John Wiley & Sons Sustainable Engineering Cover Comprehensively covers the definition, methodology, and current applications of the principles of su.. Product #: 978-1-119-49393-8 Regular price: $114.02 $114.02 Auf Lager

Sustainable Engineering

Drivers, Metrics, Tools, and Applications

Reddy, Krishna R. / Cameselle, Claudio / Adams, Jeffrey A.

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1. Auflage Juni 2019
544 Seiten, Hardcover
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ISBN: 978-1-119-49393-8
John Wiley & Sons

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Comprehensively covers the definition, methodology, and current applications of the principles of sustainability and resiliency in every engineering discipline

This book contains detailed information about sustainability and resiliency principles and applications in engineering practice, and provides information on how to use scientific tools for sustainability assessment that help engineers select the best alternative for each project or activity. Logically organized around the three pillars of sustainability--environment, economy, and society--it is a primary resource for students and professionals alike.

Sustainable Engineering: Drivers, Metrics, Tools, and Applications offers numerous ways to help engineers contribute towards global sustainable development while solving some of the grand challenges the world is facing today. The first part of the book covers the environmental, economic, and social impacts associated with project/product development as well as society as a whole. This is followed by a section devoted to sustainability metrics and assessment tools, which includes material flow analysis and material budget, carbon footprint analysis, life cycle assessment, environmental health risk assessment, and more. Next comes an in-depth examination of sustainable engineering practices, including sustainable energy engineering, sustainable waste management, and green and sustainable buildings. The book concludes with a look at how sustainable engineering may be applied to different engineering (i.e. environmental, chemical, civil, materials, infrastructure) projects.

Some of the key features of this book include the following:
* Provides a complete and sensible understanding of the important concepts of sustainability, resiliency, and sustainable engineering
* Offers detailed explanations of sustainable engineering practices in waste management and remediation of contaminated sites, civil construction and infrastructure, and climate geoengineering
* Presents a set of case studies across different engineering disciplines such as bio/chemical, environmental, materials, construction, and infrastructure engineering that demonstrate the practical applicability of sustainability assessment tools to diverse projects
* Includes questions at the end of each chapter as well as a solutions manual for academic adopters

The depth of coverage found in Sustainable Engineering: Drivers, Metrics, Tools, and Applications makes it an ideal textbook for graduate students across all engineering disciplines and a handy resource for active professionals.

Preface xvii

Section I Drivers, Environmental, Economic and Social Impacts, and Resiliency 1

1 Emerging Challenges, Sustainability, and Sustainable Engineering 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Emerging Challenges 3

1.2.1 Increased Consumption and Depletion of Natural Resources 3

1.2.2 Growing Environmental Pollution 6

1.2.3 Increasing Population 7

1.2.4 Increasing Waste Generation 8

1.2.5 Increasing Greenhouse Gas Emissions 10

1.2.6 Decline of Ecosystems 13

1.2.7 Loss of Biodiversity 13

1.2.8 Social Injustice 14

1.2.9 Urban Sprawl 16

1.3 The Master Equation or IPAT Equation 17

1.4 What Is Sustainability? 17

1.5 What Is Sustainable Engineering? 21

1.6 Summary 25

1.7 Questions 26

References 26

2 Environmental Concerns 31

2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 Global Warming and Climate Change 32

2.3 Desertification 40

2.4 Deforestation 40

2.5 Loss of Habitat and Biodiversity 41

2.6 Ozone Layer Depletion 43

2.7 Air Pollution 44

2.8 Smog 46

2.9 Acid Rain 47

2.10 Water Usage and Pollution 48

2.11 Eutrophication 51

2.12 Salinity 52

2.13 Wastes and Disposal 52

2.14 Land Contamination 59

2.15 Visibility 60

2.16 Odors 60

2.17 Aesthetic Degradation 61

2.18 Land Use Patterns 61

2.19 Thermal Pollution 61

2.20 Noise Pollution 62

2.21 Summary 62

2.22 Questions 63

References 64

3 Social, Economic, and Legal Issues 69

3.1 Introduction 69

3.2 Social Issues 69

3.2.1 Society 69

3.2.2 Developed and Developing Societies 70

3.2.3 Social Sustainability Concept 71

3.2.4 Social Indicators 72

3.2.5 Social Impact Assessment 73

3.2.6 Social Sustainability Implementation 77

3.3 Economic Issues 77

3.3.1 Economic Assessment Framework 78

3.3.2 Life Cycle Costing 79

3.3.3 True-cost Accounting 79

3.4 Legal Issues 80

3.5 Summary 81

3.6 Questions 81

References 82

4 Availability and Depletion of Natural Resources 85

4.1 Introduction 85

4.2 Types and Availability of Resources 85

4.2.1 Fossil Fuels 85

4.2.2 Radioactive Fuels 87

4.2.3 Mineral Resources 88

4.2.4 Water Resources 89

4.2.5 Other Elemental Cycles 91

4.3 Resource Depletion 94

4.3.1 Causes of Resource Depletion 95

4.3.2 Effects of Resource Depletion 95

4.3.3 Overshooting 98

4.3.4 Urban Metabolism 98

4.4 Summary 99

4.5 Questions 100

References 101

5 Disaster Resiliency 103

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 Climate Change and Extreme Events 104

5.3 Impacts of Extreme Events 105

5.3.1 The 2012 Hurricane Sandy in New York City 105

5.3.2 The 2016 Chile's Wildfires by Drought and Record Heat 106

5.3.3 The 2017Worst South Asian Monsoon Floods 106

5.4 What Is Resiliency? 106

5.5 Initiatives and Policies on Resiliency 109

5.6 Resiliency Framework 112

5.7 Resilient Infrastructure 115

5.8 Resilient Infrastructure Examples 117

5.8.1 San Francisco Firehouse Resilient Design 117

5.8.2 San Francisco Resilient CSD Design 117

5.8.3 Resilient Environmental Remediation 119

5.9 Challenges 126

5.10 Summary 126

5.11 Questions 127

References 127

Section II Sustainability Metrics and Assessment Tools 131

6 Sustainability Indicators, Metrics, and Assessment Tools 133

6.1 Introduction 133

6.2 Sustainability Indicators 133

6.3 Sustainability Metrics 136

6.4 Sustainability Assessment Tools 137

6.5 Summary 139

6.6 Questions 139

References 140

7 Material Flow Analysis and Material Budget 143

7.1 Introduction 143

7.2 Budget of Natural Resources 143

7.3 Constructing a Budget 145

7.4 Material Flow Analysis 145

7.5 Material Flow Analysis: Wastes 148

7.6 National Material Account 151

7.7 Summary 155

7.8 Questions 156

References 156

8 Carbon Footprint Analysis 159

8.1 Introduction 159

8.2 Global Warming Potential and Carbon Footprint 159

8.3 Measuring Carbon Footprint 161

8.3.1 Define the Scope of Your Inventory 161

8.3.2 Measure Emissions and Establish a Baseline 161

8.3.3 Develop Targets and Strategies to Reduce Emissions 164

8.3.4 Off-set Unavoidable Emissions 164

8.3.5 Independent Verification 164

8.4 Standards for Calculating the Carbon Footprint 164

8.5 GHG Inventory: Developments in the United States 165

8.6 USEPA: Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program 166

8.7 Tools for GHG Inventory 166

8.8 UIC Carbon Footprint Case Study 167

8.9 Programs to Mitigate GHG Emissions 171

8.10 Summary 172

8.11 Questions 172

References 172

9 Life Cycle Assessment 175

9.1 Introduction 175

9.2 Life Cycle Assessment 176

9.2.1 Definition and Objective 176

9.2.2 Procedure 176

9.2.3 History 178

9.3 LCA Methodology 179

9.3.1 Goal and Scope Definition 180

9.3.2 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) 181

9.3.3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) 184

9.3.4 Interpretation 188

9.4 LCA Tools and Applications 189

9.5 Summary 190

9.6 Questions 191

References 191

10 Streamlined Life Cycle Assessment 193

10.1 Introduction 193

10.2 Streamlined LCA (SLCA) 194

10.3 Expanded SLCA 197

10.4 Simple Example of SLCA 200

10.5 Applications of SLCA 202

10.6 Summary 206

10.7 Questions 206

References 207

11 Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment 209

11.1 Introduction 209

11.2 EIO Model 209

11.3 EIO-LCA 211

11.4 EIO-LCA Model Results 213

11.4.1 Interpretation of Results 213

11.4.2 Uncertainty 213

11.4.3 Other Issues and Considerations 214

11.5 Example of EIO-LCA Model 214

11.6 Conventional LCA versus EIO-LCA 216

11.7 EIO versus Physical Input-Output (PIO) Analysis 218

11.8 Summary 221

11.9 Questions 221

References 222

12 Environmental Health Risk Assessment 223

12.1 Introduction 223

12.2 Emergence of the Risk Era 223

12.3 Risk Assessment and Management 224

12.3.1 Hazard Identification 225

12.3.2 Dose-Response Assessment 225

12.3.3 Exposure Assessment 227

12.3.4 Risk Characterization 228

12.4 Ecological Risk Assessment 230

12.5 Summary 231

12.6 Questions 232

References 232

13 Other Emerging Assessment Tools 233

13.1 Introduction 233

13.2 Environmental Assessment Tools/Indicators 233

13.3 Economic Assessment Tools 235

13.3.1 Life-Cycle Costing 236

13.3.2 Cost-Benefit Analysis 237

13.4 Ecosystem Services Valuation Tools 237

13.5 Environmental Justice Tools 238

13.6 Integrated Sustainability Assessment Tools 239

13.7 Summary 241

13.8 Questions 241

References 242

Section III Sustainable Engineering Practices 243

14 Sustainable Energy Engineering 245

14.1 Introduction 245

14.2 Environmental Impacts of Energy Generation 246

14.2.1 Air Emissions 246

14.2.2 Solid Waste Generation 250

14.2.3 Water Resource Use 250

14.2.4 Land Resource Use 250

14.3 Nuclear Energy 251

14.4 Strategies for Clean Energy 252

14.5 Renewable Energy 254

14.5.1 Solar Energy 254

14.5.2 Wind Energy 255

14.5.3 Water Energy 257

14.5.4 Geothermal Energy 259

14.5.5 Biomass Energy 262

14.6 Summary 265

14.7 Questions 266

References 266

15 Sustainable Waste Management 269

15.1 Introduction 269

15.2 Types of Waste 269

15.2.1 Nonhazardous Waste 270

15.2.2 Hazardous Waste 270

15.3 Effects and Impacts of Waste 270

15.4 Waste Management 271

15.4.1 Pollution Prevention 272

15.4.2 Green Chemistry 272

15.4.3 Waste Minimization 274

15.4.4 Reuse/Recycling 274

15.4.5 Energy Recovery 276

15.4.6 Landfilling 276

15.5 Integrated Waste Management 278

15.6 Sustainable Waste Management 281

15.7 Circular Economy 282

15.8 Summary 283

15.9 Questions 283

References 284

16 Green and Sustainable Buildings 287

16.1 Introduction 287

16.2 Green Building History 288

16.3 Why Build Green? 288

16.4 Green Building Concepts 289

16.5 Components of Green Building 290

16.6 Green Building Rating - LEED 293

16.7 Summary 297

16.8 Questions 297

References 298

17 Sustainable Civil Infrastructure 299

17.1 Introduction 299

17.2 Principles of Sustainable Infrastructure 300

17.3 Civil Infrastructure 300

17.4 Envision(TM): Sustainability Rating of Civil Infrastructure 302

17.5 Sustainable Infrastructure Practices: Example of Water Infrastructure 305

17.5.1 Green Roofs 306

17.5.2 Permeable Pavements 306

17.5.3 Rainwater Harvesting 307

17.5.4 Rain Gardens and Planter Boxes 309

17.5.5 Bioswales 309

17.5.6 Constructed Wetlands and Tree Canopies 309

17.6 Summary 313

17.7 Questions 313

References 314

18 Sustainable Remediation of Contaminated Sites 315

18.1 Introduction 315

18.2 Contaminated Site Remediation Approach 317

18.3 Green and Sustainable Remediation Technologies 318

18.4 Sustainable Remediation Framework 323

18.5 Sustainable Remediation Indicators, Metrics, and Tools 326

18.6 Case Studies 328

18.7 Challenges and Opportunities 329

18.8 Summary 330

18.9 Questions 331

References 332

19 Climate Geoengineering 333

19.1 Introduction 333

19.2 Climate Geoengineering 336

19.3 Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) Methods 336

19.3.1 Subsurface Sequestration 336

19.3.2 Surface Sequestration 338

19.3.3 Marine Organism Sequestration 338

19.3.4 Direct Engineered Capture 339

19.4 Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Methods 340

19.4.1 Sulfur Injection 342

19.4.2 Reflectors and Mirrors 343

19.5 Applicability of CDR and SRM 344

19.6 Climate Geoengineering - A Theoretical Framework 345

19.7 Risks and Challenges 345

19.8 Summary 347

19.9 Questions 348

References 348

Section IV Sustainable Engineering Applications 351

20 Environmental and Chemical Engineering Projects 353

20.1 Introduction 353

20.2 Food Scrap Landfilling Versus Composting 353

20.2.1 Background 353

20.2.2 Methodology 355

20.2.3 Environmental Sustainability 358

20.2.4 Life Cycle Assessment 359

20.2.5 Economic Sustainability 359

20.2.6 Social Sustainability 365

20.2.7 ENVISION(TM) 365

20.2.8 Conclusions 368

20.3 Adsorbent for the Removal of Arsenic from Groundwater 368

20.3.1 Background 368

20.3.2 Methodology 369

20.3.3 Environmental Sustainability 372

20.3.4 Economic Sustainability 373

20.3.5 Social Sustainability 375

20.3.6 Streamline Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) 375

20.3.7 Envision 378

20.3.8 Conclusions 380

20.4 Conventional Versus Biocover Landfill Cover System 381

20.4.1 Background 382

20.4.2 Methodology 383

20.4.3 Environmental Sustainability 386

20.4.4 Economic Sustainability 391

20.4.5 Social Sustainability 393

20.4.6 Conclusions 394

20.5 Algae Biomass Deep Well Reactors Versus Open Pond Systems 394

20.5.1 Background 394

20.5.2 Methodology 396

20.5.3 Environmental Sustainability 400

20.5.4 Economic Sustainability 402

20.5.5 Social Sustainability 402

20.5.6 Conclusions 405

20.6 Remedial Alternatives for PCB- and Pesticide-Contaminated Sediment 405

20.6.1 Background 405

20.6.2 Methodology 406

20.6.3 Environmental Sustainability 410

20.6.4 Economic Sustainability 411

20.6.5 Social Sustainability 412

20.6.6 Overall Sustainability 414

20.6.7 Conclusions 416

20.7 Summary 416

References 417

21 Civil and Materials Engineering Sustainability Projects 419

21.1 Introduction 419

21.2 Sustainable Translucent Composite Panels 419

21.2.1 Background 419

21.2.2 Methodology 420

21.2.3 Environmental Sustainability 423

21.2.4 Economic Sustainability 423

21.2.5 Social Sustainability 427

21.2.6 Conclusions 430

21.3 Sustainability Assessment of Concrete Mixtures for Pavements and Bridge Decks 430

21.3.1 Background 430

21.3.2 Methodology 432

21.3.3 Environmental Sustainability 439

21.3.4 Economic Sustainability 445

21.3.5 Social Sustainability 447

21.3.6 Conclusions 448

21.4 Sustainability Assessment of Parking Lot Design Alternatives 449

21.4.1 Background 449

21.4.2 Methodology 450

21.4.3 Environmental Sustainability 452

21.4.4 Economic Sustainability 455

21.4.5 Social Sustainability 456

21.4.6 Overall Sustainability 457

21.4.7 Conclusions 457

21.5 Summary 458

References 458

22 Infrastructure Engineering Sustainability Projects 461

22.1 Introduction 461

22.2 Comparison of Two Building Designs for an Electric Bus Substation 461

22.2.1 Background 461

22.2.2 Methodology 462

22.2.3 Environmental Sustainability 463

22.2.4 Economic Sustainability 467

22.2.5 Social Sustainability 469

22.2.6 Conclusion 472

22.3 Prefabricated Cantilever Retaining Wall versus Conventional Cantilever Cast-in Place Retaining Wall 472

22.3.1 Background 473

22.3.2 Methodology 473

22.3.3 Environmental Sustainability 477

22.3.4 Economic Sustainability 477

22.3.5 Social Sustainability 478

22.3.6 Conclusion 483

22.4 Sustainability Assessment of Two Alternate Water Pipelines 483

22.4.1 Background 483

22.4.2 Methodology 484

22.4.3 Environmental Sustainability 486

22.4.4 Economic Sustainability 487

22.4.5 Social Sustainability 488

22.4.6 Conclusion 489

22.5 Sustainable Rural Electrification 491

22.5.1 Background 491

22.5.2 Methodology 491

22.5.3 Environmental Sustainability 493

22.5.4 Economic Sustainability 493

22.5.5 Social Sustainability 497

22.5.6 Conclusion 498

22.6 Sustainability Assessment of Shear Wall Retrofitting Techniques 499

22.6.1 Background 499

22.6.2 Methodology 500

22.6.3 Environmental Sustainability 503

22.6.4 Economic Sustainability 505

22.6.5 Social Sustainability 507

22.6.6 Overall Sustainability 507

22.6.7 Conclusion 508

22.7 Summary 510

References 510

Index 513
KRISHNA R. REDDY, PHD, is a Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering in the Department of Civil and Materials Engineering at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and the Director of the Sustainable Engineering Research Laboratory and the Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Laboratory.

CLAUDIO CAMESELLE, PHD, is an Associate Professor at the University of Vigo (Spain) where he coordinates the master programs in industrial pollution and environmental mangement.

JEFFREY A. ADAMS, PHD, is a Principal with San Ramon, California-based ENGEO Incorporated. He is a licensed Professional Engineer in the State of California and a Certified Environmental Manager in the State of Nevada.

K. R. Reddy, University of Illinois - Chicago, IL