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Electric Power Systems with Renewables

Simulations Using PSSE

Mohan, Ned / Guggilam, Swaroop

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2. Auflage Februar 2023
320 Seiten, Hardcover
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ISBN: 978-1-119-84487-7
John Wiley & Sons

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Electric Power Systems with Renewables

Concise, balanced, and fundamentals-based resource providing coverage of power system operation and planning, including simulations using PSS(r)E software

Electric Power Systems with Renewables provides a comprehensive treatment of various topics related to power systems with an emphasis on renewable energy integration into power systems. The updated use cases and methods in the book build upon the climate change science and renewables currently being integrated with the grid and the ability to manage resilience for electrifying transportation and related power systems as societies identify more ways to move towards a carbon-free future.

Simulation examples and software support are provided by integrating the educational version of PSS(r)E. The newly revised edition includes new topics on the intelligent use of PSS(r)E simulation software, presents a short introduction to Python (a widely used software in the power industry), and provides new examples and back-of-the-chapter homework problems to further aid in information retention.

Written by two highly qualified authors with significant experience in the field, Electric Power Systems with Renewables also contains information on:
* Electric energy and the environment, covering hydro power, fossil-fuel based power plants, nuclear power, renewable energy, and distributed generation (DG)
* Power flow in power system networks covers basic power flow equations, the Newton-Raphson procedure, sensitivity analysis, and a new remote bus voltage control concept
* Transformers and generators in power systems, covering basic principles of operation, a simplified model, and per-unit representation
* High voltage DC (HVDC) transmission systems-current-link, and voltage-link systems

Associated with this textbook, there is a website from which the simulation files can be downloaded for use in PSS(r)E and Python. It also contains short videos to simplify the use of these software. This website will be regularly updated.

Electric Power Systems with Renewables serves as a highly useful textbook for both undergraduate and graduate students in Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE). It is also an appropriate resource for students outside of ECE who have the prerequisites, such as in mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering. Practicing engineers will greatly benefit with its industry-relevant approach to meet the present-day needs.

Preface xiii

Table of Simulations Using Pss(r)e, Python, and Matlab/simulink(r) xv

About the Companion Website xvii

Chapter 1 Introduction to Power Systems: a Changing Landscape 1

1.1 Nature of Power Systems 2

1.2 Changing Landscape of Power Systems Due to Utility Deregulation 4

1.3 Integration of Renewables Into the Grid 5

1.4 Topics in Power Systems 6

References 9

Problems 9

Chapter 2 Review of Basic Electric Circuits and Electromagnetic Concepts 11

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Phasor Representation in a Sinusoidal Steady State 12

2.3 Power, Reactive Power, and Power Factor 16

2.4 Three-Phase Circuits 22

2.5 Real and Reactive Power Transfer between AC Systems 30

2.6 Equipment Ratings, Base Values, and Per-Unit Quantities 32

2.7 Energy Efficiencies of Power System Equipment 33

2.8 Electromagnetic Concepts 34

Reference 44

Problems 44

Appendix 2A 47

Chapter 3 Electric Energy and the Environment 51

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Choices and Consequences 51

3.3 Hydropower 53

3.4 Fossil-Fuel-Based Power Plants 53

3.5 Nuclear Power 55

3.6 Renewable Energy 58

3.7 Distributed Generation (DG) 66

3.8 Environmental Consequences and Remedial Actions 66

References 68

Problems 68

Chapter 4 Ac Transmission Lines and Underground Cables 71

4.1 Need for Transmission Lines and Cables 71

4.2 Overhead AC Transmission Lines 72

4.3 Transposition of Transmission-Line Phases 73

4.4 Transmission-Line Parameters 74

4.5 Distributed-Parameter Representation of Transmission Lines in a Sinusoidal Steady State 82

4.6 Surge Impedance Z c and Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) 84

4.7 Lumped Transmission-Line Models in a Steady State 86

4.8 Cables 88

References 89

Problems 90

Appendix 4A Long Transmission Lines 92

Chapter 5 Power Flow in Power System Networks 95

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Description of the Power System 96

5.3 Example Power System 97

5.4 Building the Admittance Matrix 98

5.5 Basic Power-Flow Equations 100

5.6 Newton-Raphson Procedure 101

5.7 Solution of Power-Flow Equations Using the Newton-Raphson Method 104

5.8 Fast Decoupled Newton-Raphson Method for Power Flow 109

5.9 Sensitivity Analysis 110

5.10 Reaching the Bus VAR Limit 110

5.11 Synchronized Phasor Measurements, Phasor Measurement Units (PMUS), and Wide-Area Measurement Systems 111

5.12 dc Power Flow 111

References 112

Problems 112

Appendix 5A Gauss-Seidel Procedure for Power-Flow Calculations 113

Appendix 5B Remote Bus Voltage Control by Generators 114

Chapter 6 Transformers in Power Systems 119

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Basic Principles of Transformer Operation 119

6.3 Simplified Transformer Model 125

6.4 Per-Unit Representation 127

6.5 Transformer Efficiencies and Leakage Reactances 131

6.6 Regulation in Transformers 131

6.7 Autotransformers 132

6.8 Phase Shift Introduced by Transformers 134

6.9 Three-Winding Transformers 135

6.10 Three-Phase Transformers 136

6.11 Representing Transformers with Off-Nominal Turns Ratios, Taps, and Phase Shifts 137

6.12 Transformer Model in PSS(r)E 140

References 141

Problems 141

Chapter 7 Grid Integration of Inverter-based Resources (ibrs) and Hvdc Systems 145

7.1 Climate Crisis 146

7.2 Interface Between Renewables/Batteries and The Utility Grid 146

7.3 High-Voltage DC (HVDC) Transmission Systems 152

7.4 IEEE P2800 Standard for Interconnection and Interoperability of Inverter-Based Resources Interconnecting with Associated Transmission Electric Power Systems 156

References 157

Problems 157

Appendix 7A Operation of Voltage Source Converters (vscs) [7a1] 157

Appendix 7B Operation of Thyristor-Based Line- Commutated Converters (LCCS) 161

Chapter 8 Distribution System, Loads, and Power Quality 173

8.1 Introduction 173

8.2 Distribution Systems 173

8.3 Power System Loads 174

8.4 Power Quality Considerations 180

8.5 Load Management 191

References 192

Problems 192

Chapter 9 Synchronous Generators 195

9.1 Introduction 195

9.2 Structure 196

9.3 Induced EMF in the Stator Windings 200

9.4 Power Output, Stability, and The Loss of Synchronism 204

9.5 Field Excitation Control to Adjust Reactive Power 206

9.6 Field Exciters for Automatic Voltage Regulation (AVR) 208

9.7 Synchronous, Transient, and Subtransient Reactances 208

9.8 Generator Modeling in PSS(r)E 211

References 213

Problems 213

Chapter 10 Voltage Regulation and Stability in Power Systems 215

10.1 Introduction 215

10.2 Radial System as an Example 215

10.3 Voltage Collapse 218

10.4 Preventing Voltage Instability 220

References 227

Problems 228

Chapter 11 Transient and Dynamic Stability Of Power Systems 229

11.1 Introduction 229

11.2 Principle of Transient Stability 229

11.3 Transient Stability Evaluation in Large Systems 238

11.4 Dynamic Stability 239

References 240

Problems 241

Appendix 11A Inertia, Torque, and Acceleration in Rotating Systems 241

Chapter 12 Control of Interconnected Power Systems and Economic Dispatch 245

12.1 Control Objectives 245

12.2 Voltage Control by Controlling Excitation and Reactive Power 246

12.3 Automatic Generation Control (AGC) 247

12.4 Economic Dispatch and Optimum Power Flow 257

References 262

Problems 262

Chapter 13 Transmission Line Faults, Relaying, And Circuit Breakers 265

13.1 Causes of Transmission Line Faults 265

13.2 Symmetrical Components for Fault Analysis 266

13.3 Types of Faults 269

13.4 System Impedances for Fault Calculations 273

13.5 Calculating Fault Currents in Large Networks 276

13.6 Protection Against Short-Circuit Faults 277

References 286

Problems 287

Chapter 14 Transient Overvoltages, Surge Protection, and Insulation Coordination 289

14.1 Introduction 289

14.2 Causes of Overvoltages 289

14.3 Transmission-Line Characteristics and Representation 292

14.4 Insulation to Withstand Overvoltages 294

14.5 Surge Arresters and Insulation Coordination 296

References 296

Problems 297

Index 299
Ned Mohan, PhD, joined the University of Minnesota in 1975, where he is currently a Regents Professor and Oscar A. Schott Professor of Power Electronic Systems. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

Swaroop Guggilam, PhD, is an Engineer Scientist III, Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. His research areas include frequency control, transmission operations and planning, voltage control and stability, and optimization of distributed energy resources. In addition, the following three contributors bring the industry relevance to this textbook: Bruce F. Wollenberg, Prof. Emeritus at the University of Minnesota, Douglas Brown at Siemens, Inc., and Pratap Mysore with years of experience in relaying and protection at Xcel Energy.

N. Mohan, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis; S. Guggilam, Electric Power Research Institute, Inc