John Wiley & Sons Microwave Photonics Cover MICROWAVE PHOTONICS Overview of techniques in the field of microwave photonics, including recent de.. Product #: 978-1-394-20528-8 Regular price: $129.91 $129.91 Auf Lager

Microwave Photonics

Yao, Jianping / Capmany, José / Li, Ming

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1. Auflage März 2024
496 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-394-20528-8
John Wiley & Sons

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MICROWAVE PHOTONICS

Overview of techniques in the field of microwave photonics, including recent developments in quantum microwave photonics and integrated microwave photonics

Microwave Photonics offers a comprehensive overview of the microwave photonic techniques developed in the last 30 years, covering topics such as photonics generation of microwave signals, photonics processing of microwave signals, photonics distribution of microwave signals, photonic generation and distribution of UWB signals, photonics generation and processing of arbitrary microwave waveforms, photonic true time delay beamforming for phased array antennas, photonics-assisted instantaneous microwave frequency measurement, quantum microwave photonics, analog-to-digital conversion and more.

The text is supported by a companion website for instructors, including learning objectives and questions/problems to further enhance student learning.

Written by key researchers in the field, Microwave Photonics includes information on:
* Group-velocity dispersion and nonlinear effects in fibers, light coherence in light sources, phase and intensity modulators, photodetectors, and fiber Bragg gratings
* Injection locking, phase lock loops, external modulation, opto-electronic oscillators, and array waveguide gratings
* Photonic microwave delay-line filters with negative and complex coefficients and non-uniformly spaced photonic microwave delay-line filters
* Double- and single-sideband modulation, radio over fiber networks, and microwave photonics to coherent communication systems
* UWB generation, coding, and distribution over fiber, and instantaneous microwave frequency measurement via power monitoring
* True time delay beamforming

Exploring the subject in depth, with expansive coverage of techniques developed in the last 30 years, Microwave Photonics is an essential reference for graduate students and researchers to learn microwave photonic technologies.

About the Authors xi

About the Companion Website xiii

1 Introduction to Microwave Photonics 1

1.1 Photonic Generation of Microwave Signals 1

1.2 Photonic Microwave Signal Processing 1

1.3 Photonic Distribution of Microwave Signals 2

1.4 Photonic Generation of Ultra-wideband Signals 2

1.5 Photonic Generation of Microwave Arbitrary Waveforms 3

1.6 Microwave Photonic Beamforming Networks for Phased Array Antennas 3

1.7 Photonic-Assisted Instantaneous Microwave Frequency Measurements 3

1.8 Microwave Photonic Sensors 4

1.9 Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion 4

1.10 Novel Optoelectronic Oscillators 4

1.11 Quantum Microwave Photonics 5

1.12 Integrated Microwave Photonics 5

1.13 Applications of Microwave Photonics 5

2 Optical Devices for Microwave Photonics 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Optical Fibers and Planar Waveguides 7

2.2.1 Structure and Geometry of Optical Fibers and Planar Waveguides 8

2.2.2 Basic Electromagnetic Theory for Optical Fibers and Planar Waveguides 10

2.2.3 Propagation in Optical Fibers 12

2.2.4 Propagation in Planar Dielectric Waveguides 21

2.3 Light Sources, Detectors, and Modulators 24

2.3.1 Fundamentals of the Interaction Between Radiation and Matter 24

2.3.2 Semiconductor Materials for Optical Sources and Detectors 27

2.3.3 Optical Sources 38

2.3.4 Optical Detectors 59

2.3.5 Optical Modulators 66

2.4 Fiber Bragg Gratings 73

2.4.1 Theory and Design of Fiber Bragg Grating Filters 75

2.4.2 Performance Characteristics of FBGs 77

2.5 Array Waveguide Gratings 79

2.6 Other Passive Components 82

2.6.1 2 × 2 Couplers 82

2.6.2 Isolators 83

2.6.3 Circulators 84

2.7 Chapter Summary 86

References 86

3 Photonic Generation of Microwave Signals 87

3.1 Introduction 87

3.2 Optical Injection Locking 88

3.3 Optical Phase-Locked Loop 89

3.4 Optical Injection Phase Locking 90

3.5 Microwave Generation Based on External Modulation 91

3.5.1 Intensity Modulator-Based Approach 91

3.5.2 Phase-Modulator-Based Approach 92

3.6 Microwave Generation Using a Dual-Wavelength Laser 93

3.7 Microwave Generation Using an Optoelectronic Oscillator 96

3.8 Performance Comparison of the Techniques for Photonic Microwave Generation 99

3.9 Summary 101

References 101

4 Photonic-Assisted Microwave Signal Processing 105

4.1 Introduction 105

4.2 Microwave Photonic Filters 105

4.2.1 Photonic Microwave Delay-Line Filters with Negative Coefficients 107

4.2.2 Photonic Microwave Delay-Line Filters with Complex Coefficients 114

4.2.3 Nonuniformly Spaced Photonic Microwave Delay-Line Filters 116

4.3 Optical Mixing of Microwave Signals 119

4.4 Coherent Microwave Photonic Filters 123

4.5 Dynamic Range of a Microwave Photonic Filter 131

4.6 Conclusion 132

References 133

5 Photonic Distribution of Microwave Signals 137

5.1 Introduction 137

5.2 Introduction to Microwave Photonics Links 137

5.3 Figures of Merit of a Simple Microwave Photonic Link 138

5.3.1 RF Gain 139

5.3.2 Noise 141

5.3.3 Dynamic Range 142

5.4 Figures of Merit of a Filtered Microwave Photonic Link 148

5.4.1 Filtered Intensity Modulated Direct Detection Links 149

5.4.2 Filtered Phase Modulated Links 152

5.4.3 Application Examples 155

5.5 Introduction to Fiber-Wireless Systems 156

5.6 Optical Transport of Wireless Signals 157

5.6.1 Radio Over Fiber 157

5.6.2 Intermediate Frequency Over Fiber 158

5.6.3 Baseband Over Fiber 159

5.7 Sources of Degradation and Impairments 160

5.7.1 Chromatic Dispersion 160

5.7.2 Optical Nonlinearities 163

5.8 Fiber-Wireless Networks 165

5.8.1 Spectral Efficiency 165

5.8.2 Optical Subsystems for Fiber-Wireless Networks 166

5.8.3 Application Scenarios 171

5.9 Chapter Summary 174

Problems 175

References 176

6 Photonic Generation of Ultra-Wideband Signals 181

6.1 Introduction 181

6.2 UWB Pulse Generation Based on PM-IM Conversion 182

6.2.1 Optical Phase Modulation 183

6.2.2 PM-IM Conversion 183

6.2.3 UWB Pulse Generation Based on PM-IM Conversion in a Dispersive Device 189

6.2.4 UWB Pulse Generation Based on PM-IM Conversion in an Optical Frequency Discriminator 191

6.3 UWB Pulse Generation Based on a Photonic Microwave Delay Line Filter 195

6.3.1 Photonic Microwave Delay-Line Filters for UWB Pulse Generation 196

6.3.2 UWB Monocycle Generation with a Two-Tap Microwave Delay-Lines Filter 198

6.3.3 UWB Doublet Generation with a Three-Tap Microwave Delay-Line Filter 200

6.4 UWB Pulse Generation based on Spectral Shaping and Frequency-to-Time Mapping 201

6.4.1 UWB Pulse Generation Based on Optical Spectral Shaping and Frequency-to-Time Mapping 202

6.4.2 Implementation of All-Fiber UWB Pulse Generation based on Spectral Shaping and Frequency-to-Time Mapping 203

6.5 Discussion and Conclusion 205

References 206

7 Photonic Generation of Microwave Arbitrary Waveforms 209

7.1 Introduction 209

7.2 Direct Space-to-Time Pulse Shaping 209

7.3 Spectral-Shaping and Wavelength-to-Time Mapping 213

7.4 Temporal Pulse Shaping 221

7.5 Microwave Waveform Generation Based on a Photonic Microwave Delay-Line Filter 228

7.6 Conclusion 233

References 234

8 Microwave Photonics Beamforming Networks for Phased Array Antennas 237

8.1 Introduction 237

8.2 Basic Concepts on Phased Array Antennas 238

8.2.1 Principles of Operation 238

8.2.2 Design Parameters 241

8.2.3 PAA Feed Architectures 245

8.3 True Time Delay Optical Beamforming Networks 246

8.4 Phase-Shift Optical Beamforming Networks 264

8.5 Summary and Conclusions 269

Problems 269

References 271

9 Photonic-Assisted Instantaneous Frequency Measurements 277

9.1 Introduction 277

9.2 Frequency Measurement Using an Optical Channelizer 279

9.2.1 Optical Phased-Array WDM 280

9.2.2 Free-Space Diffraction Grating 281

9.2.3 Phase-Shifted Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating Arrays 282

9.2.4 Integrated Optical Bragg Grating Fabry-Perot Etalon 283

9.3 Frequency Measurement Based on Power Monitoring 283

9.3.1 Chromatic Dispersion-Induced Microwave Power Penalty 284

9.3.2 Break the Lower Frequency Bound 289

9.3.3 IFM Based on Photonic Microwave Filters with Complementary Frequency Responses 292

9.3.4 First-Order Photonic Microwave Differentiator 294

9.3.5 Optical Power Fading Using Optical Filters 297

9.4 Other Methods for Frequency Measurement 299

9.4.1 Fabry-Perot Scanning Receiver 299

9.4.2 Photonic Hilbert Transform 300

9.4.3 Monolithically Integrated EDG 301

9.4.4 Incoherent Frequency-to-Time Mapping 301

9.5 Conclusion 303

References 304

10 Microwave Photonic Sensors 309

10.1 Introduction 309

10.2 Optical Sensors Based on a Dual-Wavelength Laser Source 310

10.3 Optical Sensors Based on an Optoelectronic Oscillator 314

10.4 Optical Sensors Based on Spectrum Shaping and Wavelength-to-Time Mapping 321

10.5 Photonic Integrated Microwave Photonic Sensors 326

10.6 Conclusion 329

References 330

11 Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion 333

11.1 Introduction 333

11.2 Basic Concepts on Analog-to-Digital Converters 334

11.2.1 Types of Converters 334

11.2.2 Operation Principles of the Nyquist ADC 335

11.2.3 State of the Art of Electronic ADCs 338

11.2.4 Classification of Photonic ADCs 340

11.3 Photonic-Assisted ADCs 340

11.3.1 Classification of Photonic-Assisted ADCs 340

11.3.2 Optically Clocked Track-and-Hold Circuits 341

11.3.3 Optical Replication Pre-Processors 343

11.3.4 Optical Time-Stretched Pre-Processors 345

11.4 Photonic Sampled/Electronic Quantized ADCs 347

11.5 Electronic Sampled/Photonic Quantized ADCs 354

11.6 Photonic Sampled/Photonic Quantized ADCs 355

11.6.1 Classification of Photonic Sampled/Photonic Quantized Converters 355

11.6.2 Intensity Modulation and Conversion 355

11.6.3 Intensity Modulation and Optical Comparator 358

11.6.4 Phase Modulation and Optical Beam Deflection 358

11.7 Chapter Summary 361

Problems 361

References 363

12 Novel Optoelectronic Oscillators 367

12.1 Introduction 367

12.2 Models for Optoelectronic Oscillators 368

12.3 Parity-Time Symmetric OEO 378

12.4 Fourier Domain Mode-Locked OEO 382

12.5 OEPO 385

12.6 Broad Random OEO 388

12.7 Integrated OEO 392

12.8 Discussion and Conclusion 395

References 396

13 Integrated Microwave Photonics 401

13.1 Introduction 401

13.2 Integration Technologies and Platforms 403

13.2.1 Indium Phosphide 403

13.2.2 Silicon Photonics 405

13.2.3 Silicon Nitride 405

13.2.4 Other Platforms 406

13.2.5 Comparative Analysis 406

13.3 Application-Specific Photonic Integrated Circuits for Microwave Photonics 408

13.3.1 Filters 409

13.3.2 Microwave Signal Generators 409

13.3.2.1 Optoelectronic Oscillators 411

13.3.2.2 Comb Sources 413

13.3.2.3 IR-UWB Generators 413

13.3.2.4 Arbitrary Waveform Generators 415

13.3.3 Tunable True Time Delay Lines and Phase Shifters 419

13.3.4 Optical Beamforming 421

13.4 Multifunctional Circuits 424

13.5 Universal Microwave Photonic Processors 426

13.5.1 Early Designs 427

13.5.2 Waveguide Mesh Core Processors 428

13.5.3 Waveguide Mesh MWP Universal Processors 434

13.6 Conclusions and Future Prospects 441

References 442

14 Quantum Microwave Photonics 449

14.1 Introduction 449

14.2 Principle of the Single-Photon Detection Scheme 450

14.3 Weak Signal Detection 453

14.4 Quantum Microwave Photonic Signal Processing 454

14.5 Nonlocal Frequency-to-Time Mapping 455

14.6 Compressed Sensing 457

14.7 Microwave Photonic Quantum Key Distribution 458

14.8 Discussion and Conclusion 460

References 461

15 Future and Perspectives 465

15.1 Introduction 465

15.2 Future and Perspectives 465

15.3 Discussion and Conclusion 468

References 468

Index 471
Jianping Yao is a Distinguished Professor and University Research Chair in Microwave Photonics in the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

José Capmany is a Full Professor of photonics and the Leader of the Photonics Research Labs, Institute of Telecommunications and Multimedia Applications, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.

Ming Li is a Full Professor with the Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

J. Yao, University of Ottawa, Canada; J. Capmany, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain; M. Li, Worcester Polytechnic Institute