John Wiley & Sons Human Factors Handbook for Process Plant Operations Cover Human Factors Handbook for Process Plant Operations Provides clear and simple instructions for inte.. Product #: 978-1-119-64049-3 Regular price: $151.40 $151.40 Auf Lager

Human Factors Handbook for Process Plant Operations

Improving Process Safety and System Performance

CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

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1. Auflage April 2022
480 Seiten, Hardcover
Handbuch/Nachschlagewerk

ISBN: 978-1-119-64049-3
John Wiley & Sons

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Human Factors Handbook for Process Plant Operations

Provides clear and simple instructions for integrating Human Factors principles and practices in the design of processes and work tasks

Human Factors, the science of interaction between humans and other elements of a system, draws from disciplines such as psychology, ergonomics, anthropometrics, and physiology to understand how and why people behave and perform as they do--and how best to support them in performing tasks. The goals of the Human Factors approach are to improve human reliability, minimize the risk from human error, and optimize the working environment, human wellbeing, and overall system performance.

Human Factors Handbook for Process Plant Operations guides supervisors, managers, and engineers on incorporating Human Factors principles and practices into plant maintenance and operations. With thorough and accessible coverage of all Human Factors topics of relevance to process industries, this easy-to-use handbook uses real-world anecdotes and case studies to demonstrate effective training and learning, task planning, communications, emergency response, risk and error management, and more. Throughout the text, the authors offer valuable insights into why people make mistakes while providing advice on how to help workers perform their process operational tasks successfully.
* Explains all essential Human Factors concepts and knowledge with clear descriptions and illustrative examples
* Offers actionable advice and models of good practice that can be applied to design, process operations, start-ups and shut-downs, and maintenance
* Addresses job aids, equipment design, competence, task support, non-technical skills, working with contractors, and managing change
* Discusses how lack of Human Factors considerations during the engineering design phase can adversely affect safety and performance
* Describes how to use indicators to both recognize and learn from human error and performance issues

Written by highly experienced operating and maintenance personnel, Human Factors Handbook for Process Plant Operations is an indispensable resource for everyone involved with defining, planning, training, and managing process operations, maintenance, and emergency response in the food, pharmaceutical, chemical, petroleum, and refining industries.

The missions of both the CCPS and EI include developing and disseminating knowledge, skills and good practices to protect people, the environment, and property by bringing the best knowledge and practices to industry, academia, governments and the public around the world through collective wisdom, tools, training and expertise. The CCPS, an industrial technology alliance of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), has been at the forefront of documenting and sharing important process safety risk assessment methodologies for more than 35 years and has published over 100 books in its process safety guidelines and process safety concept book series. The EI's Technical Work Program addresses the depth and breadth of the energy sector from fuels and fuels distribution to health and safety, sustainability and the environment. The EI program provides cost-effective, value-adding knowledge on key current and future international issues affecting those in the energy sector.

Table of Contents ix

Glossary xxi

Acronyms xxv

Acknowledgements xxvii

Foreword xxix

Part 1: Concepts, principles, and foundational knowledge 1

1 Introduction 3

1.1 What is "Human Factors"? 3

1.2 Purpose of this handbook 4

1.3 Why Human Factors? 8

1.4 The structure of this handbook 10

2 Human performance and error 12

2.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 12

2.2 An example of successful human performance 12

2.3 An example of unsuccessful human performance 14

2.4 Key learning points from this Chapter 18

3 Options for supporting human performance 19

3.1 Learning objective of this Chapter 19

3.2 Types of human performance 19

3.3 Types of human performance, errors and mistakes 21

3.4 Selecting options for supporting human performance 30

3.5 Key learning points from this Chapter 34

4 Supporting human capabilities 35

4.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 35

4.2 Attention 35

4.3 Vigilance 36

4.4 Memory 37

4.5 Cognitive capacity 38

4.6 Cognitive heuristics/biases 39

Part 2: Procedures and job aids 43

5 Human performance and job aids 45

5.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 45

5.2 An example of a major accident 45

5.3 The role of job aids in supporting human performance 46

5.4 Approach to developing effective job aids 48

5.5 Key learning from this Chapter 51

6 Selecting a type of job aid 53

6.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 53

6.2 Stage 1: Determining the need for a job aid 53

6.3 Stage 2: Selecting the type of job aid 62

6.4 Electronic job aids 67

6.5 Key learning from this Chapter 68

7 Developing content of a job aid 69

7.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 69

7.2 Outputs from task analysis 69

7.3 Outputs from Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis 72

7.4 User involvement 73

7.5 Validation of job aids 75

7.6 Keeping job aids up to date 75

7.7 Key learning from this Chapter 76

8 Format and design of job aids 77

8.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 77

8.2 Structure and layout 77

8.3 Navigation 82

8.4 Instructional Language 84

8.5 Pictorial information 88

8.6 Icons 89

8.7 Key learning from this Chapter 91

Part 3: Equipment 93

9 Human Factors in equipment design 95

9.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 95

9.2 Definitions 95

9.3 Major accident example 96

9.4 Error traps 99

9.5 How might poor equipment Human Factors cause error? 100

9.6 Example of poor equipment Human Factors 103

9.7 Supporting human performance by good equipment design 105 9.8 Mitigating poor design 113

9.9 Key learning from this Chapter 115

Part 4: Operational competence 117

10 Human performance and operational competency 119

10.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 119

10.2 What is competency? 119

10.3 Competency Management 120

10.4 An example of effective Process Safety Competency Management 123

10.5 An example of gaps in operational competency 124

10.6 Competency influencing factors 126

10.7 Key learning points from this Chapter 127

11 Determining operational competency requirements 129

11.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 129

11.2 Identify and define safety critical competency: overview 129

11.3 Step 1: Identify safety critical tasks 130

11.4 Step 2: Identify required competency 133

11.5 Step 3: Define performance standards 135

11.6 Key learning points from this Chapter 140

12 Identifying learning requirements 141

12.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 141

12.2 Competency gap analysis 141

12.3 Training Needs Analysis 142

12.4 Key learning points from this Chapter 146

13 Operational competency development 147

13.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 147

13.2 Good practice in learning 147

13.3 Key learning points from this Chapter 154

14 Operational competency assessment 155

14.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 155

14.2 Reasons for competency assessment 155

14.3 How to conduct assessment of competency 155

14.4 Reassessment 161

14.5 Managing competency gaps 162

14.6 Competency and learning records 164

14.7 Key learning points from this Chapter 165

Part 5: Task support 167

15 Fatigue and staffing levels 169

15.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 169

15.2 A fatigue-related accident 169

15.3 Managing fatigue risk 174

15.4 Key learning from this Chapter 184

16 Task planning and error assessment 185

16.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 185

16.2 Incident example 185

16.3 Human Factors and task planning 186

16.4 Error assessment within task planning 187

16.5 Key learning from this Chapter 193

17 Error management in task planning, preparation and control 195

17.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 195

17.2 Overview 195

17.3 Preventing optimism bias in task planning: scheduling 196

17.4 Assigning safety critical tasks 200

17.5 Distractions and interruptions 202

17.6 Long and low demand tasks 206

17.7 The Human Factors of control of work packages 209

17.8 Team briefings 211

17.9 Human Factors of system isolation 212

17.10 Human Factors of managing interlocks and automatic trips . 218 17.11 Key learning from this Chapter 223

18 Capturing, challenging and correcting operational error 225

18.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 225

18.2 Failing to spot, challenge, and recover from errors 225

18.3 Why might we fail to capture, challenge, and correct errors? 227

18.4 Coaching people to recognize risk of making errors 229

18.5 Error Management Training 231

18.6 Enabling challenge of task performance 235

18.7 Key learning from this Chapter 243

19 Communicating information and instructions 245

19.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 245

19.2 Incident example 245

19.3 Causes of poor communication 246

19.4 Human Factors of communications 247

19.5 Avoiding communication overload 250

19.6 Human Factors in shift handover 253

19.7 Key learning from this Chapter 258

Part 6: Non-technical skills 259

20 Situation awareness and agile thinking 261

20.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 261

20.2 What are situation awareness and agile thinking? 261

20.3 Accidents from poor situation awareness and rigid thinking. 264

20.4 Causes of poor situation awareness and rigid thinking 265

20.5 Key learning from this Chapter 269

21 Fostering situation awareness and agile thinking 271

21.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 271

21.2 Training in situation awareness skills 271

21.3 Practical situation awareness tools and tactics 277

21.4 Recognizing loss of situation awareness 283

21.5 Fostering agile decision-making 285

21.6 Key learning from this Chapter 290

22 Human Factors in emergencies 291

22.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 291

22.2 An example accident 291

22.3 Supporting human performance in emergencies 295

22.4 Non-technical skills for emergency response 298

22.5 Key learning from this Chapter 314

Part 7: Working with contractors and managing change 315

23 Working with contractors 317

23.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 317

23.2 An accident involving contractors 317

23.3 Human Factors tactics for supporting contractors 320

23.4 Key learning from this Chapter 323

24 Human Factors of operational level change 325

24.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 325

24.2 What do we mean by operational level change? 325

24.3 Operational level change and major accidents 326

24.4 Recognizing operational level changes that impact human performance 327

24.5 Managing Human Factors of changes 330

24.6 Key learning from this Chapter 333

Part 8: Recognizing and learning from performance 335

25 Indicators of human performance 337

25.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 337

25.2 What are performance indicators? 337

25.3 Identifying human performance indicators 339

25.4 Examples of human performance indicators 340

25.5 Sharing and acting on human performance indicators 349

25.6 Key learning from this Chapter 350

26 Learning from error and human performance 351

26.1 Learning objectives of this Chapter 351

26.2 The importance of understanding error 352

26.3 Examples of poor learning 354

26.4 Learning in high performing teams 356

26.5 Human Factors of investigating process 357

26.6 Selecting preventative Human Factors actions 372

26.7 Learning 375

26.8 Key learning from this Chapter 378

27 References 379

Index 453

Appendices

A Human error concepts 391

B Major accident case studies 401

C Human Factors Competency Matrix 415

D Competency performance standards 429

E Learning methods and performance 435

F Situation awareness and behavioral markers 441

G Human Factors change checklist 447
The Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) has been the world leader in developing and disseminating information on process safety management and technology since 1985. The CCPS, an industry technology alliance of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), has published over 100 books in its process safety guidelines and process safety concepts series, and over 10 training modules through its Safety in Chemical Engineering Education (SAChE) series. CCPS is supported by the contributions and voluntary participation of more than 200 companies globally.