John Wiley & Sons Power Systems Cover Fresh perspective on power systems, dealing with uncertainty, power electronics, and electricity mar.. Product #: 978-1-394-19950-1 Regular price: $114.02 $114.02 Auf Lager

Power Systems

Fundamental Concepts and the Transition to Sustainability

Kirschen, Daniel S.

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1. Auflage April 2024
336 Seiten, Hardcover
Lehrbuch

ISBN: 978-1-394-19950-1
John Wiley & Sons

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Fresh perspective on power systems, dealing with uncertainty, power electronics, and electricity markets

Power Systems is a highly accessible textbook on a subject that helps students understand how power systems work and the fundamental constraints that guide its operation and design. In a rapidly developing field, this unique approach equips readers to understand why things might be done in a certain way to help develop new solutions to modern problems.

To aid in reader comprehension, the text contains examples that reinforce the understanding of the fundamental concepts, informative and attractive illustrations, and problems of increasing levels of difficulty.

An accompanying website includes a complete solution manual, teaching slides, and open-source simulation tools and a variety of examples, exercises, and projects of various levels of difficulty.

Written by a leading figure in the power system community with a strong track record of writing for the student reader, Power Systems covers some important classical topics, such as the modeling of components, power flow, fault calculations, and stability. In addition, it includes:
* A detailed discussion of the demand for electricity and how it affects the operation of power systems.
* An overview of the various forms of conventional and renewable energy conversion.
* A primer on modern power electronic power conversion.
* A careful analysis of the technical and economic issues involved in load generation balancing.
* An introduction to electricity markets.

With its up-to-date, accessible, and highly comprehensive coverage, Power Systems is an ideal textbook for various courses on power systems, such as Power Systems Design and Operation, Introduction to Electric Power Systems, Power System Analysis, and Power System Operation and Economics.

Preface xiii

Nomenclature xv

About the Companion Website xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 What is a Power System? 1

1.2 What are the Attributes of a Good Power System? 1

1.3 Structure of a Power System 2

1.3.1 Physical Structure 2

1.3.2 Cyber Infrastructure 4

1.3.3 Organizational Structure 5

1.4 Historical Evolution 5

Problems 7

2 Electrical Loads and the Demand for Electricity 9

2.1 Overview 9

2.2 Residential Loads 9

2.3 Commercial and Industrial Loads 12

2.4 Load Aggregation over a Large Region 13

2.5 What Factors Shape the Aggregated Load Profile in the Short Run? 14

2.6 What Affects the Aggregated Electrical Load in the Long Run? 17

2.7 Metering and Billing 19

2.8 Flexibility 20

2.9 Outages 21

2.10 Complex Power, Reactive Power, and Power Factor 22

2.11 Parallel Loads 24

Reference 27

Further Reading 27

Problems 27

3 Primary Energy Conversion 31

3.1 Overview 31

3.2 Wind Generation 31

3.2.1 How Much Power is There in the Wind? 31

3.2.2 How Does a Turbine Blade Extract Wind Power? 32

3.2.3 Controlling a Wind Turbine 33

3.2.4 Locating Wind Farms 34

3.2.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Generation 36

3.3 Thermal Generation 37

3.3.1 Concept of Heat Engine 37

3.3.2 Fossil-Fueled Steam Plants 38

3.3.3 Other Types of Steam Plants 39

3.3.3.1 Nuclear Power Plants 39

3.3.3.2 Concentrated Solar Power Plants 40

3.3.3.3 Geothermal Plants 40

3.3.3.4 Combined Heat and Power Plants - Cogeneration 40

3.3.4 Gas-Fired Generation 41

3.3.4.1 Open Cycle Gas Turbines (OCGT) 41

3.3.4.2 Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT) 41

3.3.5 Internal Combustion Engines 42

3.4 Hydroelectric Generation 42

3.4.1 Impoundment Hydro Plants 42

3.4.2 Diversion Hydro Plants 44

3.5 Photovoltaic Generation 44

3.6 Storage Systems 47

3.6.1 Pumped Hydro Plants 48

3.6.2 Electrochemical Batteries 48

3.6.3 Other Energy Storage Technologies 49

3.6.4 Applications of Energy Storage Systems 50

3.7 Choosing a Generation Technology 50

Further Reading 52

Problems 52

4 Electromechanical Power Conversion 57

4.1 Overview 57

4.2 Structure of a Generator 57

4.3 Three-Phase Systems 60

4.3.1 Advantages of Three-Phase Systems 60

4.3.2 Three-Phase Sources 60

4.3.3 Three-Phase Loads 63

4.3.3.1 Y-Connected Loads 64

4.3.3.2 Delta-Connected Loads 66

4.3.3.3 Delta-Y Equivalence 67

4.3.4 Powers in Three-Phase Systems 69

4.3.5 Single-Phase Representation and One-Line Diagrams 69

4.4 Per Unit System 70

4.4.1 Choosing Base Quantities in Single-Phase Systems 71

4.4.2 Choosing Base Quantities in Three-Phase Systems 71

4.4.3 Converting Per Unit Impedances 74

4.5 Synchronous Generator Model 75

4.6 Controlling an Isolated Synchronous Generator 76

4.7 Connecting a Generator to the Grid 77

4.8 Operating a Synchronized Generator 78

4.9 Synchronous Condenser 82

4.10 Generator Limits 82

Further Reading 84

Problems 85

5 Electronic Power Conversion 89

5.1 Overview 89

5.2 Switches 89

5.3 Voltage Source Converters 90

5.3.1 Single-Phase Voltage Source Converter 90

5.3.2 Converter Operation 92

5.3.3 Three-Phase Converter 94

5.4 Applications of Power Electronics in Power Systems 95

5.4.1 Battery Energy Storage 95

5.4.2 PV Generation 96

5.4.3 Type 4 Connection of a Wind Turbine 97

5.4.4 Type 3 Connection of a Wind Turbine 98

5.4.5 High-Voltage dc Links (HVDC) 100

Further Reading 101

6 Balancing Load and Generation 103

6.1 Overview 103

6.2 Power Balance 103

6.3 Single Generator 104

6.4 Multiple Generators 106

6.5 Electronically Connected Generation and Battery Energy Storage 108

6.6 Secondary Frequency Control 109

6.7 System Response to Large Disturbances 110

6.8 Economic Dispatch 110

6.8.1 Heat Rate Curve and Cost Curve 111

6.8.2 Mathematical Formulation 112

6.8.3 Piecewise-Linear Cost Curves 116

6.8.4 Load Flexibility and Storage 118

6.9 Unit Commitment 120

6.9.1 How Many Generating Units do we Need? 120

6.9.2 Formulating the Unit Commitment Problem 121

6.9.3 Solving the Unit Commitment Problem 124

6.10 Handling of Uncertainty 126

Reference 129

Further Reading 129

Problems 129

7 Network Components 135

7.1 Overview 135

7.2 ac Lines 135

7.3 dc Lines 140

7.4 Transformers 140

7.4.1 Single-Phase Transformer 140

7.4.2 Three-Phase Transformer 145

7.4.3 Transformer Ratings 146

7.4.4 Three-Phase Transformers in the Per Unit System 147

7.4.5 Tap-Changing Transformer 148

7.4.6 Phase-Shifting Transformer 152

7.5 Switchgear 154

7.6 Reactive Compensation Devices 154

7.7 Substations 155

Further Reading 156

Problems 156

8 Power Flow 163

8.1 Overview 163

8.2 Qualitative Relation Between Flows and Voltages 163

8.3 Nodal Analysis 165

8.3.1 An Example of Nodal Analysis 165

8.4 Formulation of the Power Flow Problem 169

8.5 Solving the Power Flow Equations 172

8.5.1 Newton-Raphson Method 172

8.5.2 Applying the Newton-Raphson Method to the Power Flow Problem 175

8.6 Calculating the Line Flows 180

8.7 Power Flow Applications 181

8.8 Optimal Power Flow 188

Further Reading 189

Problems 189

9 Analysis of Balanced Faults 197

9.1 Overview 197

9.2 Two Simple Examples 198

9.3 Balanced Fault Calculations in Large Systems 201

9.4 Modeling Generators for Fault Calculations 205

9.5 Inverter-Based Generation 210

Reference 210

Further Reading 210

Problems 211

10 Analysis of Unbalanced Faults 215

10.1 Overview 215

10.2 Symmetrical Components 215

10.2.1 Notation 215

10.2.2 Concept of Symmetrical Components 216

10.2.3 Calculating the Sequence Components 216

10.2.4 Relation Between the Neutral and Zero-sequence Currents 219

10.3 Sequence Networks 220

10.3.1 Sequence Networks Representation of Impedance Loads 220

10.3.2 Sequence Networks Representation of Generators 225

10.3.3 Sequence Networks Representation of Three-phase Lines and Cables 226

10.3.4 Sequence Networks Representation of Three-phase Transformers 226

10.3.5 Sequence Networks Representation of Power Systems 228

10.4 Unbalanced Faults 230

10.4.1 Balanced Three-phase Fault 231

10.4.2 Single Line-to-ground Fault 232

10.4.3 Line-to-line Fault 234

10.4.4 Double Line-to-ground Fault 235

10.5 Unbalanced Fault Calculations in Large Systems 237

References 240

Further Reading 240

Problems 240

11 Introduction to Power System Stability 245

11.1 Overview 245

11.2 P-V Curves 245

11.3 Effect of Outages 248

11.4 Cascading Overloads 249

11.5 Electromechanical or Transient Stability 252

11.5.1 Modeling the Mechanical Dynamics of Synchronous Generators: the Swing Equation 253

11.5.2 Modeling the Electrical Dynamics of Synchronous Generators 256

11.5.3 A Simple Model of the Rest of the System 257

11.5.4 Stable and Unstable Operating Points 257

11.5.5 Large Disturbances 259

11.5.6 Equal Area Criterion 261

11.5.7 Factors Influencing Stability 266

11.5.8 Transient Stability Analysis Using Time Domain Simulation 267

11.5.9 Simulating the Dynamics of Multi-generator Systems 270

11.5.10 Damping 277

11.6 Detailed Dynamic Models 279

11.7 Power System Oscillations 279

11.8 Preventing Instabilities 279

Further Reading 280

Problems 281

12 Introduction to Competitive Electricity Markets 287

12.1 Overview: Why Competition? 287

12.2 Fundamentals of Markets 287

12.3 Wholesale Electricity Markets 291

12.4 Bidding in a Centralized Market 294

12.5 Variation of Market Price with Time 294

12.6 Effect of Transmission Capacity Limits 297

12.7 Two-Settlement Markets 299

12.8 Ancillary Services 300

12.9 Retail Markets 301

12.10 Unbundled Industry Structure 301

Further Reading 303

Problems 303

Index 307
Daniel S. Kirschen is the Donald W. and Ruth Mary Close Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Washington, USA. Prior to joining the University of Washington, he taught for 16 years at The University of Manchester, UK. Before becoming an academic, he worked for Control Data and Siemens on the development of application software for utility control centers. He is a Fellow of the IEEE

D. S. Kirschen, UMIST, UK