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Project Control

Integrating Cost and Schedule in Construction

Del Pico, Wayne J.


2. Auflage Oktober 2023
288 Seiten, Softcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-394-15012-0
John Wiley & Sons

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Reader-friendly, integrated approach to construction project cost and scheduling control, with all-new pedagogical elements

The Second Edition of Project Control is an introductory practical guide that explores the reasons and methodologies for proper planning, monitoring, and controlling project costs and schedule and shows how productivity models are created, monitored, and controlled, as well as how corrective actions are implemented as deviations from the baseline occur.

Project Control uses simple language to convey project control principles, making it an excellent resource to teach with and learn from in a classroom setting. This Second Edition has been updated with all-new pedagogical elements and ancillary materials for use in the construction project management classroom. This new edition features all-new sections on baseline scheduling, estimate development, probability analysis, and more.

Written by Wayne Del Pico, a seasoned professional with over 40 years of experience in construction project controls, Project Control includes detailed information on:
* Role of the project manager, covering leading the project team, creating the project plan, developing the project schedule, and monitoring project progress over time
* Project control cycles, covering plans to achieve goals, executing work according to plan, identifying variations and their causes, and executive work and measure changes
* Pre-construction planning, covering key personnel and responsibilities and establishing baselines for schedule and cost control
* Budgeting, covering types of estimates, organization estimates, and harnessing the budget as a management tool

Providing expert insight into the management skills of the project manager combined with the analytical focus of the accountant and the "big picture" oversight of the executive, Project Control is an essential resource for students in construction management programs and professionals in construction firms with specializations in long-term infrastructure projects.

About the Author xii

Preface xiii

1 The Basics 1

The Concept of Project Management 1

History of Project Management 2

Approaches to Project Management 3

The Traditional Approach 4

The Initiating Process 5

The Planning Process 5

The Executing Process 6

The Monitoring and Controlling Process 7

The Closing Process 7

Benefits of Proper Planning 8

The Role of the Project Manager 9

Lead the Project Team 10

Create the Project Plan 10

Develop the Project Schedule 11

Monitor the Progress of the Project 12

Control the Project 12

Take Corrective Action 12

Achieve the Project Goals 13

Goals of the Project 13

Contractual Performance Obligations 13

Financial Objectives 14

Prevent or Minimize Delay 14

Avoid Claims or Litigation 14

Control the O- P- C Relationship 15

Increase Market Share 15

Role of the Contract Documents 15

Study the Plans and Specifications 16

Identify Discrepancies Early 17

Visit the Project Site 17

Understand the Project Constraints 18

Determine Potential Problem Areas 18

Understand Contract Procedures 18

The Schedule and Budget 19

Summary and Key Points 19

Questions for Review 20

2 Introduction to Project Control 23

Overview of Project Control 23

Project Control Terminology 26

Project Control Formulas 35

The Project Control Cycle 35

Plan to Achieve Goals 36

Execute Work According to Plan 37

Measure the Progress 37
Identify Variations 38
Analyze Cause of Variations 38
Implement Corrective Actions 38
Execute Work and Measure Changes 39

Summary and Key Points 39

Questions for Review 40

3 Pre- Construction Planning 41

Initiating the Control Process 41

Pre- Construction Planning 42

Key Personnel and Responsibilities 44

The Contractor's Group 44

The Design Professional's Group 50

The Owner's Group 51

The Regulatory Group 52

The Plan-- the Roadmap 53

Establishing a Baseline for Schedule Control 55

Establishing a Baseline for Cost Control 57

The Communication Plan 58

Summary and Key Points 59

Questions for Review 60

4 The Schedule 61

Basic Scheduling Concepts 61

Types of Schedules 63

The Checklist 63

The Schedule Board 64

The Bar Chart 65

The Look- Ahead 66

The Linear Schedule 66

Advanced Scheduling Methods 67

Program Evaluation and Review Technique 67

Critical Path Method (CPM) 68

The CPM Schedule as a Management Tool 68

The Baseline Schedule 69

Tasks 71

The Work Breakdown Structure 71

Task Types 73

Task Descriptions 74

Task Durations 75

Interdependencies 79

Complex Relationships-- Lags and Leads 81

Milestones and Constraints 82

Float 84

Updating the Schedule 85

Summary and Key Points 87

Questions for Review 88

5 The Budget 89

Fundamentals of the Estimating Process 89

Types of Estimates 91

Organization of Estimates 92

The Baseline Budget 98

Deconstructing the Estimate to Build the Baseline Budget 103

Project Cost Report 107

The Budget as a Management Tool 108

Summary and Key Points 109

Questions for Review 110

6 Integrating the Schedule and the Budget 111

Schedule of Values 111

Matching Cost Values to Tasks 114

Planned vs. Actual Values 117

Summary and Key Points 121

Questions for Review 122

7 Calculating and Analyzing Progress 125

Why an Accurate Schedule of Values? 125

Measuring Performance 126

Units Completed 126

Incremental Milestone 127

Start/Finish 128

Cost Ratio 128

Experience/Opinion 129

Weighted or Equivalent Units 129

Earned Value 130

Fixed Budget Approach 130

Variable Budget Approach 131

Choosing a Fixed or Variable Approach 132

Schedule and Cost Performance 133

Summary and Key Points 137

Questions for Review 138

8 Analyzing and Reporting Variances in Schedule and Cost 139

Understanding Project Analyses 139

S- Curves 139

Tracking Gantt Chart 144

Control Charts 144

SPI and CPI Charts 146

X Contents Causes of Variances 148

Cost Variances 148

Schedule Variances 148

Variance Thresholds 149

Root Cause Analysis 151

Reporting Project Status 153

Summary and Key Points 155

Questions for Review 157

9 Recognizing Trends and Forecasting Performance 159

Recognizing Trends 159

Using Trends to Forecast 162

Estimate at Completion 162

Estimate to Complete 163

Variance at Completion 164

To- Complete Performance Index 164

Project Percentage Analysis 166

Why All the Analysis? 167

Summary and Key Points 169

Questions for Review 169

10 Productivity 171

Understanding Productivity 171

Productivity Index 172

Factors Affecting Construction Productivity 174

Controllable Factors Affecting Productivity 174

Uncontrollable Factors Affecting Productivity 175

Recommendations for Improving Productivity 175

Summary and Key Points 177

Questions for Review 177

11 Acceleration and Schedule Compression 179

Acceleration 179

Actual Acceleration 180

Constructive Acceleration 181

Forced Acceleration 182

Schedule Compression 183

Time- Cost Trade- Off Analysis 184

Time- Cost Trade- Off Concepts 185

Recovery Schedule 190

Summary and Key Points 191

Questions for Review 193

12 Resource Management 195

Resources 195

Resource Allocation 196

Resource Management 197

Resource Profile 199

Splitting Tasks 201

Material Management 201

Material Management in Practice 203

Tools for Resource Management 204

Summary and Key Points 204

Questions for Review 205

13 Risk Management 207

Components of Risk Management 207

Risk Identification 208

Risk Assessment 209

Risk Response Plan 211

Risk Response Control 213

Risk Contingency Planning 214

Contingency Plan Funding 215

Probability Analysis in Scheduling 216

Contract Type and Risk 222

Stipulated Sum 223

Cost of Work Plus Fee 223

Cost of Work Plus Fee with a GMP 223

Design Build 224

Construction Management 224

Partnering 225

Contract Modifications and Impact on Risk 225

Summary and Key Points 226

Questions for Review 227

14 Project Closeout 229

Project Documentation 229

Initiation of Project Closeout 230

Objectives of the Closeout Process 231

Contract Closeout 232

Administrative Closeout 233

Archiving Project Files 233

Claims and Disputes 234

Lessons Learned Meeting 235

Lessons Learned Documentation 236

Project Closeout Report 236

Summary and Key Points 237

Questions for Review 238

Case Study 239

Appendix A Questions for Review and Answers 251

Index 269
Wayne J. Del Pico is President of W.J. Del Pico, Inc., where he provides construction management and litigation support services for construction-related matters. He has more than 40 years of experience in construction management, scheduling, and estimating. He has taught several construction courses at Northeastern University in Boston, and is senior affiliate faculty at Wentworth Institute of Technology where he currently teaches programs in construction cost analysis, estimating, project control, and construction scheduling.

W. J. Del Pico, WJ Del Pico Inc., Pembroke, MA, USA