John Wiley & Sons Future Fixed and Mobile Broadband Internet, Clouds, and IoT/AI Cover FUTURE FIXED AND MOBILE BROADBAND INTERNET, CLOUDS, AND IoT/AI All-in-one resource on the developme.. Product #: 978-1-394-18796-6 Regular price: $129.91 $129.91 Auf Lager

Future Fixed and Mobile Broadband Internet, Clouds, and IoT/AI

Janevski, Toni

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1. Auflage April 2024
352 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-394-18796-6
John Wiley & Sons

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FUTURE FIXED AND MOBILE BROADBAND INTERNET, CLOUDS, AND IoT/AI

All-in-one resource on the development of Internet and telecoms worldwide, based on the technological frameworks as defined by the ITU

Future Fixed and Mobile Broadband Internet, Clouds, and IoT/AI is a highly comprehensive resource that provides full coverage of existing and future fixed and mobile broadband networks, internet, and telecom and OTT services.

This book explains how to perform technical, business, and regulatory analysis for future 5G-Advanced, 6G, WiFi, and optical access. This book also covers optical transport, submarine cable, future satellite broadband, cloud computing, massive and critical IoT and frameworks and use of AI / ML in telecommunications.

Topics covered include:
* Internet technologies, IPv6, QUIC, DNS, IPX, QoS in Internet/IP, cybersecurity, future Internet 2030, Internet governance
* Future metallic and optical broadband, carrier-grade Ethernet, SD-WAN, OTN, submarine cable, satellite broadband, business and regulation of broadband
* Future mobile and wireless broadband, 5G-Advanced, 5G/6G spectrum management, 5G Non-Terrestrial Networks, QoS, 6G/IMT-2030, WiFi 7 (802.11.be), mobile business and regulatory aspects
* Cloud computing architectures and service models, MLaaS, BaaS, future OTT and telecom cloud services, business and regulation of clouds
* Future voice, future TV, XR/AR/VR, critical IoT/AI services, future OTT services, metaverse, network neutrality, future digital economy and markets

Future Fixed and Mobile Broadband Internet, Clouds, and IoT/AI is an essential reference for government officials and regulators, business leaders, engineers, managers, and employees in the telecommunications industry, ICT business professionals, and students in telecommunications.

About the Author xv

1 Fixed and Mobile Broadband Evolution 1

1.1 Evolution of Fixed and Mobile Telecommunications 1

1.1.1 Initial Telecommunication Technologies 1

1.1.2 Digital Telecommunication World 3

1.1.2.1 Circuit Switching 3

1.1.2.2 Packet Switching 5

1.2 Internet Evolution 6

1.2.1 Comparison of Internet and Legacy Telecommunications 7

1.2.2 The Broadband Evolution of Open Internet and IP Networks 9

1.3 Convergence of Telecom and Internet Worlds 14

1.3.1 Protocols Convergence 15

1.3.2 Architectural Convergence 17

1.3.3 Services Convergence and Digital Market - the Digitalization 19

1.4 Legacy, Over-The-Top (OTT), and Critical Services 20

1.5 Discussion 22

References 24

2 Internet Technologies 25

2.1 Open Internet Architecture 25

2.1.1 Internet Protocol Architecture 25

2.1.2 Open Internet Network Architectures 26

2.2 Main Internet Technologies 27

2.2.1 Internet Protocol (IP): IPv4 and IPv 6 28

2.2.2 Transport Protocols in Internet: TCP and UDP 30

2.2.3 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 30

2.2.4 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 32

2.2.5 QUIC: UDP-based Multiplexed and Secure Transport 34

2.2.6 Domain Name System (DNS) 35

2.3 IPv6 Addressing and Implementation 36

2.3.1 IPv4 Addressing 36

2.3.2 IPv6 Addressing 37

2.3.3 IPv4-to-IPv6 Migration and IPv6 Implementation 38

2.4 IP Interconnections and IP exchange (IPX) 41

2.4.1 IP Interconnection Approaches 41

2.4.2 End-to-End IP Communication 43

2.5 HTTP 2.0, HTTP 3.0, and Web Technology 44

2.5.1 HTTP Fundamentals 45

2.5.2 Http 2.0 46

2.5.3 Http 3.0 47

2.5.4 Web 3.0 and Metaverse 48

2.6 QoS in Internet/IP Networks 50

2.6.1 Legacy QoS Approaches in IP Networks 51

2.6.2 End-to-End IP QoS Framework 52

2.6.3 Framework for Monitoring End-to-End QoS of IP Network Services 53

2.7 Cybersecurity and Privacy 55

2.7.1 Cybersecurity Fundamentals 56

2.7.2 IP Security Fundamental Technologies 58

2.7.3 Online Privacy Aspects 59

2.8 Future Internet Development Toward 2030 and Beyond 61

2.8.1 Future Broadband Internet Through Continuous Evolution 62

2.9 Governance of Broadband Internet 64

2.9.1 Convergence Between Broadband IP Infrastructure and Other Sectors 65

2.9.2 Discussion About the Future of the Broadband Internet Governance 66

References 67

3 Future Terrestrial and Satellite Broadband 69

3.1 Future Metallic Broadband 69

3.1.1 Legacy DSL Technologies for Fixed Broadband Access 69

3.1.2 Future Multi-gigabit Fast Access to Subscriber Terminals 70

3.2 Future Cable Broadband 72

3.2.1 DOCSIS 4.0 73

3.2.2 Discussion on Future of Copper Access Technologies 75

3.3 Future FTTH/FTTx Optical Access 75

3.3.1 Architectures of Optical Networks for Fixed Broadband Access 77

3.3.2 Next Generation High Speed PONs 78

3.4 Carrier-grade Ethernet for Telecoms 79

3.4.1 The Rise of Ethernet from Local to Carrier Technology 79

3.4.2 Carrier Ethernet Characteristics 80

3.4.3 QoS for Carrier Ethernet 81

3.5 Software Defined - Wide Area Network (SD-WAN) 83

3.5.1 IP/MPLS for Telecom Transport Networks 83

3.5.2 Software-Defined WAN for Telecom Networks 85

3.6 Optical Transport Networks 88

3.6.1 Optical Transport Network 88

3.7 Submarine Cable Transport Networks 90

3.7.1 Deployment of Submarine Cable Systems 91

3.7.2 Business and Regulatory Aspects for Submarine Cables 93

3.8 Satellite Broadband 94

3.8.1 Fixed-Satellite Service (FSS) 95

3.8.2 FSS Technical Characteristics 96

3.8.2.1 Example for Global Broadband Internet Access Via FSS Systems 97

3.8.3 Earth Stations in Motion (ESIM) 98

3.8.4 Non-GSO vs. GSO Satellite Service 99

3.8.5 Regulatory and Business Aspects of Satellite Broadband 101

3.9 Business and Regulatory Aspects of Fixed Broadband 102

3.9.1 Business Aspects of Future Broadband Internet 102

3.9.2 Impact of Broadband on Economy 105

3.9.3 Infrastructure Sharing 106

References 107

4 Mobile Broadband 109

4.1 Mobile Broadband Evolution (LTE/LTE Advanced Pro) 111

4.1.1 E-UTRAN: 4G Radio Access Network from 3GPP 112

4.1.2 Evolved Packet Core (EPC) 114

4.1.3 LTE Advanced Pro 116

4.2 5G New Radio 117

4.2.1 5G New Radio (NR) Characteristics 118

4.2.2 5G Radio Access Network (5G RAN) Architectures 121

4.3 SDN, NFV, and Network Slicing in 5G 121

4.3.1 Network Slicing in IMT- 2020 123

4.4 5G Next Generation Core 124

4.4.1 5G Core Network Functions 125

4.4.2 Software Based Architecture (SBA) in 5G Network 126

4.5 5G Quality of Service (QoS) 128

4.5.1 5G QoS Indicators (5QIs) 128

4.5.2 QoS Functions in 5G Network 132

4.5.3 5G QoE Analysis with Artificial Intelligence (AI) Assistance 133

4.6 Spectrum Management for International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) 135

4.6.1 5G Frequency Bands 136

4.6.2 Analysis of 5G Frequency Carriers in FR1 and FR 2 139

4.6.3 Carrier Aggregation and Bandwidth Adaptation 142

4.6.4 Discussion on 5G Capacity and User Traffic Versus 5G Spectrum 144

4.7 Mobile Access in Unlicensed Bands 147

4.7.1 4G LTE and 5G NR in Unlicensed Bands 148

4.7.2 Access Traffic Steering, Switching, and Splitting for 5G-WLAN 149

4.7.3 5G Mobile Technologies in 6 GHz Band 151

4.8 Business and Regulatory Aspects of Mobile Broadband 152

References 154

5 Future Mobile and Wireless Broadband 155

5.1 5G-Advanced 155

5.1.1 Main Characteristics of 5G-Advanced 156

5.1.2 Time Synchronization and Time-Sensitive Communication in 5G/5G-Advanced 158

5.1.3 Discussion on 5G-Advanced 159

5.2 Integrated Access and Backhaul (IAB) 160

5.2.1 IAB Architecture 160

5.2.2 Spectrum Considerations for Implementation of IAB 162

5.3 Future WLAN: Wi-Fi 6 (IEEE 802.11ax) and Wi-Fi 7 (IEEE 802.11be) 163

5.3.1 IEEE 802.11 Standards for Wireless LAN 164

5.3.2 Wi-Fi 6 - Next Generation Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11ax) 165

5.3.3 Wi-Fi 7 - Extremely High Throughput Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11be) 167

5.4 5G - WLAN Interworking 169

5.4.1 Untrusted WLAN Access in 5G Network 169

5.4.2 Trusted WLAN Access in 5G and Wireline Access 171

5.4.3 Discussion on 5G and WLAN 172

5.5 5G Non-Terrestrial Networks (M2M/IoT Over Satellite) 172

5.5.1 5G NTN Architectures 173

5.5.2 Mobility and Handovers in NTN 176

5.5.3 Spectrum for NTN in 5G-Advanced 177

5.5.4 M2M/IoT Over Satellite 178

5.6 Fixed-Wireless Access (FWA) 179

5.6.1 5G FWA Architecture and Spectrum 180

5.6.2 5G FWA Services 181

5.7 5G-Advanced Non-Public (Private) Networks 182

5.7.1 Standalone Non-Public Network (SNPN) 182

5.7.2 Public Network Integrated Non-Public Network (PNI-NPN) 183

5.8 Future Mobile Broadband: IMT-2030 and Beyond 185

5.8.1 IMT-2030 Framework and Usage Scenarios 186

5.8.2 IMT-2030/6G Radio Interface and Spectrum 187

5.9 Business and Regulatory Aspects of Future Mobile and Wireless Broadband 190

References 191

6 Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, and Artificial Intelligence 193

6.1 Internet of Things (IoT) Framework 193

6.1.1 Massive IoT and Critical IoT Technologies 194

6.1.2 Security and Trust in IoT 197

6.2 Mobile Internet of Things (e.g., NB-IoT) 198

6.2.1 Cellular IoT in 4G 199

6.2.2 Cellular IoT in 5G 200

6.3 Big Data Architectures and Networking 202

6.3.1 Big Data Ecosystem 203

6.3.2 Big Data Driven Networking (bDDN) 204

6.3.3 Big Data Use in the Telecom Sector 205

6.4 ITU's Framework for Machine Learning (ML) 206

6.4.1 Definition and Classification of Machine Learning in Internet and Telecoms 207

6.4.1.1 Naive Bayes ML Algorithm in Internet and Telecoms 208

6.4.1.2 K-Means Clustering ML Algorithm 208

6.4.1.3 Apriori Algorithm 209

6.4.1.4 Regression ML Algorithms 209

6.4.1.5 Random Forest ML Algorithm 210

6.4.2 Framework for Machine Learning (ML) by ITU 210

6.4.3 Machine Learning Marketplace 211

6.4.4 ITU's Network Intelligence Levels 212

6.5 AI (Artificial Intelligence)/ML (Machine Learning) for 5G 214

6.5.1 AI/ML Model Transfer in 5G System 214

6.5.2 AI/ML Use Cases in 5G/5G-Advanced 217

6.5.2.1 Use Cases of AI/ML for QoS, QoE and Energy Saving in 5G and Beyond 217

6.5.2.2 AI/ML for Network Slicing in 5G/IMT-2020 and Beyond 218

6.5.2.3 AI/ML for Business Support Systems (BSS) in 5G and Beyond 219

6.5.3 Discussion 220

6.6 Future AI-based Network Service Provisioning 220

6.6.1 Intent-based Networks 221

6.6.2 Zero-touch Networks 223

6.6.3 Discussion 224

6.7 Blockchain for IoT Data Processing and Management 225

6.7.1 Blockchain Definition and Use Cases in Telecom World 225

6.7.2 Blockchain for IoT Services 226

6.8 Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) for Quantum Internet/IP 228

6.8.1 Qubit for Quantum Communication 228

6.8.2 Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) Technology 229

6.8.3 QKD Application in Telecom Networks 231

6.9 Business and Regulatory/Governance Aspects of IoT, Big Data, and AI 231

6.9.1 IoT, Big Data, and AI - Opportunities and Challenges 232

6.9.2 AI Governance 232

References 234

7 Cloud Computing for Telecoms and OTTs 237

7.1 Cloud Computing Architectures 237

7.2 Cloud Ecosystem 239

7.2.1 Cloud Deployment Models 241

7.3 Cloud Service Models 241

7.3.1 Machine Learning as a Service (MLaaS) 243

7.3.2 Blockchain as a Service (BaaS) 244

7.4 Cloud-native and Microservices for OTT Providers and Telecoms 245

7.4.1 Cloud-native for Telecoms and OTTs 246

7.4.2 Cloud-native in 5G Mobile Networks 247

7.4.3 Cloud-native IoT 248

7.4.4 Discussion on Cloud-native 249

7.5 Edge Computing 249

7.5.1 5G Core and Edge Computing 250

7.5.2 Telecom Edge Clouds 251

7.6 Future OTT Cloud Services 253

7.7 Future Telecom Cloud Services 256

7.7.1 Mobile Cloud Computing 256

7.7.2 Future Telecom Edge Clouds Federation 258

7.8 Business Aspects and Regulation of Cloud Computing (Including Security and Privacy) 260

7.8.1 Business Aspects of Cloud Computing 260

7.8.2 Regulation Aspects of Cloud Computing 263

References 265

8 Future Fixed and Mobile Services 267

8.1 Future Telecom and OTT Voice Services 267

8.1.1 Voice Over NR (VoNR) in 5G 268

8.1.2 Discussion 270

8.2 Future TV/IPTV, Video, and XR/AR/VR Services 271

8.2.1 Scope of TV/IPTV Services 271

8.2.2 Future 5G and Beyond Broadcast and Multicast Services 272

8.2.2.1 Delivery Methods of 5G Multicast Broadcast Services (5G MBS) 273

8.2.3 eXtended Reality (XR) Services in 5G and Beyond Mobile Networks 275

8.2.3.1 Different Realities of VR, AR, MR, and XR 275

8.2.3.2 XR Architecture 276

8.2.3.3 The Future of XR Services 278

8.3 Telecom and OTT Massive IoT Services 279

8.3.1 Massive IoT Ecosystem and Interoperability 280

8.3.2 OTT Massive IoT Services 282

8.4 Future Critical IoT/AI Services 284

8.4.1 5G URLLC Services 284

8.4.2 Industrial IoT 287

8.4.3 Smart Cities 288

8.4.4 Vehicle to Everything - V2X 290

8.4.4.1 V2X Architecture in 5G 291

8.5 Future OTT Services 293

8.5.1 Future Web 293

8.5.2 Cloud Gaming 295

8.5.3 Future of the Social Media - Metaverse 295

8.6 Open Internet vs. QoS, QoE, and Network Neutrality 296

8.6.1 Regulatory Aspects of Network Neutrality 297

8.6.2 QoS/QoE vs. Network Neutrality vs. Traffic Management 298

8.6.3 Future Services vs. Network Neutrality 300

8.7 Future Digital Economy and Markets 301

8.7.1 Digital Transformation 302

8.7.2 Business Aspects for Future Telecom and OTT Services 304

8.8 Regulatory Challenges for Future Telecom and OTT Services 306

References 307

9 Conclusions 309

References 313

Index 315
Toni Janevski is a Professor at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies, Skopje, Macedonia, and Member of ITU's Group of Capacity Building Initiatives. He has published multiple books, numerous research papers and has tutored and coordinated many ITU international courses through the ITU Academy.

T. Janevski, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje (UKIM), North Macedonia