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Weathering and Erosion Processes in the Natural Environment

Bahadur Singh, Virendra / Madhav, Sughosh / Chandra Pant, Naresh / Shekhar, Ravi (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Februar 2024
416 Seiten, Hardcover
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ISBN: 978-1-394-15733-4
John Wiley & Sons

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Weathering and Erosion Processes in the Natural Environment

An indispensable introduction to the key environmental processes of weathering and erosion

Natural and human-induced weathering processes can have a great impact on soil and groundwater quality. With climate change and other environmental challenges placing increased emphasis on these resources, it has never been more important for researchers and environmental professionals to attain detailed knowledge of weathering and erosion processes.

Weathering and Erosion Processes in the Natural Environment meets this need with a rigorous, systematic overview. Beginning with a description of different forces and processes that contribute to weathering, it then discusses the different kinds of landforms that can be produced by weathering and erosion processes, as well as the potential impacts of hydrogeological processes on both surface water and groundwater. The result is a volume that balances qualitative and quantitative understanding of this crucial subject.

Weathering and Erosion Processes in the Natural Environment readers will also find:
* Documented examples in which weathering and erosion processes have led to heavy metals and other trace elements in groundwater
* Detailed discussion of climate change impacts, including extreme weather events and rising carbon dioxide levels
* Modeling approaches throughout to enable quantitative assessment and predictions of future impact

Weathering and Erosion Processes in the Natural Environment is ideal for researchers and advanced students in geology, geochemistry, hydrogeochemistry and environmental science, as well as professionals dealing with water and soil management.

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxi

1 Heavy Metals in the Sediment of River Ganga: A Review 1
Anupma Kumari, Mohammed A. Sulaiman, and Mohammad M. Zafar

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Source of Heavy Metals 3

1.3 Effects on Human Health 5

1.4 Status of Heavy Metal in the Sediment of River Ganga 7

1.5 Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediment 13

1.6 Mitigation Strategies 16

1.7 Conclusion 16

2 Synergistic Process of Weathering and Erosion: Techniques of Measurement and Their Significance 27
Ashutosh Kumar and Pooja Rani

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Method of Measuring Rock Surface Change 28

2.3 Contact Methods 29

2.4 Noncontact Methods 29

2.5 Techniques of Measuring Subsurface Changes in Rock 33

2.6 Techniques Based on Microscope for Measuring Rate of Weathering 37

2.7 Techniques Based on Infrared Microscopic Techniques 38

2.8 Techniques Based on Electron Microscopic Techniques 38

2.9 Techniques Based on Force Microscopy 40

2.10 Technique Based on 3D X-Ray Microscopy Computed Tomography (CT) 40

2.11 Conclusion 40

3 Comparison of Major Hydrogeochemical Processes in Coastal Sedimentary and Hard Rock Aquifers of South India 51
Amjad Al-Rashidi, Bedour Alsabti, Thilagavathi Rajendiran, Singaraja Chelladurai, and Chidambaram Sabarathinam

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Study Area 53

3.3 Material and Methods 56

3.4 Results and Discussion 56

3.5 Conclusion 77

4 Textural and Mineralogical Signatures of Fluvial Sediments in Mountain Streams of Contrasting Climates in the Southern Western Ghats (India) 83
Jobin Thomas, Sabu Joseph, and Thrivikramji Kythavilakom Pillai

4.1 Introduction 83

4.2 Study Area 85

4.3 Methodological Framework 88

4.4 Results and Discussion 88

4.5 Summary and Conclusion 98

5 Crucial Interplay of Microbial Communities in Controlling the Geogenic Processes 107
Aseem Kerketta, Joystu Dutta, Shristy S. Swarnkar, Amrita K. Panda, and Ashish Kumar

5.1 Introduction 107

5.2 Mechanical/Physical Weathering 108

5.3 Chemical Weathering 109

5.4 Biological Weathering 110

5.5 Weathering by Plants 110

5.6 Weathering by Animals 111

5.7 Microbial Weathering 111

5.8 Mechanisms of Microbial Weathering 112

5.9 Conclusion 117

6 Evolution of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Vulnerability of Western Himalayan Lake Sukhna, India 125
Prabhat Semwal, Suhas Damodar Khobragade, and Neeraj Pant

6.1 Introduction 125

6.2 Study Area 126

6.3 Data Used and Methodology 127

6.4 Results and Discussion 131

6.5 Summary and Conclusions 141

7 Geochemical Characterization and Baseline Determination of Trace Elements in Stream Waters from a Part of the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil 145
Gessica da Silva, Leandro S. Quaresma, Prafulla K. Sahoo, Gabriel N. Salomão, and Roberto Dall'Agnol

7.1 Introduction 145

7.2 Materials and Methods 147

7.3 Results 155

7.4 Discussion 176

7.5 Conclusions 185

8 Identifying the Footprints of Meteorological, Tectonic, and Anthropogenic Parameters on Sediment Transport in the Indus River System: A Review 193
Prem Kumar, Jaya Rai, and Chandra S. Dubey

8.1 Introduction 193

8.2 Study Area 194

8.3 Geological and Tectonic Settings 195

8.4 Hydrologic Regime of the IRB 198

8.5 Climate Settings of the IRB 198

8.6 Precipitation in the IRB 200

8.7 Evaluation of Projections of Hydrometeorological Trends of the IRB 201

8.8 Conclusion 205

9 An Implication of Enhanced Rock Weathering on the Groundwater Quality: A Case Study from Wardha Valley Coalfields, Central India 215
Priyadarshan S. Ganvir and Rajeeva Guhey

9.1 Introduction 215

9.2 Study Area 216

9.3 Geology 217

9.4 Methodology 217

9.5 Characterization of the Groundwater 218

9.6 Spatial Source Approximation 226

9.7 Temporal Approximation 229

9.8 Conclusion 234

10 Soil Loss Rates in Trans-Himalayan Region: Case Study of Shyok Suture Zone, Ladakh, India 243
Rohit Kumar, Rahul Devrani, Shailendra Pundir, Ihsan U. Lone, Vikas Adlakha, Kiran Sathunuri, Benidhar Deshmukh, and Anil Kumar

10.1 Introduction 243

10.2 Study Area 245

10.3 Data and Methodology 247

10.4 Result and Discussion 251

10.5 Conclusion 255

11 Microbial Weathering of Rocks in Natural Habitat: Genetic Basis and Omics-Based Exploration 265
Mansi Podia, Prerna Yadav, Sunila Hooda, Prerna Diwan, and Rakesh K. Gupta

11.1 Introduction 265

11.2 Microbial Diversity of Extreme Habitats 267

11.3 Factors Affecting Bio-Weathering 275

11.4 Genes and Microbial Pathways 278

11.5 Microbial Interactions in Bio-Weathering 282

11.6 Importance of Bio-Weathering 284

11.7 Omics to Explore Microbial Weathering of Rocks 288

11.8 Conclusion and Future Directions 289

12 Occurrence of Arsenic (As) in the Aquatic Environment Due to Weathering and Erosion 303
Shailesh K. Yadav, Alagappan Ramanathan, and Rakesh K. Ranjan

12.1 Introduction 303

12.2 History and Extent of Arsenic Poisoning in an Aquatic System 304

12.3 Chemistry of Arsenic (Inorganic and Organic) 308

12.4 Source, Occurrence, and Distribution of Arsenic 312

12.5 Geochemistry and Arsenic Mobilization 314

12.6 Variation in As with the Groundwater Depth 319

12.7 Role of Geomorphology and Geo-stratigraphy in As Mobilization 319

12.8 Role of Clay Minerals on As Mobilization 320

12.9 Conclusion 320

13 Atmospheric CO2 Consumption Associated With Chemical Weathering in the Riverine Ecosystem 331
Sushil Kumar

13.1 Introduction 331

13.2 Weathering and Ecosystem 332

13.3 Drivers of Chemical Weathering in the Riverine Ecosystem 334

13.4 Human-Induced Drivers of Weathering Agents in the Riverine Environment 335

13.5 Atmospheric CO2, Carbonate, and Silicate Weathering 336

13.6 Chemical Weathering and Its Factor Affecting 337

13.7 Conclusion 338

14 Geoscientific Factors Affecting Weathering and Erosion of Surface Exposure and Rock Types 343
Vamsi K. Kudapa, Uday Bhan, Nirlipta P. Nayak, Lalit Goswami, Somenath Ganguly, and Susheel Kumar

14.1 Introduction 343

14.2 Mechanical Weathering 344

14.3 Erosion 347

14.4 Case Study - A Mighty River, Kali Gandaki in Nepal 350

14.5 Erosion Rates Comparison Between Glaciated and Non-Glaciated Basins 351

14.6 Conclusion 354

15 Impacts of Climate Change on Weathering and Erosion of Rock Types Exposed on Earths Surface 359
Nirlipta P. Nayak, Vamsi K. Kudapa, Uday Bhan, Lalit Goswami, Susheel Kumar, and Anamika Kushwaha

15.1 Introduction 359

15.2 Type of Weathering Mechanism 364

15.3 Impact of Climate on Weathering and Erosion 368

15.4 Impact of Weathering on Climate 369

15.5 Conclusion 369

References 370

Index 375
Virendra Bahadur Singh, PhD, is Assistant Professor in the Department of Environmental Studies, Ram Lal Anand College, University of Delhi, India. His research focuses on weathering and erosion processes.

Sughosh Madhav, PhD, is Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India. He has published extensively on environmental topics.

Naresh Chandra Pant, PhD, is a Senior Professor in the Department of Geology, University of Delhi, India. His research concerns minerology, petrology, weathering, and hydrogeochemistry.

Ravi Shekhar, PhD, is Professor in the Centre for the Study of Regional Development, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. His research concerns environmental geography.

V. Bahadur Singh, Ram Lal Anand College, University of Delhi, India; S. Madhav, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; N. Chandra Pant, University of Delhi, India; R. Shekhar, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India