John Wiley & Sons Hydrogen Energy Cover HYDROGEN ENERGY Comprehensive resource exploring integrated hydrogen technology with guidance for d.. Product #: 978-1-119-90069-6 Regular price: $167.29 $167.29 Auf Lager

Hydrogen Energy

Production, Safety, Storage and Applications

Das, Lalit Mohan

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1. Auflage Februar 2024
464 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-90069-6
John Wiley & Sons

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HYDROGEN ENERGY

Comprehensive resource exploring integrated hydrogen technology with guidance for developing practical operating systems

Hydrogen Energy presents all-inclusive knowledge on hydrogen production and storage to enable readers to design guidelines for its production, storage, and applications, addressing the recent renewed interest in hydrogen energy to manage the global energy crisis and discussing the electrochemical potential of hydrogen in transportation and fuel cells.

Written by a highly qualified author, Hydrogen Energy explores sample topics such as:
* Essentials of hydrogen energy, such as its occurrence, physico-chemical properties, production, transmission, delivery, storage, and utilization
* Technology of hydrogen utilization in the land transport sector, such as automobiles, as well as other modes of transport, like marine and air
* Combustion characteristics and environmental pollution features, internal combustion engines, and fuel cells
* Guidelines to design prototype systems, covering their safety, hydrogen induced damages and life cycle analysis

Providing in-depth coverage of the subject, Hydrogen Energy is an ideal resource for researchers and professionals working towards developing time-bound goal-oriented hydrogen-based programs in the chemical, automobile, power, and process engineering sectors.

Preface xv

Acknowledgement xvii

List of Figures xix

Author Biography xxxi

1 Overall Energy Perspective 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Energy Overview 2

1.3 Sun as the Source of All Energy 4

1.4 Energy Consumption in Transport, Agriculture and Domestic Sectors 6

1.5 Energy Crisis: Starvation of Fossil Fuels 8

1.6 Environmental Degradation Due to Fossil Fuel Combustion 9

1.6.1 Green House Effect: Greenhouse Gas and Global Warming 10

1.6.2 Smog 15

1.6.3 Acid Rain 17

1.6.4 Vehicular Pollution 18

1.7 Energy Transition Towards Sustainability 19

1.8 Role of Hydrogen in Present Energy-environment Context 21

1.9 Demand for Hydrogen 22

1.10 Structure and Phases of Hydrogen 25

1.11 Discovery and Occurrence of Hydrogen 27

1.12 Uses of Hydrogen 28

Concluding Remarks 32

Abbreviations 33

References 34

2 Hydrogen Energy: Properties and Quality 37

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Properties of Hydrogen 39

2.3 Physical Properties 40

2.4 Chemical Properties 44

2.4.1 Flammability Limit 46

2.4.2 Minimum Ignition Energy 47

2.4.3 Flashpoint 48

2.4.4 Auto-ignition Temperature 48

2.4.5 Octane Number 49

2.4.6 Heat of Combustion 49

2.5 Electro-conductivity and the Joule-Thomson Effect 50

2.6 Emissivity of Hydrogen Flame and Adiabatic Flame Temperature 50

2.7 Laminar Burning Velocity 51

2.8 Hydrogen-Oxygen Reaction Mechanism 51

2.9 Hydrogen Colours and Carbon Footprint 53

2.10 Grey, Blue and Green Hydrogen 54

2.10.1 Grey Hydrogen 54

2.10.2 Blue Hydrogen 55

2.10.3 Turquoise, Brown, Black, Pink, Red, Yellow and White Hydrogen 58

2.11 Green Hydrogen 59

2.12 Benefits of Green Hydrogen 63

2.13 Obstacles and Challenges to Green Hydrogen 65

2.14 Cost of Green Hydrogen 67

Concluding Remarks 70

Abbreviations 72

References 72

3 Production of Hydrogen 75

3.1 Introduction 76

3.2 Routes of Hydrogen Production 76

3.3 Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) 80

3.3.1 Water-Gas Shift Reactor 82

3.3.2 Selection of Catalysts 83

3.3.3 Ethanol and Methanol Steam Reforming 83

3.3.4 Fuel Processing for Fuel Cell Application 84

3.4 Partial Oxidation of POx 85

3.5 Partial Oxidation of Heavy Oils and Naphtha 86

3.6 Auto-thermic Reaction (ATR) 86

3.7 Hydrogen from Coal Gasification 88

3.7.1 Types of Coal Gasification 88

3.7.2 Mechanism of Hydrogen Production by Gasification 89

3.8 Underground Coal Gasification 89

3.9 Hydrogen Production from Biomass 90

3.9.1 Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Hydrogen 91

3.9.2 Gasification of Biomass 91

3.9.3 Plasma Gasification Process 93

3.9.4 Pyrolysis of Biomass 93

3.9.5 Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass (SWGB) 94

3.10 Biological Production of Hydrogen 95

3.10.1 Biophotolysis 96

3.10.2 Photo-fermentation 97

3.10.3 Dark Fermentation 98

3.10.4 Combined Dark-Photo Co-fermentation 98

3.11 Hydrogen Production Based on Electrolysis 99

3.11.1 AEL and PEM Electrolysis 100

3.11.2 Alkaline Electrolysis 102

3.11.3 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolysis 102

3.12 Hydrogen Production Using Solar Energy 105

3.12.1 Solar Thermal Methane Splitting 106

3.13 Solid Oxide Electrolyser 106

3.14 Seawater Electrolyser 106

3.14.1 Photo-electrolysis (Photolysis) 107

3.15 Hydrogen Generation Using Wind Energy 108

3.16 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion for Hydrogen Production 109

3.17 Geothermal Energy for Hydrogen Production 109

3.18 Hydrogen from H2S in Black Sea Waters 110

3.19 Hydrogen Production Using Enterobacter cloacae 111

3.20 Hydrogen Production by Reforming Natural Gas and Bio-derived Liquids Using a Dense Ceramic Membrane 112

3.21 Plasma Reforming 113

3.22 Hydrogen from Nuclear Energy 114

3.23 Ammonia Dissociation 117

3.24 Hydrogen from Methane Hydrate 118

3.25 Improvements in Catalysts for Hydrogen Production 119

3.26 An Assessment of GWP and AP in Various Hydrogen Production Processes 120

Concluding Remarks and Future Outlook 122

Abbreviations 123

References 124

4 Hydrogen Storage, Transportation, Delivery and Distribution 133

4.1 Introduction 134

4.2 Properties of Hydrogen Relevant to Storage 134

4.3 Hydrogen Storage Criteria for Specific Application 136

4.4 Storage of Hydrogen as Compressed Gas 138

4.4.1 Types of Gas Cylinders 139

4.5 Liquid Hydrogen Storage 141

4.5.1 Boil-off Losses 141

4.5.2 Storage in High-pressure Gas Cylinders: Benefits and Challenges 143

4.6 Underground Storage of Hydrogen 144

4.7 Liquid Hydrogen Storage 146

4.7.1 Design Features of Storage Vessels 148

4.8 Slush Hydrogen Storage 149

4.9 Hydrides 150

4.10 Hydrogen Storage in Zeolites 154

4.11 Chemical Hydrides 154

4.12 Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage 155

4.13 Hydrogen Storage in Hollow Microspheres 156

4.14 Hydrogen Transportation 157

4.14.1 Transport of Liquid and Gaseous Hydrogen 158

4.14.2 Hydrogen Transport Through Pipelines and Ships 158

4.14.3 Hydrogen Storage in Vehicles 160

4.15 Transport of Gaseous Hydrogen 161

4.16 Liquid Hydrogen 162

4.17 Hydrogen Dispensing 163

4.18 Distribution and Delivery 164

Concluding Remarks 166

Abbreviations 167

References 167

5 Safety, Sensing and Detection of Hydrogen 173

5.1 Introduction 173

5.2 Infamous Disasters Related to Hydrogen Safety 174

5.3 Classification of Hazards 179

5.4 Physiological Hazards 179

5.4.1 Asphyxiation 180

5.4.2 Hypothermia 180

5.4.3 Thermal and Cryogenic Burns 180

5.5 Properties Relevant to Hydrogen Safety 181

5.5.1 Density, Buoyancy and Diffusivity 183

5.5.2 Continuous Evaporation and High Vapour Density 186

5.5.3 Pressure Rise 187

5.5.4 Maximum Experimental Safe Gap (MESG) 188

5.5.5 Quenching Distance and Quenching Limit 188

5.5.6 Ignition Energy 190

5.5.7 Thermal Energy and Radiation 192

5.5.8 Excessive Pressure and Blast Waves 193

5.5.9 Burning Velocity 194

5.5.10 Flammability Range 196

5.6 Phenomena of Explosion 197

5.7 Deflagration and Detonation 198

5.8 Safety at Different Stages: Production, Transmission, Storage and Application 201

5.8.1 Safety During Production 202

5.8.2 Safety Criteria in Storage 203

5.8.3 Safety in Transmission 204

5.9 Safe Handling, Storage and Use of Hydrogen in Vehicles 205

5.10 Hydrogen Leak Detection Technique and Sensors 208

5.11 Hydrogen Embrittlement 214

Concluding Remarks 215

Abbreviations 216

References 216

6 Application of Hydrogen Energy 221

6.1 Introduction 222

6.2 Ammonia Production and Fertiliser Industry 225

6.3 Production of Methanol 227

6.4 Hydrogen in Refineries 228

6.5 Hydrogen Use in Steel Industries 229

6.6 Hydrogen in Agriculture, Healthcare, Food Industry and Several Other Sectors 230

6.7 Hydrogen in the Welding, Cement and Paper Industries 231

6.8 Hydrogen for Electricity Generation 231

6.9 Hydrogen in ICEs 233

6.10 ICEs 235

6.10.1 Anomalies in Hydrogen Combustion Systems: Pre-ignition and Backfire 236

6.10.2 Phenomenon of Backfire: Causes and Control Techniques 237

6.11 Choice of Engine Configuration for Hydrogen Fuelling 241

6.12 Performance of a Hydrogen-Operated SI Engine 242

6.13 Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Hydrogen Engine and NOx Control 248

6.14 Exhaust Gas Recirculation 249

6.15 Spark Timing 250

6.16 Catalytic Methods 251

6.16.1 Use of Unburnt H2 251

6.16.2 Dosing of External H2 252

6.17 Operation at a High Equivalence Ratio 253

6.18 Development of Hydrogen Engine (Both SI and CI Engine) Gensets 256

6.19 Combustion in Hydrogen-fuelled SI Engines 257

6.20 Significant Contribution of Laser Ignition to Engine Combustion 258

6.20.1 Laser Ignition 258

6.20.2 Hydrogen-fuelled Laser-ignited Engine 260

6.21 Hydrogen Use in CI Engines 263

6.22 Use of Hydrogen in the Rotary (Wankel Engine) 266

6.23 Use of Hydrogen in ICEs with Natural Gas 267

6.24 Hydrogen in Combination with Other Fuels for ICEs 273

6.24.1 Hydrogen with Ethanol 273

6.24.2 Hydrogen and DME 275

6.24.3 Hydrogen with Propane and LPG 276

6.24.4 Hydrogen Addition to Biogas-Biodiesel Engine 279

6.25 Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine (HCCI) 280

6.26 Hydrogen-fuelled Vehicles (ICE Based) 282

6.27 Hydrogen in Fuel Cells 285

6.27.1 Types of Fuel Cells 287

6.27.2 Hydrogen Powertrains 293

6.27.3 Fuel Cell in the Transport Sector 294

6.27.4 Fuel Cell Buses and Trucks 295

6.27.5 Off-road Transport Trains 296

6.27.6 Stationary Power 297

6.27.6 Hydrogen in Gas Turbines 299

6.27.7 Hydrogen for Maritime Applications: Ships, Submarines and Boats 302

6.27.8 Hydrogen in Aviation and Air Transport 306

6.27.9 Hydrogen Use in the Domestic Sector 308

Concluding Remarks 310

Abbreviations 310

References 313

7 Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment, Durability and Material Compatibility 321

7.1 Introduction 321

7.2 Life Cycle Analysis 323

7.2.1 Stages of Life Cycle Assessment 324

7.2.2 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) 324

7.2.3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) 325

7.2.4 Fourth and Last Phase of LCIA Life Cycle 327

7.3 Technical Review 327

7.4 Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production 329

7.5 LCA-based Emissions 330

7.5.1 Global Warming Potential 330

7.5.2 Acidification 333

7.5.3 Eutrophication 337

7.6 Comparative Assessment of the Hydrogen Production Process 338

7.7 Climate Target Criteria: Carbon Capture 340

7.8 Review of Hydrogen Transport Modes and Delivery Methods 341

7.9 LCA for the Hydrogen Power Generation and Transport Sector 345

7.10 Analysis of Hydrogen Storage 346

7.11 Durability Studies Related to Hydrogen Energy Utilisation 351

7.12 Material Compatibility with Hydrogen Application 355

7.13 Ductility 356

7.13.1 Temperature Effect on Ductility 356

7.13.2 Choice of Fire-resistant Material 357

7.13.3 Materials for Liquid Hydrogen Service 358

Concluding Remarks 359

Abbreviations 359

References 361

8 Hydrogen-induced Damage (HTHA, Embrittlement and Blistering) 365

8.1 Introduction 366

8.2 HTHA, HA and HHA 367

8.3 High-temperature Hydrogen Attack 367

8.4 Factors Affecting Hydrogen Attack 368

8.4.1 Temperature 368

8.4.2 Pressure 369

8.4.3 Exposure Time 369

8.4.4 Stress 369

8.4.5 Composition of the Material 370

8.5 Hydrogen Embrittlement Phenomenon 371

8.5.1 External and Internal Embrittlement 372

8.5.2 Embrittlement Index 373

8.5.3 Characteristics of Hydrogen Embrittlement 373

8.6 Mechanisms of Embrittlement 375

8.7 Embrittlement Models 375

8.7.1 Hydrogen-enhanced Decohesion 376

8.7.2 Hydrogen-enhanced Local Plasticity Model 376

8.7.3 Adsorption-induced Dislocation Emission 377

8.7.4 Hydrogen-enhanced Strain-induced Vacancy Formation 377

8.7.5 Hydride-induced Embrittlement 379

8.7.6 Hydrogen-enhanced Macroscopic Plasticity (HEMP) 379

8.7.7 Hydrogen-assisted Microfracture Mode (HAM) 380

8.7.8 Decohesive Hydrogen Fracture (DHF) and Mixed Fracture (MF) 380

8.7.9 Hydrogen-assisted Microvoid Coalescence (HDMC) 380

8.8 Sensitivity Criteria for Materials to HE 381

8.9 Susceptibility of Materials to Hydrogen Embrittlement 382

8.10 Evaluation and Measurement of HE 383

8.10.1 Temperature Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) 384

8.10.2 Hydrogen Permeation Test 384

8.10.3 Microstructural Analysis 384

8.10.4 Hydrogen Microprint Technique (HMT) or Hydrogen Microprint and Silver Decoration Techniques 384

8.11 Embrittlement Prevention 385

8.12 Blistering 386

8.12.1 Characteristics of Blisters 387

8.12.2 Preventive Measures Against Hydrogen Blistering 388

Concluding Remarks 389

Abbreviations 389

References 391

9 Path Forward 397

References 407

Index 409
Dr. L. M. Das, Professor Emeritus at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India, was a Visiting Professor at the University of California, Riverside, USA. He worked in various global research assignments in the USA, UK, Portugal and France. He successfully completed several sponsored projects of UNIDO, Shell (England) and Government of India (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy & Ministry of Science and Technology). He is the recipient of several awards: Lockheed Martin Award (2012), Outstanding Service Award by International Association of Hydrogen Energy (2013), T.N. Vezirolu Award (2013); Biju Patnaik Award for Excellence in Science (2014), Life Time Achievement Award by ISEES (2015). As an author, he has contributed several chapters to books published internationally.

L. M. Das, Indian Institute of Technology, India