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Transportation Electrification

Breakthroughs in Electrified Vehicles, Aircraft, Rolling Stock, and Watercraft

Mohamed, Ahmed A. / Khan, Ahmad Arshan / Elsayed, Ahmed T. / Elshaer, Mohamed A. (Herausgeber)

IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering

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1. Auflage Januar 2023
560 Seiten, Hardcover
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ISBN: 978-1-119-81232-6
John Wiley & Sons

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Transportation Electrification

Dive deep into the latest breakthroughs in electrified modes of transport

In Transportation Electrification, an accomplished team of researchers and industry experts delivers a unique synthesis of detailed analyses of recent breakthroughs in several modes of electric transportation and a holistic overview of how those advances can or cannot be applied to other modes of transportation. The editors include resources that examine electric aircraft, rolling stock, watercraft, and vehicle transportation types and comparatively determine their stages of development, distinctive and common barriers to advancement, challenges, gaps in technology, and possible solutions to developmental problems.

This book offers readers a breadth of foundational knowledge combined with a deep understanding of the issues afflicting each mode of transportation. It acts as a roadmap and policy framework for transportation companies to guide the electrification of transportation vessels.

Readers will benefit from an overview of key standards and regulations in the electrified transportation industry, as well as:
* A thorough introduction to the various modes of electric transportation, including recent advances in each mode, and the technological and policy challenges posed by them
* An exploration of different vehicle systems, including recent advanced in hybrid and EV powertrain architectures and advanced energy management strategies
* Discussions of electrified aircraft, including advanced technologies and architecture optimizations for cargo air vehicle, passenger air vehicles, and heavy lift vertical take-off and landing craft
* In-depth examinations of rolling stock and watercraft-type vehicles, and special vehicles, including various system architectures and energy storage systems relevant to each

Perfect for practicing professionals in the electric transport industry, Transportation Electrification is also a must-read resource for standardization body members, regulators, officials, policy makers, and undergraduate students in electrical and electronics engineering.

About the Editors xvii

List of Contributors xix

Introduction xxiii

1 Electrical Machines for Traction and Propulsion Applications 1
Ayman M. EL-Refaie

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Light-Duty Vehicles 1

1.3 Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles 7

1.4 Off-Highway Vehicles 9

1.5 Locomotives 9

1.6 Ship Propulsion 10

1.7 High Specific Torque/Power Electrical Machines 13

1.7.1 Electrical Machines for Land Vehicles 13

1.7.2 Electrical Machines for Aerospace Applications 15

1.7.3 Key System Tradeoffs and Considerations 21

1.7.3.1 Specific Power vs Efficiency 21

1.7.3.2 Fault Tolerance 21

1.7.3.3 System Voltage 21

1.7.3.4 Machine Controllability 22

1.8 How Does the Future Look Like? 22

References 25

2 Advances and Developments in Batteries and Charging Technologies 27
Satish Chikkannanavar and Gunho Kwak

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Advances in Cathodes/Anodes Covering Energy Density Increase for EV Applications 27

2.2.1 Cathode Challenges for High Energy Density 28

2.2.2 Anode Challenges for High Energy Density 30

2.3 High Power/Energy Cell Designs for xEVs 31

2.4 Post Li-Ion Batteries: Solid-State Batteries 32

2.4.1 Roadmap and Collaborative Relationships 33

2.4.2 Current Development Status and Key Challenges 33

2.5 Advances in Charging Batteries 36

2.5.1 Methods of Fast Charging Batteries 36

2.5.2 Li Plating Effects 37

2.5.3 Overcharge Induced Thermal Runaway 38

2.6 Degradation Considerations 40

2.7 Future Outlook 42

Acronyms 43

References 43

3 Applications of Wide Bandgap (WBG) Devices in the Transportation Sector. Recent Advances in (WBG) Semiconductor Material (e.g. Silicon Carbide and Gallium Nitride) and Circuit Topologies 47
Amir Ranjbar

3.1 History of Semiconductor Technology Evolution 47

3.2 Semiconductor Technologies for Transportation Electrification 49

3.2.1 Trends in Transportation Electrification 49

3.3 Challenges Associated with GaNs in Practical Applications 53

3.3.1 Device Physics Level Challenges with GaNs 53

3.3.1.1 Electron Trapping 53

3.3.1.2 Gate Edge Degradation 54

3.3.1.3 Punch Through Current 54

3.3.1.4 Substrate Choice 54

3.3.2 Application Level Challenges with GaNs 55

3.3.2.1 GaN's Narrow Gate Voltage Margin 55

3.3.2.2 dv/dt Immunity and False Turn-On in GaN Devices 57

3.3.2.3 di/dt Immunity in GaNs 57

3.4 SiC-MOSFET Challenges in Transportation Electrification 58

3.4.1 Low Gain of SiC-MOSFETs 58

3.4.2 Fault Detection in SiC-MOSFETs 59

3.4.3 Driving SiC-MOSFETs 60

3.4.4 Maximum Gate Voltage Swing in SiC-MOSFETs 60

3.4.5 Layout Considerations 61

3.5 Advanced Power Module Packaging to Accommodate WBG Devices 61

3.5.1 Advanced Substrate Materials 63

3.5.2 Advanced Die Attach Methods 64

3.5.3 Interconnection 64

3.5.4 Advanced Encapsulation Materials 67

3.5.5 Advanced Cooling Methods 68

3.6 Summary 69

References 70

4 An Overview of Inductive Power Transfer Technology for Static and Dynamic EV Battery Charging 73
Ahmed A. S. Mohamed, Ahmed A. Shaier, and Hamid Metwally

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 IPT System Components 74

4.3 Static IPT System 75

4.3.1 Coupler Components 76

4.3.2 Structures of Inductive Pad 78

4.3.3 Research and Development (R&D) and Standardization Activities 79

4.4 Dynamic IPT System 83

4.4.1 DIPT with a Single Long Coil Track 84

4.4.2 DIPT with Segmented Coil Array 86

4.4.3 R&D and Standardization Activities 90

4.4.3.1 Historical Background 90

4.4.3.2 R&D on DIPT 91

4.5 Quasi-Dynamic IPT System 94

4.6 Technology Challenges and Opportunities 94

4.7 Conclusion 95

References 95

5 Effectiveness Analysis of Control Strategies in Acoustic Noise and Vibration Reduction of PMSM-Driven Coupled System for EV and HEV Applications 105
Rishi Kant Thakur, Rajesh Manjibhai Pindoriya, Rajeev Kumar, and Bharat Singh Rajpurohit

5.1 Chapter Organization 105

5.2 Origin of ANV and its Consequences in the PMSM-Based Coupled System 105

5.2.1 Mechanical Noise 106

5.2.2 Electromagnetic Noise 106

5.2.3 Aerodynamic Sources 108

5.3 Recent Trends of Control Strategies for ANV Reduction 108

5.3.1 Control Aspects at the Site of Vibration (Mechanical) 108

5.3.2 Control Aspects at the Source of Vibration (Electrical) 109

5.4 Detailing of PMSM-Driven Experimental Setup 111

5.5 Methodology of Various Control Strategies and Their Implementation for ANV Reduction 113

5.5.1 Pseudorandom Triangular Pulse Width Modulation Technique (PTPWM) 113

5.5.2 Random Pulse Position Pulse Width Modulation Technique (RPPM) 114

5.6 Analysis of Torsional Vibration Response at Resonance 116

5.7 Implementation of MPF Accuracy Enhancement Technique in Lumped Model for Number of Modes or DoF Selection 118

5.7.1 Mathematical Modeling of Torsional Vibration Equation for All Lumped Elements 118

5.7.2 Calculation of Parameters Required in Resonance Response of Torsional Vibration 120

5.7.3 Natural Frequency, Mode Shape, and Orthonormalization of Modes 120

5.7.4 Calculation of Computationally Optimum Number of Lumped Elements 123

5.7.4.1 Calculation of Coefficient Vector {L} 123

5.7.4.2 Calculation of Model Participation Factor (MPF) 123

5.7.4.3 Calculation of Effective Mass 123

5.8 Extended Mathematical Modeling for the Effectiveness of Control Strategies Over Torsional Vibration Reduction 125

5.8.1 Calculation of Generalized Damping Matrix ([Cg]) 126

5.8.2 Calculation of Generalized Torque Corresponding to Each Control Strategy 127

5.9 Results and Discussion 128

5.9.1 Validation of Torsional Vibration Response at Resonance 128

5.9.2 Analysis of Dynamic Response Corresponding to Various Control Strategies 128

5.9.3 Simulation Results of SPWM, RPPM, and PTPWM Techniques for PMSM Drive 128

5.9.4 Experimental Results of SPWM, RPPM, and PTPWM Techniques for PMSM Drive 131

5.10 Conclusions and Future Scope 136

References 136

6 Challenges and Applications of Blockchain Technology in Electric Road Vehicles 139
Nabeel Mehdi

6.1 Mobility and Electric Vehicles 139

6.2 Electric Vehicle Overview 140

6.3 Challenges of the Electric Vehicle Industry 141

6.3.1 Range Anxiety 141

6.3.2 Lengthy Charging Times 142

6.3.3 Battery Safety Concerns 142

6.3.4 Lack of Standardization 143

6.3.5 Electricity Grid Disruption 144

6.3.6 Battery Waste 146

6.3.7 Cyber-Security Hazard 146

6.4 Applications of Blockchain Technology 146

6.4.1 Energy Blockchain Ledger 148

6.4.2 Blockchain-Powered Billing in E-mobility Systems 148

6.4.3 Charging-as-a-Service (CaaS) Ecosystem 150

6.4.4 Electric Vehicle Battery Management with Blockchain 151

6.4.5 Vehicle to Grid (V2G) 151

6.4.6 Blockchain-Enabled Security in Electric Vehicles Computing 152

6.4.7 Privacy-Preserving Blockchain-Based EV Charging 153

6.4.8 Battery Analytics 153

6.4.9 Supply-Chain Traceability and Provenance 154

6.5 Vehicle Insurance Management 155

6.5.1 Electric Vehicle Crypto Mining 155

6.6 Summary 156

References 157

7 Starter/Generator Systems and Solid-State Power Controllers 159
Tao Yang, Xiaoyu Lang, and Zhen Huang

7.1 Background 159

7.2 Future Design Options 160

7.3 The Starters/Generators and Their Power Electronics Control 162

7.4 System Analysis and Control Design 163

7.4.1 Current Control Design 164

7.4.2 Field-Weakening Control Design 167

7.4.3 Analysis and Control Design of the DC Voltage Loop 170

7.4.4 DC Bus Voltage Control: The Control Plant 170

7.4.5 DC Bus Voltage Control Design 172

7.4.6 Simulation Results of the Single-Bus Power-Generation Center 176

7.4.7 Appendix 178

7.5 The Solid-State Power Controllers and the Protection Features 180

7.5.1 Background of Solid-State Power Controllers 180

7.5.2 Design of Solid-State Power Controllers 181

7.5.3 Protection of Solid-State Power Controllers 182

References 186

8 DC-DC Converter and On-board DC Microgrid Stability 189
Giampaolo Buticchi and Jiajun Yang

8.1 Introduction 189

8.2 The Dual Active Bridge Converter 189

8.3 The LLC Series-Resonant Converter 192

8.4 Constant Power Load 194

8.5 Stability Criteria 194

8.6 Impedance Modeling and Stability Analysis 196

8.6.1 Impedance Model of PMSG 196

8.6.2 Controller Design 197

8.6.3 Impedance Model of DAB Converter 199

8.6.4 Impedance-Based Stability Analysis 201

8.6.5 Specifications 202

8.6.6 Impedance Model Validation 203

8.6.7 System Instability 204

8.6.8 Proposed Control Techniques for Stabilization 204

8.7 Conclusion 206

References 206

9 Packed U-Cell Inverter and Its Variants with Fault Tolerant Capabilities for More Electric Aircraft 209
Haroon Rehman, Mohd Tariq, Hasan Iqbal, Arif I. Sarwat, and Adil Sarwar

9.1 Introduction 209

9.2 Power System Architecture in MEA 210

9.3 Power Converters in MEA 212

9.4 PUC Topologies and Control 215

9.5 Fault Tolerant Capability of PUC Inverter 218

9.6 Results and Discussion 220

9.7 Conclusions 225

Acknowledgments 225

References 226

10 Standards and Regulations Pertaining to Aircraft 231
Lujia Chen, Prem Ranjan, Qinghua Han, Abir Alabani, and Ian Cotton

10.1 Introduction 231

10.2 Power Generation 232

10.2.1 Characteristics of Aircraft Electrical Systems 232

10.2.2 Electrical Machines 233

10.2.3 Power Conversion 234

10.2.4 Batteries 235

10.2.5 Challenges for Higher Voltage Aerospace Systems 236

10.3 Cable 236

10.3.1 Cable Component and Type 236

10.3.2 Digital Data and Signal Transmission 237

10.3.3 Cable Identification Marking 237

10.3.4 Cable Test Specifications 238

10.4 Connectors and Contacts 238

10.4.1 Classification 238

10.4.2 Connectors 239

10.4.3 Contacts 239

10.4.4 Testing of Tools, Contacts, and Connectors 239

10.5 Switching Device 240

10.5.1 Circuit Breaker Classification 240

10.5.2 Design of Circuit Breakers 240

10.5.2.1 Low-Current Range 240

10.5.2.2 High-Current Range 241

10.5.2.3 Arc Fault Circuit Breaker (AFCB) 241

10.5.3 Circuit Breaker Testing Specifications 241

10.6 Material 242

10.6.1 Metallic Materials 242

10.6.2 Non-metallic Material 243

References 243

11 Overview of Rolling Stock 249
Deepak Ronanki

11.1 Introduction 249

11.2 Rolling Stock Architectures 250

11.2.1 Railway Traction Power Systems 250

11.2.2 Classification of Rolling Stock 250

11.2.2.1 Light Rail Vehicle (LRV) 252

11.2.2.2 Heavy Rail-Diesel Locomotive 252

11.2.2.3 Heavy Rail-Electric Locomotive 253

11.2.2.4 Electric Multiple Units [EMUs] (AC or DC) 254

11.3 Sub-Systems and Components of Rolling Stock Architectures 256

11.3.1 Electric Propulsion Systems 256

11.3.2 Power Converter Systems and its Components 256

11.3.3 Auxiliary Power Systems 258

11.3.4 Traction Drive Control 259

11.3.5 Control Hierarchy of Rolling Stock 260

11.3.6 Standards and Regulations 262

11.4 Solid State Transformer (SST) Technology-Based Rolling Stock 262

11.4.1 Two-Stage (AC/HFAC) Power Conversion Topologies 267

11.4.2 Single-Stage (AC/HFAC) Power Conversion Topologies 269

11.4.3 Auxiliary Systems for SSTT Systems 271

11.5 Advancements and Challenges in Modern Rolling Stock 272

11.5.1 Semiconductor Technology and Cooling Systems 272

11.5.2 Advanced Materials for Passive Components 273

11.5.3 Reversible Substations and Off-Board Energy Storage Systems 275

11.5.4 On-Board Energy Storage Systems in Rolling Stock 276

11.6 Concluding Remarks 278

References 278

12 Electromagnetic Compatibility in Railways 283
Sahil Bhagat

12.1 Introduction 283

12.2 The Phenomenon of Electromagnetic Interference 284

12.2.1 The Interference Model 284

12.3 EMC Strategy 286

12.4 Design and Installation 288

12.4.1 Equipment Layout 288

12.4.2 Minimizing the Earth Network Impedance 288

12.4.3 Minimizing the Earth Bond Impedance 289

12.4.4 Grounding of Cable Shields 290

12.4.5 Appropriate Design of Cables Routes 290

12.4.5.1 Minimizing CM Loops 291

12.4.5.2 Minimizing DM Loops 291

12.5 Cable Tray Assembling and Earthing 291

12.5.1 Cable Segregation 291

12.5.2 Cables Classification 292

12.5.3 Separation Distances 292

12.5.4 Filtering 293

12.6 Overvoltage Arrestors 294

12.7 EMC Analysis 294

12.8 EMC Tests 295

References 297

13 Stray Current and Rail Potential Control Strategies in Electric Railway Systems 299
Aydin Zaboli and Behrooz Vahidi

13.1 Introduction 299

13.2 Principle of Stray Current and Corrosion Calculation 300

13.2.1 Mathematical Calculation of Stray Current 300

13.2.2 Corrosion Formulation 300

13.3 Literature Review of Control Strategies 302

13.4 Stray Current Control and Limitation Methods 303

13.4.1 Increase of Rail-to-Earth Resistance 303

13.4.2 Locating TPSs Adjacent to the Points of Maximum Train Acceleration or Adding TPSs 304

13.4.3 Traction Supply Voltage Increase 305

13.4.4 Stray Current Collection Mats 306

13.4.5 Grounding Schemes 310

13.4.5.1 Ungrounded System 310

13.4.5.2 Directly Grounded System 311

13.4.5.3 Diode-Grounded System 312

13.4.5.4 Thyristor-Grounded System 312

13.4.6 Insulating Pad 313

13.4.7 Welding Running Rails 313

13.4.8 4th Rail for Returning Current Path 314

13.4.9 Traction Power Substations Based on DC Auto-Transformer 315

13.4.10 Resistance of the Earth Wire to Reinforcing Bar 316

13.5 Conclusion 319

References 319

14 Earthing, Bonding, and Stray Current 325
Sahil Bhagat

14.1 E&B provisions for Traction Power Supply 326

14.1.1 DC Traction Return System 326

14.1.2 Wayside Earthing and Bonding in DC Traction System 326

14.1.2.1 Rail Potential and Return Circuit 327

14.1.3 Earthing and Bonding in DC Traction Power Substations 328

14.1.3.1 Equipment Frames 328

14.1.3.2 Voltage-Limiting Device (VLD) 328

14.2 AC Traction Return System 329

14.2.1 Wayside Earthing and Bonding in AC Traction 329

14.2.1.1 Rail Potential and Return Circuit 331

14.3 E&B Provisions for Station and Technical Buildings 331

14.3.1 Electrical Safety of Persons 331

14.3.1.1 Direct Contact 331

14.3.1.2 Indirect Contact 332

14.3.1.3 Touch Voltages 332

14.4 Protection 334

14.4.1 Protection Against Thermal Stress 334

14.4.2 Protection Against Overvoltage 334

14.5 Structure Earthing and Bonding System 334

14.6 Earthing and Equipotential Bonding 335

14.6.1 Indoor Equipment 335

14.6.2 Outdoor Equipment 335

14.7 Stray Current 336

14.7.1 Stray Current Corrosion 336

14.7.2 Parameters to Control Stray Current 337

14.7.3 Criteria for Stray Current Assessment 338

14.7.4 Design Provisions to Reduce Stray Current 338

14.7.5 Trackwork 338

14.7.5.1 Maximum Longitudinal Resistance of the Rail 338

14.7.5.2 Insulation Measures 338

14.7.6 Stray Current Collection System (SCCS) 339

14.7.7 Power Supply Design 339

14.7.8 Earthing and Bonding 340

References 340

15 Regenerative Braking Energy in Electric Railway Systems 343
Mahdiyeh Khodaparastan, Ahmed A. Mohamed, and Constantine Spanos

15.1 Introduction 343

15.2 Regenerative Braking Energy 343

15.3 Regenerative Braking Energy Recuperation Methods 344

15.3.1 Train Timetable Optimization 344

15.3.2 Storage-Based Solutions 345

15.3.2.1 Onboard Energy Storage 348

15.3.2.2 Wayside Energy Storage 349

15.3.3 Reversible Substation 350

15.3.4 Hybrid Reversible Substation and Wayside Energy Storage Modeling 352

15.3.5 Choosing the Right Application 355

15.4 New York City Transit - Case Study 356

15.4.1 NYC Transit Systems 356

15.4.2 Wayside Energy Storage 356

15.4.3 Reversible Substation 361

15.4.4 Hybrid Reversible Substation and Wayside Energy Storage 361

References 362

16 Flywheel Wayside Energy Storage for Electric Rail Systems 367
Ahmed A. Mohamed, Rohama Ahmad, William Franks, Brian Battle, and Robert Abboud

16.1 Introduction 367

16.2 Beacon Power's Kinetic Energy Storage System 367

16.2.1 Key Features of Beacon Flywheels 368

16.3 Train Simulation Study 370

16.3.1 Synopsis 370

16.3.2 Modeling Scope 370

16.3.3 Modeling Scenarios 370

16.3.4 Results and Discussion 371

16.3.4.1 Transient Response 371

16.3.4.2 24-hour Steady State Response 377

16.3.4.3 Effect of Changing Chopper Activation Voltage 379

16.3.4.4 Engaging the flywheel all the time 388

16.3.4.5 State of Charge Control 388

16.4 1MW Kinetic Energy Storage System Financial Results 392

16.4.1 Train Simulation Study 392

16.4.2 Cases Run 392

16.4.3 Capital Costs 393

16.4.4 Estimation of Annual Energy and Demand 393

16.4.4.1 Results 394

16.4.4.2 Emission Reduction 394

References 397

17 Distributed Energy Resource Integration with Electrical Railway Systems: NYC Case Study 399
Rohama Ahmad, Jaskaran Singh, and Ahmed A. Mohamed

17.1 Introduction 399

17.2 DER Integration with Subway Systems 400

17.2.1 Regenerative Braking Energy Recuperation 400

17.2.2 AC vs DC Integration 400

17.2.3 ESS Selection and Allocation 400

17.3 Case Study 401

17.3.1 NYC's Subway System 401

17.3.2 Model 404

17.3.3 DER Integration 409

17.3.4 Results of DER Integration 411

17.4 Conclusion 415

Reference 416

18 Challenges and State of the Art in the Agricultural Machinery Electrification 417
Luigi Alberti and Michele Mattetti

18.1 Introduction 417

18.2 Conventional Powertrain and Electrification Challenges 418

18.3 Electrification of Auxiliaries 420

References 421

19 Electrification of Agricultural Machinery: Main Solutions and Components 425
Luigi Alberti and Diego Troncon

19.1 Powertrain Electrification 425

19.1.1 Diesel-Electric and Hybrid-Electric Powertrains 425

19.1.1.1 Series Architectures 426

19.1.1.2 Parallel Architectures 428

19.1.1.3 Series-Parallel Architectures 429

19.1.2 Full-Electric Powertrains 430

19.1.3 Battery Electric Tractors (BETs) 430

19.1.4 Fuel Cell Electric Tractors (FCETs) 431

19.2 Main Components for Tractors' Electric Drivetrains 432

19.2.1 Electric Energy Storage Systems 432

19.2.2 Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Storage 433

19.2.3 Electric Machines 433

19.2.4 Power Converters 434

References 434

20 Feasibility Evaluation of Hybrid Electric Agricultural Tractors Based on Life Cycle Cost Analysis 437
Luigi Alberti, Elia Scolaro, and Matteo Beligoj

20.1 Introduction 437

20.2 Case Studies and Operating Cycles 438

20.2.1 Orchard Tractor 438

20.2.2 Row Crop Tractor's Medium-Duty Use 438

20.2.3 Row Crop Tractor's Heavy-Duty Use 439

20.3 System Modeling 440

20.3.1 Internal Combustion Engine 440

20.3.2 Converter and Electric Machine 440

20.3.3 Battery 440

20.3.4 Power Management 441

20.3.5 CO2 Emission Estimation 442

20.4 Design Specifications and Power Management Tuning 442

20.4.1 Battery Capacity Sizing and Power Management Tuning 442

20.4.2 Electric Machine and Power Electronics Design Specs 443

20.4.3 ICE Downsizing 443

20.5 Life Cycle Cost Analysis 444

20.5.1 Tractor Components and Energy Pricing 444

20.6 Results 445

20.6.1 Saving Each Cycle 445

20.6.2 Varying Component and Energy Pricing - Convenience of the Hybrid Tractors 447

20.6.3 Specs and Savings Summary 449

20.7 Conclusion 449

References 450

21 Advances in Data-Driven Modeling and Control of Naval Power Systems 453
Javad Khazaei and Ali Hosseinipour

21.1 Introduction to DC Watercraft Systems 453

21.2 Architectures for DC Shipboard Power Systems 456

21.2.1 Radial Topology 456

21.2.2 Multi-Zone Topology 456

21.3 Application of Hybrid Energy Storage in DC Watercrafts 458

21.3.1 Inner Control Loops 458

21.3.2 Generator Control 459

21.3.3 Resistive-Capacitive Droop Control 460

21.3.4 Proposed Complex Droop Control 461

21.4 Sparse Identification of Nonlinear Dynamics of DC/DC Converters in Watercrafts 463

21.4.1 Smoothing Data for Derivative Estimation 465

21.4.2 Estimating the Time Derivative Matrix X 465

21.4.3 Identification by Sparse Regression 465

21.4.4 Dynamic Model of the DC/DC Converters 466

21.4.5 Case Studies 467

21.4.6 Time-Domain Verification 467

21.5 Conclusion and Future Work 468

References 469

22 Shipboard DC Hybrid Power Systems: Pathway to Electrification and Decarbonization 475
Mehdi Zadeh and Pramod Ghimire

22.1 Introduction 475

22.2 Shipboard Power System Architectures 476

22.2.1 AC Switchboards 476

22.2.2 DC Power System 477

22.2.3 Hybrid AC-DC Power System 478

22.3 Shipboard DC Power System Topologies 478

22.4 Energy Storage and Alternative Energy Sources in Shipboard Power System 481

22.4.1 Energy Storages 482

22.4.2 Fuel Cell 483

22.5 High-Level Control of Energy Storage Systems 484

22.5.1 Peak Shaving 484

22.5.2 Load Leveling 484

22.5.3 Zero Emission 485

22.5.4 Battery Charging 486

22.5.5 Strategic Loading 486

22.5.6 Enhanced Dynamic Performance 487

22.5.7 Spinning Reserve 487

22.6 Load Sharing in DC Power System 488

22.7 Efficiency Improvement and Emission Reduction Potentials 488

22.8 Case Studies 489

22.8.1 Case Study 1 - Cruise Vessel 492

22.8.2 Case Study 2 - Offshore Vessel 494

References 495

Index 499
Ahmed A. Mohamed, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Grove School of Engineering, City University of New York at City College. He is also Director of the Smart Grid Interdependencies Laboratory and Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, IEEE Access, and MDPI Energies.

Ahmad Arshan Khan, PhD, is Director of Power Electronics and Electric Machines at CNH Industrial.

Ahmed T. Elsayed, PhD, is a Senior Electrical Design and Analysis Engineer and Technical Lead with Boeing Defense, Space and Security (BDS).

Mohamed A. Elshaer, is a Power Electronics Technical Expert in the Electrified Systems Engineering department of Ford Motor Company.