John Wiley & Sons Carbon Allotropes and Composites Cover CARBON ALLOTROPES and COMPOSITES The book discusses the most recent developments and trends in the .. Product #: 978-1-394-16650-3 Regular price: $195.33 $195.33 Auf Lager

Carbon Allotropes and Composites

Materials for Environment Protection and Remediation

Verma, Chandrabhan / Hussain, Chaudhery Mustansar (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Februar 2024
416 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-394-16650-3
John Wiley & Sons

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CARBON ALLOTROPES and COMPOSITES

The book discusses the most recent developments and trends in the use of carbon allotropes and their composites for environmental restoration and protection including synthesis, characterization and applications.

Due to their huge surface area and numerous other distinguishing characteristics, nanostructure materials are widely used in a variety of applications. The production of substrates for better environmental protection and cleanup has been prompted by these qualities. They offer a superior surface for the adsorption of impurities and pollutants that contaminate industrial eff luents, wastewater, air, and soil. These all include a variety of harmful environmental substances such as toxic metals, phenolic compounds, dyes, and other substances that must be treated appropriately before being released into the environment.

Composites made of highly efficient and relatively noble carbon allotropes are attracting significant attention for environmental protection and restoration. The use of carbon allotropes offers many benefits, including low cost, low toxicity, simple manufacture, and high efficiency. Therefore, they are ideal replacements for previously established materials. Carbon Allotropes and Composites is one of the first books on carbon allotropes and their composites in environmental protection and remediation, and features a description of CO2 capturing capability.

Audience

The book is designed for a broad audience working in the fields of materials science and engineering, nanotechnology, energy, environmental chemistry, environmental science, etc.

Preface xv

1 Preparation of Carbon Allotropes Using Different Methods 1
Omar Dagdag, Rajesh Haldhar, Seong-Cheol Kim, Elyor Berdimurodov, Sheerin Masroor, Ekemini D. Akpan and Eno E. Ebenso

Abbreviations 2

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Synthesis Methods 3

1.2.1 Synthesis of CNTs 3

1.2.1.1 Arc Discharge Method 3

1.2.1.2 Laser Ablation Method 4

1.2.1.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 5

1.2.1.4 Plasma-Enhanced CVD (PE-CVD) 7

1.2.2 Synthesis of CQDs 7

1.2.2.1 Arc Discharge 8

1.2.2.2 Laser Ablation 9

1.2.2.3 Acidic Oxidation 9

1.2.2.4 Combustion/Thermal Routes 10

1.2.2.5 Microwave Pyrolysis 10

1.2.2.6 Electrochemistry Method 10

1.2.2.7 Hydrothermal/Solvothermal Synthesis 10

1.3 Conclusions 11

References 11

2 Carbon Allotrope Composites: Basics, Properties, and Applications 17
Sheerin Masroor

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Allotropes of Carbon 18

2.3 Basics of Carbon Allotrope Composites and Their Properties 22

2.4 Composites of Graphite or Graphite Oxide (GO) 22

2.4.1 Applications of Graphite Oxide 24

2.5 Composites of Graphene 24

2.5.1 Applications of Graphene Oxide 24

2.6 Composite of Graphite-Carbon Nanotube (Gr-CNT)/ Polythene or Silicon 25

2.6.1 Applications of Graphite-Carbon Nanotube (Gr-CNT)/ Polythene or Silicon 26

2.7 Graphene (or Graphene Oxide)-Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) Composites 26

2.7.1 Applications of CNF Composites 26

2.8 Graphene-Fullerene Composites 26

2.8.1 Applications of Graphene-Fullerene Composites 26

2.9 Conclusion 27

References 27

3 Activation of Carbon Allotropes Through Covalent and Noncovalent Functionalization: Attempts in Modifying Properties for Enhanced Performance 31
Richika Ganjoo, Shveta Sharma and Ashish Kumar

3.1 Introduction 32

3.1.1 Carbon Allotropes: Fundamentals and Properties 32

3.1.1.1 Graphite 34

3.1.1.2 Diamond 34

3.1.1.3 Graphene 35

3.1.1.4 Activated Carbon 36

3.1.1.5 Carbon Nanotubes and Fullerene 36

3.1.2 Functionalization of Carbon Allotropes: Synthesis and Characterization 37

3.1.2.1 Covalent Functionalization of Carbon Allotropes: Synthesis and Characterization 38

3.1.2.2 Noncovalent Functionalization of Carbon Allotropes: Synthesis and Characterization 39

3.2 Applications of Functionalized Carbon Allotropes 42

3.2.1 Biomedical 42

3.2.2 Waste Treatment 43

3.2.3 Pollutants Decontamination 43

3.2.4 Anticorrosive 44

3.2.5 Tribological 44

3.2.6 Catalytic 45

3.2.7 Reinforced Materials 46

3.3 Conclusions and Future Directions 47

References 47

4 Carbon Allotropes in Lead Removal 51
Shippi Dewangan, Amarpreet K. Bhatia and Nishtha Vaidya

4.1 Introduction 52

4.2 Carbon Nanomaterials (CNMs) 55

4.3 Dimension-Based Types of Carbon Nanomaterials 55

4.4 Purification of Water Using Fullerenes 56

4.5 Application of Graphene and Its Derivatives in Water Purification 57

4.6 Application of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) in Water Purification 58

4.7 Conclusion 66

References 67

5 Carbon Allotropes in Nickel Removal 73
Amarpreet K. Bhatia, Nishtha Vaidya and Shippi Dewangan

5.1 Introduction 74

5.2 Carbon and Its Allotropes: As Remediation Technology for Ni 76

5.2.1 Nanotubes Based on Carbon 77

5.2.1.1 Overview 77

5.2.1.2 Features of CNTs 77

5.2.2 Fullerenes 80

5.2.3 Graphene 80

5.2.3.1 Overview 80

5.2.3.2 Properties 82

5.3 Removal of Ni in Wastewater by Use of Carbon Allotropes 83

5.3.1 Carbon Nanotubes for Ni Adsorption From Aqueous Solutions 83

5.3.2 Ni Adsorption From Aqueous Solutions on Composite Material of MWCNTs 84

5.3.3 GR and GO-Based Adsorbents for Removal of Ni 84

5.4 Conclusion 88

References 88

6 Molybdenum-Modified Carbon Allotropes in Wastewater Treatment 91
Madhur Babu Singh, Anirudh Pratap Singh Raman, Prashant Singh, Pallavi Jain and Kamlesh Kumari

6.1 Introduction 92

6.2 Carbon-Based Allotropes 93

6.2.1 Graphene 93

6.2.2 Graphite 93

6.2.3 Carbon Nanotubes 95

6.2.4 Glassy Carbon (GC) 95

6.3 Molybdenum Disulfide 96

6.3.1 Synthesis of MoS 2 96

6.3.2 Physical Methods 97

6.3.3 Chemical Methods 98

6.3.4 Properties 99

6.4 Application of MoS 2 100

6.4.1 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) 101

6.4.2 Catalyst 101

6.4.3 Desalination 101

6.4.4 Lubrication 102

6.4.5 Sensor 103

6.4.6 Electroanalytical 103

6.4.7 Biomedical 105

6.5 Molybdenum-Modified Carbon Allotropes in Wastewater Treatment 105

6.6 Conclusion 107

References 108

7 Carbon Allotropes in Other Metals (Cu, Zn, Fe etc.) Removal 113
Manoj Kumar Banjare, Kamalakanta Behera and Ramesh Kumar Banjare

7.1 Introduction 114

7.2 Carbon-Allotropes: Synthesis Methods, Applications and Future Perspectives 115

7.3 Reaffirmations of Heavy Metal Contaminations in Water and Their Toxic Effects 116

7.3.1 Copper 116

7.3.2 Zinc 116

7.3.3 Lead 119

7.3.4 Cadmium 119

7.3.5 Arsenic 119

7.4 Technology is Used to Treat Heavy Ions of Metal 119

7.4.1 Chemical Precipitation 119

7.4.2 Ion-Exchange 121

7.4.3 Adsorption 122

7.4.4 Membrane Filtration 123

7.4.5 Electrodialysis 124

7.4.6 Flotation 125

7.4.7 Electrochemical Treatment 126

7.4.8 Electroflotation 126

7.4.9 Coagulation and Flocculation 142

7.5 Factors Influencing How Heavy Metal Ions Adhere to CNTs 142

7.5.1 pH 142

7.5.2 Ionic Strength 143

7.5.3 CNT Dosage 143

7.5.4 Contact Time 143

7.5.5 Temperature 143

7.5.6 Thermodynamic Variables 143

7.5.7 CNT Regeneration 144

7.5.8 Isotherm Equation 144

7.5.9 Current Issues and the Need for Additional Study 144

7.6 Conclusions 144

Acknowledgments 145

References 145

8 Carbon Allotropes in Phenolic Compounds Removal 155
Manikandan Krishnamurthy and Meenakshisundaram Swaminathan

8.1 Introduction 156

8.2 Carbon Materials in Phenol Removal 159

8.2.1 Activated Carbon 159

8.2.2 Graphene 161

8.2.3 Carbon Nanotubes 162

8.2.4 Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide 163

8.2.5 Graphitic Carbon Nitride 164

8.2.6 Carbon Materials in the Biodegradation of Phenols 165

8.3 Conclusions 166

References 166

9 Carbon Allotropes in Carbon Dioxide Capturing 173
Elyor Berdimurodov, Khasan Berdimuradov, Ilyos Eliboyev, Abduvali Kholikov, Khamdam Akbarov, Nuritdin Kattaev, Dakeshwar Kumar Verma and Omar Dagdag

9.1 Introduction 174

9.1.1 Importance of Carbon Allotropes in Carbon Dioxide Capturing 174

9.2 Main Part 175

9.2.1 Polymer-Based Carbon Allotropes in Carbon Dioxide Capturing 175

9.2.2 Graphene-Aerogels-Based Carbon Allotropes in Carbon Dioxide Capturing 179

9.3 Functionalized Graphene-Based Carbon Allotropes in Carbon Dioxide Capturing 183

9.4 Conclusions 187

References 187

10 Carbon Allotropes in Air Purification 191
Nishtha Vaidya, Amarpreet K. Bhatia and Shippi Dewangan

10.1 Introduction 192

10.2 Historical and Chemical Properties of Some Designated Carbon-Based Allotropes 194

10.3 Structure and Characteristics of Carbon Allotropes 194

10.4 Uses of Carbon Nanotube Filters for Removal of Air Pollutants 200

10.5 Physicochemical Characterization of CNTs 203

10.6 TiO 2 Nanofibers in a Simulated Air Purifier Under Visible Light Irradiation 204

10.7 Poly (Vinyl Pyrrolidone) (PVP) 204

10.8 VOCs 205

10.9 Heavy Metals 205

10.10 Particulate Matter (PM) 207

10.11 Techniques to Remove Air Pollutants and Improve Air Treatment Efficiency 208

10.12 Removal of NOX by Photochemical Oxidation Process 210

10.13 Chemically Adapted Nano-TiO 2 211

10.14 Alternative Nanoparticulated System 212

10.15 Photodegradation of NOX Evaluated for the ZnO-Based Systems 212

10.16 Synthesis and Applications of Carbon Nanotubes 213

10.17 Mechanism of Technologies 215

10.18 Conclusion 221

References 222

11 Carbon Allotropes in Waste Decomposition and Management 229
Swati Sahu, Gajendra Singh Rathore and Sanjay Tiwari

11.1 Introduction 230

11.2 Management Methods for Waste 230

11.2.1 Landfilling 232

11.2.2 Incineration 232

11.2.3 Mechanical Recycling 232

11.2.3.1 Downcycling Method 233

11.2.3.2 Upcycling Method 233

11.3 Process of Pyrolysis: Waste Management to the Synthesis of Carbon Allotropes 233

11.4 Synthesis Methods to Produce Carbon-Based Materials From Waste Materials 235

11.4.1 Catalytic Pyrolysis 235

11.4.2 Batch Pyrolysis-Catalysis 237

11.4.3 CVD Method 237

11.4.4 Pyrolysis-Deposition Followed by CVD 238

11.4.5 Thermal Decomposition 238

11.4.6 Activation Techniques 239

11.4.6.1 Physical Activation Technique 239

11.4.6.2 Chemical Activation Technique 240

11.5 Use of Waste Materials for the Development of Carbon Allotropes 240

11.5.1 Synthesis of CNTs Using Waste Materials 240

11.5.2 Synthesis of Graphene Using Waste Materials 243

11.6 Applications for Carbon-Based Materials 245

11.6.1 CNTs 245

11.6.2 Graphene 247

11.6.3 Activated Carbon 247

11.7 Conclusions 248

References 249

12 Carbon Allotropes in a Sustainable Environment 257
Farhat A. Ansari

12.1 Introduction 258

12.2 Functionalization of Carbon Allotropes 258

12.2.1 Covalent Functionalization 258

12.2.2 Noncovalent Functionalization 260

12.3 Developments of Carbon Allotropes and Their Applications 261

12.4 Carbon Allotropes in Sustainable Environment 262

12.5 Carbon Allotropes Purification Process in the Treatment of Wastewater 263

12.5.1 Fullerenes 264

12.5.2 Bucky Paper Membrane (BP) 264

12.5.3 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 265

12.5.3.1 CNT Adsorption Mechanism 265

12.5.3.2 CNTs Ozone Method 266

12.5.3.3 CNTs-Fenton-Like Systems 267

12.5.3.4 CNTs-Persulfates Systems 268

12.5.3.5 CNTs-Ferrate/Permanganate Systems 269

12.5.4 Graphene 269

12.6 Removal of Various Pollutants 270

12.6.1 Arsenic 270

12.6.2 Drugs and Pharmaceuticals 274

12.6.3 Heavy Metals 279

12.6.4 Pesticides and Other Pest Controllers 280

12.6.5 Fluoride 285

12.7 Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) Adsorption 287

12.8 Conclusion and Future Perspective 290

References 291

13 Carbonaceous Catalysts for Pollutant Degradation 303
Poonam Kaswan, Santimoy Khilari, Ankur Srivastava, Girijesh Kumar, Pratap K. Chhotaray, Mrituanjay D. Pandey and Kamalakanta Behera

13.1 Introduction 304

13.2 Strategies to Develop Carbon-Based Material 306

13.3 Advantages of Carbon-Based Metal Nanocomposites 308

13.4 Methods for the Development of Carbon-Based Nanocomposites 312

13.5 Carbon-Based Photocatalyst 313

13.5.1 Fullerene (C 60) 314

13.5.2 Carbon Nanotubes 315

13.5.3 Graphene 315

13.5.4 Graphitic Carbon Nitride (g-C 3 N 4) 317

13.5.5 Diamond 318

13.6 Applications 319

13.6.1 Dye Degradation 319

13.6.2 Organic Transformation 321

13.6.3 NOx Removal 322

13.7 Factors Affecting Degradation 322

13.7.1 Radiation 322

13.7.2 Exfoliation 322

13.7.3 pH 323

13.7.4 Reaction Condition 323

13.7.5 Carbonaceous Material 323

13.8 Challenges 323

13.9 Conclusion and Future Aspects 324

Acknowledgments 325

Abbreviations 325

References 325

14 Importance and Contribution of Carbon Allotropes in a Green and Sustainable Environment 337
Ajay K. Singh

14.1 Introduction 338

14.1.1 Basic Aspects of Sustainability 338

14.2 Changes Being Observed in Nature and Their Effect on Our Planet 339

14.2.1 Water, Air, and Effect on Energy Generation 339

14.2.2 Air Quality 339

14.2.3 Pollution (Air/Water) 340

14.2.4 Carbon Footprint 341

14.2.5 Green House Effect 342

14.2.6 Ozone Layer Depletion 342

14.2.7 Temperature 343

14.2.8 Effect on Farm Products 343

14.2.9 Plastic 345

14.2.10 Radiation Pollution 346

14.3 Advantages of Green House Effect 346

14.3.1 Supports and Promotes Life 346

14.3.2 Photosynthesis 346

14.4 Industrial Sustainability 347

14.5 Corrosion and Its Implications 349

14.5.1 Corrosion 349

14.5.2 Corrosion and Sustainable Environment 350

14.5.3 Industrial Operations and Environmental Sustainability 352

14.5.4 Industrial Machinery Corrosion and Its Implications 353

14.6 Corrosion Control and Material Properties 355

14.6.1 Mechanical Properties 355

14.6.2 Corrosion Resistant Materials 358

14.6.3 Design Consideration 358

14.6.4 Erosion Corrosion 358

14.6.5 Cathodic/Anodic Protection 360

14.6.6 Corrosion Inhibitors 361

14.6.7 Nanomaterials 362

14.7 Carbon Allotropes and Corrosion Inhibition 363

14.7.1 Carbon Dots (CD) or Carbon Quantum Dots (cqd) 364

14.7.2 Buckminster Fullerene C 60 366

14.7.3 Graphene 369

14.7.4 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 373

14.8 Conclusion 377

14.8.1 Commercialization 378

14.8.2 Synergy in Mixed Nanohybrids 379

References 379

Index 383
Chandrabhan Verma, PhD, works at the Interdisciplinary Center for Research in Advanced Materials, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Saudi Arabia. He obtained his PhD in material science/chemistry at the Indian Institute of Technology, Varanasi, India. He is the Associate Editor-in- Chief of the Organic Chemistry Plus Journal. He has published many articles in international journals and has over 9000 citations. Dr. Verma has received several awards for his academic achievements.

Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain, PhD, is an adjunct professor and director of laboratories in the Department of Chemistry & Environmental Science at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), Newark, New Jersey, United States. His research is focused on the applications of nanotechnology and advanced materials, environmental management, analytical chemistry, and other various industries. Dr. Hussain is the author of numerous papers in peer-reviewed journals, as well as a prolific author and editor of around a hundred books.

C. Verma, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; C. M. Hussain, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), USA