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Management of Electronic Waste

Resource Recovery, Technology and Regulation

Priya, Anshu (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Dezember 2023
496 Seiten, Hardcover
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ISBN: 978-1-119-89433-9
John Wiley & Sons

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MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRONIC WASTE

Holistic view of the current and future trends in electronic waste management, focusing on recycling, technologies, and regulations

Management of Electronic Waste delivers a complete overview of all aspects related to the toxicity characterization of electronic wastes, along with other important topics including resource recovery, recycling strategies, biotechnological advancements, and current perspectives on waste generation and management. The book presents hazards associated with conventional recycling methods and highlights environmentally compatible economic approaches for resource recovery, along with eco-friendly strategies for management of electronic wastes.

The high metallic content, heterogeneous and composite nature of e-wastes make them a rich secondary reservoir of metals. The book explores the valuable potential of e-waste and highlights the eco-friendly, sustainable technologies and recycling strategies for the profitable and effective conversion of waste to wealth.

Written by a highly qualified and internationally renowned author, Management of Electronic Waste covers sample topics such as:
* Rise of e-waste generation paired with rising economies and mounting demand for electrical and electronic devices, with a country-by-country breakdown
* Status of e-waste management and recycling efforts around the world, along with key processes that drive e-waste recycling
* Macroeconomic trends between global demand and supply for metal resources and the transition of linear to circular economy
* Bioleaching, an economic and green approach for recovery of metals, from e-waste and other low grade metal repositories
* Different metallurgical approaches for extraction and recovery of resources from e-waste and their pros and cons

Filling a gap on the understudied biotechnological recycling techniques and methods for mitigating environmental pollution caused by electronic waste, Management of Electronic Waste serves as an excellent guide on the subject for electronic waste producers, consumers, recycling industries, policy and law makers, academicians, and researchers.

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxiii

Acknowledgment xxvii

1 An Introduction to Electronic Waste 1
Anshu Priya

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Generation and Composition of E-Waste 3

1.3 Present Status of E-Waste Management and Recycling 4

1.3.1 Pyrometallurgical Process 5

1.3.2 Hydrometallurgical Process 7

1.3.3 Biometallurgy 7

1.4 Comparative Assessment of the Metallurgical Options for Metal Recovery 10

1.5 Future Prospects 10

1.6 Conclusion 11

References 11

2 The Global Challenge of E-Waste Generation 15
Lucas Reijnders

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 The Fate of Steel and Al Alloys 20

2.3 The Fate of Synthetic Polymers 21

2.4 The Fate of Glass Present in E-Waste 23

2.5 The Fate of Geochemically Scarce Elements in Electric and Electronic Components of E-Waste 24

2.6 What Happens to Other Significant Constituents of E-Waste? 26

2.6.1 Li-Ion Batteries 26

2.6.2 Refrigerants 27

2.6.3 Phosphors and Hg Used in Fluorescent Lamps 27

2.7 Conclusion: The Global Challenge of E-Waste 28

References 28

3 Generation, Composition, Collection, and Treatment of E-Waste 39
Monjur Mourshed, Sharifa Khatun, Kaviul Islam, Nahid Imtiaz Masuk, and Mahadi Hasan Masud

Abbreviations 39

3.1 Introduction 40

3.2 Global E-Waste Generation Scenario 42

3.3 General Composition of E-Waste 45

3.4 E-Waste Collection Strategies 49

3.4.1 Overview 49

3.5 Formal E-Waste Management 51

3.5.1 Overview 51

3.5.2 Government Authorities/Municipal Authorities 52

3.5.3 Extended Producer Responsibility 53

3.5.4 Extended Consumer Responsibility 55

3.5.5 Take Back Policy 55

3.6 Informal E-Waste Management 56

3.6.1 Overview 56

3.6.2 Local Vendors 57

3.6.3 Others 59

3.7 Treatment of E-Waste 59

3.7.1 Overview 59

3.8 Reuse and Refurbish 60

3.9 Recycle 60

3.10 Recovery 63

3.11 Reduce 64

3.12 Rethinking 65

3.13 Conclusion 65

References 66

4 Toxicity Characterization and Environmental Impact of E-Waste Processing 73
Shahriar Shams, Pg Rusydina Idris, and Ismawi Yusof

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 Impact of E-Waste 75

4.2.1 Direct Impact 76

4.2.2 Indirect Impact 76

4.3 Environmental Impact 77

4.3.1 Impact on Soil 77

4.3.2 Impacts on Water 78

4.3.3 Impact on Air 79

4.4 Health Impact 79

4.5 Ecological Impact 80

4.6 Impact from Processing E-Waste 82

4.6.1 Smelting Method 82

4.6.2 Hydrometallurgical Method 83

4.6.3 Physical Separation Method 83

4.6.4 Scrapping Method 84

4.7 Conclusions 84

References 84

5 Exposure to E-Wastes and Health Risk Assessment 88
Atul Kumar, Abhishek Sharma, and Anshu Priya

5.1 Introduction 88

5.2 E-Waste Categorization and Vulnerable Population 91

5.3 Exposure Pathways and Health Implications of E-Waste 93

5.4 Chemical Composition of E-Waste and Health Risks Associated with Their Exposure 96

5.4.1 Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) 96

5.4.2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) 96

5.4.3 Dioxins 96

5.4.4 Heavy Metals 96

5.5 Health Risk Assessments 100

5.5.1 Noncarcinogenic Risk Assessment 100

5.5.2 Carcinogenic Risk Assessment 101

5.6 E-Waste Management 103

5.7 Conclusion 105

References 106

6 Metal Resources in Electronics: Trends, Opportunities and Challenges 114
Marcelo P. Cenci, Daniel D. Munchen, José C. Mengue Model, and Hugo M. Veit

6.1 Introduction 114

6.2 Composition of Different EEE Components: Past, Present, and Tendencies 115

6.2.1 Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) 115

6.2.2 LED Lamps 118

6.2.3 Screens 122

6.2.4 Batteries 127

6.2.5 Magnets 129

6.3 Environmental Burden of the Electronic Devices 132

6.4 Recycling and Metal Recovery 134

6.4.1 PCBs 134

6.4.2 LED Lamps 135

6.4.3 Screens 135

6.4.4 Batteries 136

6.4.5 Magnets 137

6.5 Major Challenges in Management 137

6.6 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives 138

References 139

7 Urban Mining of e-Waste: Conversion of Waste to Wealth 152
Piotr Nowakowski

7.1 The Principles of Urban Mining and the Life Cycle of Electrical and Electronic Equipment 152

7.2 Materials for Recovery from Electrical and Electronic Equipment 156

7.3 The Collections and Social Attitude Toward Disposal of E-Waste 160

7.3.1 Methods of WEEE Collections 160

7.3.2 The Awareness of the Inhabitants When Choosing the Method of Waste Disposal 162

7.4 Discussion and Conclusion 163

References 165

8 Life Cycle Assessment and Techno-Economic of E-waste Recycling 173
Deblina Dutta, Rahul Rautela, Pankaj Meena, Venkata Ravi Sankar Cheela, Pranav Prashant Dagwar, and Sunil Kumar

8.1 Introduction 173

8.1.1 Life Cycle Assessment 174

8.1.2 Techno-Economic Analysis 174

8.1.3 System Application in E-Waste System 177

8.2 Life Cycle Assessment of E-waste Systems 179

8.2.1 LCA Methodology 179

8.2.2 Software Used for Modeling 181

8.2.3 Input and Output Modeling Parameters 182

8.2.4 Impact Method and Impact Software 182

8.3 Techno-Economic Analysis 184

8.3.1 Cost Estimation 184

8.3.2 Process Modeling 185

8.4 Conclusion 187

References 188

9 E-waste Recycling: Transition from Linear to Circular Economy 191
Abhinav Ashesh

9.1 Introduction 191

9.2 Linear Economy and its Limitations 192

9.3 Circular Economy - Need of the Hour 193

9.4 The Transition from Linear to Circular Economy 195

9.5 Understanding E-Waste Through Smartphones 196

9.5.1 Increasing Circularity in the Smartphone Market 198

9.6 Conclusion 198

References 199

10 E-Waste Valorization and Resource Recovery 202
Anusha Vishwakarma and Subrata Hait

10.1 Introduction 202

10.2 E-Waste Composition 204

10.3 Resource Recovery Techniques 208

10.3.1 Mechanical Methods 208

10.3.2 Pyrometallurgy 209

10.3.3 Hydrometallurgy 210

10.3.4 Biohydrometallurgy 211

10.4 Valorization of E-Waste for Circular Economy 212

10.4.1 Benefits of Valorization 213

10.4.2 Comparison of Resource Recovery Technique 214

10.4.3 Case Studies 216

10.5 Opportunities and Challenges of Valorization of E-Waste 223

10.6 Conclusion 223

References 224

11 Hydrometallurgical Processing of E-waste and Metal Recovery 234
Amilton Barbosa Botelho Junior, Ummul Khair Sultana, and James Vaughan

11.1 Introduction 234

11.2 Characterization 237

11.3 Leaching Techniques 241

11.3.1 Acid Leaching 242

11.3.1.1 Inorganic Acids 242

11.3.1.2 Organic Acids 243

11.3.2 Alkaline Leaching 243

11.3.3 Cyanide Leaching 244

11.3.4 Thiosulfate and Thiourea Leaching 248

11.4 Separation and Recovery 251

11.4.1 Precipitation 251

11.4.2 Solvent Extraction 252

11.4.3 Ion Exchange Resins 254

11.4.4 Electrodeposition 257

11.5 Emerging Technologies for E-Waste Recycling 258

11.5.1 Ionic Liquids 258

11.5.2 Deep Eutectic Solvents 261

11.5.3 Supercritical Fluids 265

11.5.4 Nanohydrometallurgy 267

11.6 Conclusion and Futures Perspectives 268

Acknowledgments 269

References 270

12 Microbiology Behind Biological Metal Extraction 289
Mishra Bhawana and Pant Deepak

12.1 Background 289

12.2 Overview of E-Waste: A Global Hazard 291

12.3 E-Waste Categories and Classification 292

12.3.1 E-Waste Categories 292

12.3.2 Physical and Chemical Composition of E-Waste 292

12.4 Environmental Hazards Due to E-Waste Composition 293

12.5 Health Risks from E-Waste Exposure 294

12.6 Bioremediation Techniques for E-Waste Management 294

12.7 Why Biological Methods for Metal Extraction from E-Waste 296

12.7.1 Leaching Mechanisms of Heavy Metals from E-Waste 297

12.7.2 Direct Bacterial Leaching 298

12.7.3 Indirect Bacterial Leaching 298

12.7.4 Role of Microbes in Metal Leaching Process from E-Waste 298

12.7.5 Major Microorganisms Involved in Metal Leaching 299

12.7.5.1 Acidophiles 303

12.7.5.2 Cynobacteria 303

12.7.5.3 Thiobacillus 303

12.7.5.4 Thermophilic Bacteria 303

12.7.5.5 Siderophores 304

12.7.5.6 Heterotrophic Microorganisms 304

12.8 Types of Bioremediation 304

12.9 Factors Influencing Microbial Metal Leaching 305

12.9.1 Availability of Nutrients 305

12.9.2 Aeration 306

12.9.3 Substrate 306

12.9.4 Surfactant, Chelators, and Complexing Agents 306

12.9.5 Temperature 306

12.9.6 Genomic and Metagenomic Challenges 307

12.10 Conclusion 307

12.11 Future Prospects 307

References 308

13 Advances in Bioleaching of Rare Earth Elements from Electronic Wastes 321
Xu Zhang, Ningjie Tan, Seyed Omid Rastegar, and Tingyue Gu

13.1 Introduction 321

13.2 REEs Recovery Technology 325

13.2.1 Classification and Characteristics of REEs Recovery and Treatment Technologies 325

13.2.1.1 Pyrometallurgy 326

13.2.1.2 Hydrometallurgy 326

13.2.1.3 Bioleaching 326

13.2.1.4 Electrochemical Technology 332

13.2.1.5 Leaching Using Cell-Free Supernatant 333

13.2.2 Recovery of REEs from WEEE 334

13.3 Post-Leaching/Bioleaching Process 336

13.3.1 Chemical Methods for Post-Leaching Recovery of Metals 336

13.3.1.1 Precipitation 336

13.3.1.2 Solvent Extraction 337

13.3.1.3 Ion Exchange 339

13.3.1.4 Adsorption 340

13.3.1.5 Electrochemical Method 342

13.3.1.6 Bioelectrochemical Method 342

13.4 Conclusion and Outlook 343

References 345

14 Bioprocessing of E-waste for Metal Recovery 359
Tannaz Naseri, Ashkan Namdar, and Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi

14.1 Introduction 359

14.2 Bioprocessing of E-waste for Metal Recovery 360

14.2.1 Autotrophic Bioleaching 361

14.2.2 Heterotrophic Bioleaching 362

14.2.3 Fungal Bioleaching 364

14.2.4 The Bioleaching Reaction: Biochemical Mechanisms 365

14.2.5 Industrial Scales of Bioleaching 366

14.3 Biosorption and Bioaccumulation of Metals 368

14.4 Perspective and Future Aspects 369

Acknowledgments 370

References 370

15 State-of-the-Art Biotechnological Recycling Processes 375
Mital Chakankar, Franziska Lederer, Rohan Jain, Sabine Matys, Sabine Kutschke, and Katrin Pollmann

15.1 Introduction 375

15.2 State-of-the-art Biotechnological Processes 378

15.2.1 Bioleaching 378

15.2.1.1 Biohydrometallurgy Based on Naturally Occurring Peptides 381

15.2.2 Biosorption 382

15.2.2.1 Biomass and Siderophores 382

15.2.2.2 Artificial Metal-Binding Peptides 388

15.2.2.3 Peptide-Based Biohybrid Tools for Resource Recovery 389

15.2.3 Bioreduction 390

15.2.4 Bioflotation 393

15.3 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 394

References 395

16 Biorecovery of Critical and Precious Metals 406
Shivangi Mathur, Nirmaladevi Saravanan, Soumya V. Menon, and Biswaranjan Paital

16.1 Introduction to Critical and Precious Metals for Recovery 406

16.2 Precious Metal E-waste Recovery in the International Market 407

16.2.1 Expected Fastest-Growing E-waste Recovery: Copper 408

16.2.2 Expected Thriving Local Segment for Valuable Metals Electronic Waste Recapturing: Europe and the Asia Pacific 408

16.3 E-waste Sources and Progression 408

16.4 Conventional E-waste Metal Recovery Methods and Their Limitations 409

16.4.1 Chemical Leaching 409

16.4.1.1 Pretreatment of E-waste 411

16.4.2 Physical Methods (Grinding and Pulverizing) 411

16.4.2.1 Disassembly 411

16.4.2.2 Treatment 412

16.4.2.3 Refinement: Porphyrin Polymers 412

16.4.3 Photocatalysis 413

16.4.4 Pyrometallurgy 415

16.4.4.1 Process of Pyrometallurgy 415

16.4.4.2 Limitations and Drawbacks of Pyrometallurgy 416

16.4.5 Hydrometallurgy 417

16.5 Biorecovery of Valuable Metals from Electronic Waste 418

16.5.1 Microbial Mobilization 418

16.5.1.1 Extraction Through Biologically Mediated Reactions 418

16.5.1.2 Principles and Mechanism of Microbial Leaching 418

16.5.2 Metal Mobilization Mechanism 420

16.5.3 Microorganisms Involved in Bioleaching 422

16.5.3.1 Chemolithoautotrophs 423

16.5.3.2 Heterotrophs 423

16.5.4 Bioreactors used for Bioleaching 423

16.5.5 Biosorption of Precious Metals 425

16.5.6 Biomineralization 425

16.6 Factors Affecting Biorecovery of Precious Metals 426

16.6.1 Oxygen Supply 426

16.6.2 pH 426

16.6.3 Mineral Substrate 427

16.6.4 Nutrients 427

16.6.5 Temperature 427

16.6.6 Presence of Organic Surfactants and Extractants 427

16.6.7 Concentration of Heavy Metals 427

16.7 Confirmatory Tests for Recovered Metals from E-waste 428

16.8 Biorecovery and Environment Sustainability 428

16.9 Biorecovery and Socio-economic Sustainability 429

16.10 Conclusion 429

References 430

17 Biohydrometallurgical Metal Recycling/Recovery from E-waste: Current Trend, Challenges, and Future Perspective 436
Shital C. Thacker, Devayani R. Tipre, and Shailesh R. Dave

17.1 Introduction 436

17.2 Overview of Biological Approach for Recycling of Metals 439

17.2.1 Bioleaching 439

17.2.2 Biosorption 444

17.2.3 Bioaccumulation 445

17.2.4 Bioprecipitation 446

17.2.5 Biomineralization 447

17.2.6 Biomining 448

17.3 Existing E-waste Management Challenges 449

17.3.1 Biotic Factor Restrictions 450

17.3.2 Abiotic Factor Restrictions 450

17.4 Advance Technology for Recycling Metals 451

17.4.1 Biohydrometallurgical Engineering 451

17.4.2 rDNA Technology Involved in Microorganism 452

17.5 Future Development Strategies for E-waste Management 453

17.5.1 Application of Omics Technology for Biohydrometallurgy 453

17.5.2 Combined Multi-omic and Bioinformatics Technology 453

17.6 Conclusion and Recommendation 455

References 456

Index 465
Anshu Priya, PhD, is an environmental and microbial biotechnologist working towards sustainable development and establishment of circular economy through biotechnological interventions. She has experience in leading, supervising and undertaking research in the broader areas of Waste and Biomass Valorization with a focus on Biohydrometallurgy, Hazardous Waste Management and Biorefinery. Dr. Priya earned her PhD from Indian Institute of Technology Patna and worked as researcher at City University of Hong Kong. She has experience in both teaching and research, and is recipient of various scientific awards, grants, and fellowships. Dr. Priya is also editor and reviewer of various Journals of International repute.

A. Priya, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, India; City University of Hong Kong