Avoid Conflicts of Interests 98

9-- E thical Campaigners Avoid Unnecessarily Privileging One Group over Another 98

10--Ethical Campaigners Are Responsible 98

Persuasive Effects of Public Communication Campaigns 99

Five Positive Effects of Public Communication Campaigns 99

Unintended Effects 101

Indirect Routes 101

The 12 Negative Effects of Public Communication Campaigns 102

1--Low External Locus of Control 102

2--Messages that Produce the Opposite Behavior 103

3--Reactance 104

4--Widening Disparity 105

5--Opportunity Cost 105

6--Enabling 105

7--Loss of Self-Esteem 106

8--Less Enjoyment 106

9--Culpability 107

10--Increased Danger to One's Health 107

11--Misunderstanding 108

12--Desensitization 108

Notes 109

Chapter 4 Thought-Provoking Public Communication Campaigns 121

The Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) 122

Past Research 122

The EPPM as a Process Model 123

Sensation Seeking 123

High-Sensation Seekers 124

Sensation Seeking Targeting (SENTAR) 124

Case Study 125

Sensation Value 125

Effects of Alarmist Language 126

Negative Effects: Case Studies 126

Nonconsequentialism: An Argument against Alarmist Language 127

Visual Materials 128

Responsive Chord 128

Vivid Information 129

Case Study: Climate Communication Campaigns 129

Provocation: Definitions 129

Case Study: Antismoking Campaigns in England 131

Shockvertising 131

Controversial, Troubling, Explicit, and Crass 131

Selective Perception Theory 132

Perceptual Defense and the Salience Effect 132

Framing Theory 133

Framing a Campaign 133

Gain-Framed vs. Loss-Framed Messages 134

Case Study: People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) 135

PETA as an Organization 135

Techniques and Communications 136

PETA's Campaigns 136

Campaign #1: "I'd Rather Go Naked Than Wear Fur" 137

Women as Headline-Grabbers 137

Female Sexuality and Female Bodies 137

Campaign #2: "Holocaust on Your Plate" 138

Holocaust, Animals, and Himmler 139

Personhood 140

Criticism 140

Describing PETA's Campaigns through Self-Efficacy Theory and Inoculation Theory 141

Notes 142

Part II Health Communication Campaigns 153

Chapter 5 Health Communication Campaigns: General Perspectives 155

Perceptions of Health over Time 156

Public Health 156

Communication Tools 157

Goals and Strategies 157

Noncommercial Aims 158

How Effective Are Health Communication Campaigns? 158

Perceptions of Mass Media Messages about Health 159

Five-Step Strategy for Better Health Communication Campaigns 160

Antismoking Campaigns 162

The Health Belief Model (HBM) 162

The Negative Effects of Stigmatizing Smokers in Campaigns 163

Case Study: The truth Campaign 164

"Finish It" 164

Methods 165

truth's Most Recognized Media 166

Effects of the truth Campaign 167

Costs of the Campaign 167

Bar-Based Interventions 167

Harm Reduction Campaigns 168

Campaigns to Legalize Prostitution 168

Case Study: DanceSafe 169

Criticism of Harm Reduction Campaigns 169

Case Study: HIV Campaigns in South Africa 170

HIV Campaigns 171

World AIDS Day 171

Case Study: Examining Social Determinants of Health (SDH) and ABC Behaviors in Uganda 172

Risky Sexual Behaviors 173

ABC Behaviors 173

ABC Behaviors Campaign in Uganda 174

Tackling Gender Inequities 175

Situation Today 175

Fisheries 176

Case Study: The "Clean India Mission" Campaign 176

Notes 177

Chapter 6 Differences in Literacy and Culture in Health Campaigns 189

Health Literacy 190

Four Message Characteristics 190

eHealth and the Digital Divide 191

Bridging the Digital Divide 192

E-Inclusion 192

Case Study: UNICEF's Reimagine Education Campaign 193

Bridging the Digital Divide 193

Examples across the World 194

Facing Cultural Barriers 194

Antismoking Campaigns 195

Understanding Culture-Specific Interpretations 195

Case Study: Jamaica 196

Patois or Creole 197

The Health Literacy Problem 197

Targeted Community Intervention (TCI) for HIV/AIDS 197

Interventions through Oral Culture 198

The Five Attributes of Culture 199

Habitus 200

Structure 200

Socially Constructed and Historically Transmitted 200

Software of the Mind 201

Learned 202

Case Study: Gerber in Africa 202

Differences within Africa 203

Considering the Broader Picture and Formative Research 203

Case Study: A Case for Cultural Competency 204

Cultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skill 204

Reducing Cross-Cultural Misunderstandings 205

Ethnographic Considerations for Health Campaigns 205

Participant Observation 206

Discovering Symbolic Cultures 207

Implications for Health Communication Campaigns 207

Notes 208

Chapter 7 Public Communication Campaigns during the COVID-19 Pandemic 217

COVID-19: Definitions and Facts 218

The Great Lockdown 219

Suicides, Mental Health Disorders, and Alcoholism 219

Risk Communication 220

Risk Communication vs. Crisis Communication 221

Strategic Communication 221

Infodemic Management 222

Strategies for COVID-19 Communication Campaigns 222

Early Campaigns as Infodemic Management 223

The 12 Principles of Social Distancing Campaigns 223

Case Study: Vietnam 226

Quick and Appropriate Response 227

"Jealous Coronavirus" Video 227

Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) 228

Consistent, Truthful Messages 229

Messages of Unity and Community Responsibility 230

COVID-19 Vaccination Campaigns 230

Vaccination-Driven Campaigns 231

Avoiding Manufacturing Consent 232

The Threat of Vaccine Hesitancy 232

Case Study: Israel 233

Public Communication Campaigns 234

Ultra-Orthodox Jews as Change Agents 235

Arab Communities in Israel 235

Countercampaign: Anti-Vaxxers 236

Anti-Vaxxers 236

The Role of Social Media 237

Notes 238

Chapter 8 Entertainment-Education, Digital Games, and Celebrity Campaigns 249

Behavioral and Social Change 250

Social Impact Entertainment (SIE) 251

Case Studies 251

EE in the United States 252

EE in the Latino World 252

EE in Africa 253

EE in Asia 254

Narrative Involvement 254

The Sabido Methodology 255

Identification and Wishful Identification 255

Perceived Similarity 256

Parasocial Interaction 256

Liking 257

Markers 258

Digital Games as Health Communication Campaigns 258

Gamification 259

Games for Health Promotion Programs 259

Game Features 259

Games for Change (GfC), Serious Games, and Persuasive Games 260

Serious Games 260

Persuasive Games 261

Self-Determination Theory (SDT) 262

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 262

Autonomy 263

Competence 263

Relatedness 264

Dasein 264

Celebrity Health Campaigns 265

Celebrities' Participation 266

Public Service Announcement (PSAs) 266

Case Study: Prince William's Mental Health Campaign 267

The Heads Up Campaign 267

The Heads Together Campaign 268

Impact of Celebrity Health Disclosure 268

The Kylie Effect 269

The Selena Effect 270

Notes 270

Part III Communication Campaigns For Social Justice and Social Change 285

Chapter 9 Social Justice and Social Change 287

What Is Social Justice? 287

Social Movements 288

Social Justice Warriors (SJWs)? 289

The Ultimate Objective of Social Justice Campaigns: Social Change 289

What Is Social Change? 290

Manifestations of Social Change 290

Case Study 1: Campaign against Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Africa 291

Statistics 292

The End FGM/C Social Change Campaign 292

Communicating Facts to the Public 293

Advocating for Human Rights 293

Absolute Rights and Natural Rights 294

Conscientization 294

Critical Questioning 295

Citizen Participation 295

Case Study 2: Campaign against Honor Killing in Pakistan 296

Beyond Individual Family Matters and across Cultures 296

Humanity Healing International's Campaign 296

Citizen Participation 297

Campaigning for Environmental Policies 297

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 298

Ecological Responsibility 299

Green Campaigns for Young Green Audiences 299

Nongovernmental Organizations 300

The Types of Nongovernmental Organizations 300

The Four Orientations 301

Notes 302

Chapter 10 The #MeToo Campaign 310

Sexual Misconduct: Key Terms and Definitions 310

Sexual Harassment and Rape Culture 311

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) 311

Sexual Misconduct: Statistics and Facts 312

Situation in the United States 312

Situation on US College Campuses 313

Situation in the US Workplace 313

The #MeToo Campaign: General Perspectives 314

The #MeToo Movement 314

Hashtag Activism and User Generated Content 315

The #MeToo Campaign: Positive Impact in the United States 315

Removing Perpetrators from Positions of Power 316

Impact on US Employer Disciplinary Practices 316

Impact on US College Campuses 317

Impact on US Legal Reforms 317

The #MeToo Campaign: Positive Impact around the World 318

Australia 318

South Korea 318

France, Sweden, and the UK 319

Theories: Spiral of Silence 319

A Platform for Women 320

Battling Long-Established Traditions 320

Theories: Muted Group Theory 321

Marginalized or Muted Groups 321

Case Study: China 322

Theories: Intimate Publicity, Epistemic Injustice, and Critical Race Feminism 322

Epistemic Injustice 323

Critical Race Feminism 324

Theories: Social Identity Theory 325

In-Groups vs. Out-Groups 325

Male vs. Female Perceptions of #MeToo 325

The #MeToo Campaign: Negative Impact 326

Egypt and China 326

The Danger of Passive Empathy 327

Notes 328

Chapter 11 Public Communication Campaigns for LGBTQ+ Communities 336

LGBTQ+: Key Terms and Definitions 337

Gender Expression and Gender Identity 337

Opposition and Homophobia 338

An Introduction to LGBTQ+ Campaigns 339

Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) and Institutional Actors 339

Signaling and Human Rights Language 340

Case Study 1: The GLAAD Campaigns 341

The "Be an Ally and a Friend" Campaign 342

The "Talking to the Middle" Campaign 343

GLAAD's Campaign through Televised Productions 343

Applying Agenda-Setting Theory to GLAAD's Campaigns 344

Implications for Campaigns 344

Making LGBTQ+ a Salient Issue 345

Queer Theory 346

Case Study 2: Campaign against Homophobia in Poland 346

Gay and Lesbian Organizations in Poland 346

Campaign against Homophobia 347

Challenging Ignorance 348

The Situation Today 349

Case Study 3: LGBTQ+ Campaigns in Brazil 349

The Situation Today 350

The Brazil without Homophobia Campaign 351

The Free & Equal Campaign 351

The Diversity in School Campaign 352

Notes 352

Chapter 12 Black Lives Matter Campaigns 360

Growth of a Movement 361

Roots in the Civil Rights Movement 361

George Floyd's Death 362

Black Lives Matter UK 362

BLM Campaigns: An Introduction 363

Framing a New Visual Rhetoric 363

Symbolic Representation 364

Campaign against Police Brutality 364

Three Types of Victimhood 365

Campaign Zero 365

Campaign against Systemic Racism 368

Campaign against the Unfair Justice System 368

Combating the Four Domains of Power 369

Denouncing Respectability Politics 370

A Note on BLM's Social Media Usage 370

Forming Coalitions with Like-Minded Activists 370

Slacktivism 371

Intersectionality: An Introduction 371

Rooted in Historical Marginalization 372

Embedded in Neo-Marxist and Feminist Scholarship 372

Allyship 373

Intersectionality and BLM 373

Case Study 1: Alicia Garza's Herstory Campaign 374

Case Study 2: The BLMTO Campaign 375

Standpoint Theory, Critical Race Theory, and Critical Social Justice 375

Critical Race Theory 376

Disagreement with Critical Race Theory 377

Critical Social Justice 378

Notes 378

Part IV Terrorist, Extremist, And Anti-Terrorist Communication Campaigns 389

Chapter 13 Terrorist Communication Campaigns: Two Major Case Studies 391

Violent Extremism, Radicalization, and Indoctrination 392

Radicalization 392

Indoctrination 393

Terrorist Communications 393

Terrorist vs. Traditional Communication Campaigns 394

Terrorist Communications until and after the Twenty-First Century 394

Case Study 1: The FARC in Colombia 395

The FARC's Ideology 396

The FARC's Structure 396

The FARC's Communications 397

Four Types of Audiences 397

La Voz de la Resistencia 398

Applying Speech Act Theory to the FARC's Public Communication Campaigns 398

Locutionary, Illocutionary, and Perlocutionary Acts 399

The Bolivarian Populist Campaign 399

Using Human Rights Language 400

The FARC's Propaganda 401

Institutional Theory and Organizational Legitimacy 402

The Deception of the Marquetalia Campaign 403

Case Study 2: The Rwanda Genocide 404

Why the Rwanda Genocide? 404

An Introduction to Radio Campaigns 405

Spreading Propaganda and Lies 405

Radio as "Truth-Teller" in Rwanda 406

Radio Machete 406

Kill-or-Be-Killed Frame 407

Valérie Bemeriki: Charismatic Broadcaster 408

Media System Dependency Theory 408

Euphemisms in the Radio Machete Campaign 409

Euphemisms: A Description 410

Euphemisms in Terrorism 410

Euphemisms in the Rwanda Genocide 411

Euphemisms for Killing 411

Euphemisms in Kinyarwanda 412

Euphemisms to Hurt Women 413

Notes 414

Chapter 14 Public Communication Campaigns of White Supremacism 426

A Violent Ideology 427

Statistics on Right-Wing Terrorism 427

Key Terms on White Supremacism 428

White Supremacist Campaigning through the Manosphere 429

The MGTOW Campaign 430

Global Participation 430

The Alt-Right 431

Leaderless Resistance 432

Case Study: "It's Okay to Be White" 432

Social Media Platforms 433

Different Locations 433

White Male Victimization Narratives 434

The Proud Boys 435

The Proud Boys' Ideology 435

The Proud Boys' Campaign Tactics 436

Case Study: The "2020 Voter Fraud" Campaign 437

Opponents to the November 2020 Election Results 438

The 2021 US Capitol Riots 439

QAnon 440

Group Polarization and Groupthink 441

Notes 442

Chapter 15 Public Communication Campaigns of Islamophobia and Antisemitism 451

Islamophobia: An Introduction 452

Origins of the Word 452

Current Definitions 453

Satirical Cartoons 453

Case Study 1: Islamophobia in India 454

Hindutva or Hindu Nationalism 454

The Persistence of Islamophobia 455

Islamophobia during the COVID-19 Pandemic in India: General Information 456

Fears of Islamic Revivalism 456

From Unfounded Anxieties to Othering 457

Public Communication Campaign of Islamophobic Hashtags 457

#CoronaJihad 458

#TablighiJamatVirus 458

Disastrous Consequences 459

An Application of Terror Management Theory (TMT) 459

Cultural Survival through Prejudice 460

TMT and Islamophobia 460

Antisemitism: An Introduction 461

Antisemitic Ideology and Prejudice 461

Scapegoating and False Accusations 462

Holocaust Denial 463

Case Study 2: Antisemitism in Hungary 463

Past Perspectives 464

Contemporary Perspectives 464

The "Christian-National" Campaign in Hungary 465

A Reminiscence of Hungarian Complicity in the Holocaust 466

Hate Communication Campaigns 466

Intertextuality 467

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion 468

Notes 469

Chapter 16 Antiterrorist Public Communication Campaigns 476

Winning the War of Ideas 477

Counterradicalization Campaigns 477

Counterradicalization vs. Deradicalization 478

The "Soft Power" Approach 478

Moving to the Online Space 479

The Terrorists' YouTube Effect 480

Strategies for Pushing Back 480

Case Study 1: Exit USA 481

Case Study 2: Exit Norway 483

Case Study 3: Building Community Resilience 484

Community Resilience 484

Building Community Resilience 485

Case Study 4: Average Mohamed 486

Targeting Muslim Youths 486

Emphasizing the Self, Not the Other 487

Case Study 5: Saudi Arabia's Prevention Campaigns 488

Prevention, Rehabilitation, and After Care (PRAC) 489

The Sakinah Campaign 489

Case Study 6: Antiterrorism through Entertainment-Education (EE)

in the Middle East 490

Case Study 7: Say No to Terror 491

Rejecting Violence 492

Exposing Jihadism through Videos 492

Case Study 8: Reparation Campaigns in Australia 493

Aboriginal Australians Today 493

Racist Violence and Indirect Terrorism 493

Reparation Campaigns 494

Study by Donovan and Leivers 495

The Mixed Results of Antiterrorist Communication Campaigns 495

Notes 496

Glossary 505

Index 541
JONATHAN MATUSITZ is Associate Professor in the Nicholson School of Communication and Media at the University of Central Florida. His research focuses on the role of communication in terrorism, symbolism in terrorism, the globalization of culture, and health communication. He is the author of more than 150 academic publications and six academic books on terrorism. Dr. Matusitz has delivered presentations on terrorism to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement, the Department of Homeland Security, the Transportation Security Administration, and other law enforcement agencies.