John Wiley & Sons The Explosion of Life Forms Cover One of the essential characteristics of living beings is the explosion of variety in their forms tha.. Product #: 978-1-78945-005-7 Regular price: $142.06 $142.06 Auf Lager

The Explosion of Life Forms

Living Beings and Morphology

Chapouthier, Georges / Maurel, Marie-Christine (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Mai 2021
256 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-78945-005-7
John Wiley & Sons

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One of the essential characteristics of living beings is the explosion of variety in their forms that is intrinsically linked to the diversity of the environments they have adapted to.

This book, the result of collaboration between international specialists, analyzes the multiplicity of these morphologies. It explores the origin of forms, their role in defining living things, and the relationship between form and function. It exposes the role of genes and epigenetics and examines the forms of bacteria, protists and plants. The Explosion of Life Forms also studies the memory of animals and their sensory processes, the forms of robots (built in the image of living things), and medical technologies aimed at restoring damaged living forms. Finally, this work questions a common principle of construction in the diversity of forms, as well as the idea of an abandonment of the form, a possible hidden defect of some modern philosophies.

Introduction xi
Georges CHAPOUTHIER and Marie-Christine MAUREL

Chapter 1. Possible Traces and Clues of Early Life Forms 1
Marie-Christine MAUREL

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Have "things" always been as they are today? 2

1.3. Fossil traces? 4

1.4. Geochemical elements confirming these recent results 6

1.5. Compartmentalization of resources and primary biomass 9

1.6. Rebuilding a living cell: a wide range of possibilities explored, from the mineral to the organic 12

1.7. Conclusion 13

1.8. Acknowledgments 14

1.9. References 14

Chapter 2. The Nature of Life 19
Andreas LOSCH

2.1. Observations and assumptions 20

2.2. Descriptions and definitions 21

2.3. Exploration 23

2.4. Conclusion 25

2.5. References 26

Chapter 3. From Form to Function 29
Jean-Pierre GASC

3.1. Form: a concept for knowledge 29

3.2. Basic structural elements: from the molecule to the cell 31

3.3. The weight of the physical setting 34

3.4. Mesoderm: base material for architect genes 35

3.5. Appendices and laws of mechanics 37

3.6. "Appendicular" movement on land 40

3.7. The legless 44

3.8. And the head 44

3.9. References 47

Chapter 4. On Growth and Form: Context and Purpose 51
Jean-Pierre GASC

4.1. D'Arcy Thompson's program 54

4.2. Application of mathematics to morphometry 59

4.3. References 61

Chapter 5. The Emergence of Form in the History of Epigenetics 65
Jonathan B. WEITZMAN

5.1. Introduction 65

5.2. From epigenesis to epigenetics 66

5.3. The evolution of the epigenetic landscape 68

5.4. Modernizing the epigenetic landscape 70

5.5. From epigenetic landscape to chromosome conformation 72

5.6. Conclusion: from form to function 75

5.7. Acknowledgments 76

5.8. References 76

Chapter 6. The Many Shapes of Microbial Detection of Kin and Kind 79
Guillermo PAZ-Y-MIÑO-C and Avelina ESPINOSA

6.1. From Darwin's social-insects-puzzle to microbes 80

6.2. Handshakes of kinship or "kindship" in bacteria 81

6.3. The ameba world of clone discrimination/recognition 85

6.4. Social microbes and multicellularity 88

6.5. Conclusion 95

6.6. References 95

Chapter 7. Development and Evolution of Plant Forms 101
Florian JABBOUR and Guilhem MANSION

7.1. Introduction 101

7.2. Diversity of plant forms and associated functions 102

7.2.1. Anthropocentric view of plant forms 102

7.2.2. Plant forms perceived by pollinators 103

7.3. Origin and evolution of plant forms 104

7.3.1. Pattern formation during ontogenesis 104

7.3.2. Physical-mathematical considerations on plant morphogenesis 105

7.3.3. Implementation of forms during phylogenesis 107

7.4. Origin and evolution of plant forms 112

7.4.1. Usefulness for human societies 112

7.4.2. Usefulness for botanical classifiers 114

7.5. Conclusion 118

7.6. Acknowledgements 118

7.7. References 118

Chapter 8. Forms of Memory 125
Robert JAFFARD

8.1. Introduction 125

8.2. The polymorphism of memory 126

8.3. Non-associative memories 127

8.3.1. Habituation and sensitization 127

8.3.2. Priming 129

8.3.3. Perceptual learning 130

8.4. Classical conditioning 131

8.4.1. Operational definition, rules and varieties of classical conditioning 131

8.4.2. Contemporary theory of classical conditioning 132

8.4.3. The importance of classical conditioning 133

8.5. Instrumental conditioning 134

8.5.1. Law of effect, stimulus-response (S-R) theory and "habits" 134

8.5.2. From S-R theory to cognitive theories 135

8.5.3. The two facets of instrumental conditioning 136

8.6. Procedural memory as a "memory system" 137

8.6.1. Habits: double functional dissociations in mammals 137

8.6.2. Human procedural memory and its cerebral supports 139

8.7. Declarative memory 140

8.7.1. Episodic and semantic memory: definitions, properties and relationships 141

8.7.2. Episodic memory in animals? 143

8.8. Short-term memory and working memory 144

8.8.1. General characteristics 144

8.8.2. Models 144

8.8.3. Short-term memory in animals 146

8.8.4. Cerebral substrates 147

8.9. Conclusion: organization and reconfiguration of the different forms of memory 147

8.10. References 150

Chapter 9. The Construction of Sensory Universes 155
Dalila BOVET

9.1. Introduction 155

9.2. Chemoreception 156

9.2.1. Taste 156

9.2.2. Smell 158

9.3. Mechanoreception 159

9.3.1. Touch 160

9.3.2. Lateral lines 160

9.3.3. Hearing 161

9.4. Electromagnetoreception 163

9.4.1. Vision 163

9.4.2. Electroreception 165

9.4.3. Magnetoreception 166

9.4.4. Thermoreception 167

9.5. Information filtering 167

9.6. Conclusion 170

9.7. References 172

Chapter 10. Emotional and Social Forms of Robots 173
Laurence DEVILLERS

10.1. Introduction 173

10.2. Communication with social and emotional robots 175

10.3. Human empathy for machines 176

10.4. Machine emotions 178

10.5. Conclusion: risks and benefits 180

10.6. References 181

Chapter 11. When Medical Technology Mimics Living Forms 183
Didier FASS

11.1. Introduction 183

11.2. Historical and epistemological perspective 184

11.2.1. A comparative history of medical technology 184

11.2.2. Epistemological perspective 189

11.2.3. A conceptual and theoretical framework: the mathematical theory of integrative physiology (MTIP) by Gilbert Chauvet 193

11.2.4. Forms of thinking or processing by machines 196

11.3. Simulation, biomimetics and bioprinting: a future for medical technology 196

11.4. References 199

Chapter 12. From Living to Thinking: Mosaic Architecture 203
Georges CHAPOUTHIER

12.1. Introduction 203

12.2. Two main principles 203

12.3. Genes and cells 204

12.4. More complex anatomical mosaics 206

12.5. Epistemological rehabilitation of asexual reproduction 207

12.6. Social mosaics 208

12.7. Encephalic mosaics 208

12.8. Mosaics of thought 210

12.9. Man-made objects 213

12.10. Human and animal cultural traits 214

12.11. A universality of mosaics? 215

12.12. Conclusion: philosophical foundations 216

12.13. References 217

Chapter 13. Converging Technologies or Paradoxes of Power 221
Jean-Michel BESNIER

13.1. Introduction 221

13.2. Might, domination, power 223

13.3. Life, technique, power 224

13.4. "Technological arrogance" 227

13.5. Technological convergence and singularity 228

13.6. Innovation, research, invention 230

13.7. Conclusion 231

13.8. References 231

List of Authors 233

Index 235
Georges Chapouthier is a biologist, philosopher and Emeritus Director of Research at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) in France. His research interests focus on animals and the brain.

Marie-Christine Maurel is a Professor at Sorbonne University and a researcher at the Institut de Systematique, Evolution, Biodiversite laboratory at the National Museum of Natural History in France. Her research interests focus on the origins of life, RNA, viroids and molecular archeobiology.