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Rising Contagious Diseases

Basics, Management, and Treatments

Amponsah, Seth Kwabena / Shegokar, Ranjita / Pathak, Yashwant V. (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Februar 2024
496 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-394-18871-0
John Wiley & Sons

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Comprehensive yet succinct insight into the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases including COVID-19, mpox, Ebola, and Lyme disease

Rising Contagious Diseases provides basic information about preventing and treating threatening infectious diseases from viral, bacterial, and parasitic sources, including 28 emerging or recurring diseases like COVID-19, mpox, Ebola, bird and swine flu, malaria, Legionnaires', and others. The text highlights molecular surveillance and epidemiology (including zoonotic pathogens or their variants), innovative strategies for pathogen detection, drug and vaccine development, appropriate preventive measures, cost-effective diagnostic procedures (assays), and effective therapeutic strategies.

The text is unique due to its broad coverage of today's infectious diseases, covering several which are not similarly addressed elsewhere, with detailed insight from experts around the world.

Composed of 30 chapters of fundamental facts alongside practical and clinical data, Rising Contagious Diseases covers sample topics such as:
* Re-emergence of certain diseases in recent decades due to dynamic host-pathogen interactions, anthropogenic selection, and climate change
* How real-time epidemiological surveillance can improve detection of infectious disease outbreaks or new infections of public health importance
* Up-to-date insight on transmission dynamics, epidemiology, clinical manifestation, advances in diagnostics, and management of covered diseases
* Effects of disease outbreaks on the world at large, such as through high morbidity and mortality rates and rising healthcare costs

With detailed insight on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases, Rising Contagious Diseases is an essential reference for health care professionals, academics in the field of microbiology, immunology, infectious diseases, pathology, pharmacology and public health, and undergraduates and postgraduates in related disciplines.

List of Contributors xxv

Foreword xxxi

Preface xxxii

Biographies xxxiii

1 Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases of the Decade: An Overview 1
Ranjita Shegokar, Seth K. Amponsah, and Yashwant V. Pathak

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Infectious Diseases and the Economy 1

1.3 The Main Factors Involved in EIDs and REIDs 2

1.4 Prevention of EIDs and REIDs 3

1.5 Infectious Diseases of the Last Decades 4

1.6 Conclusion 6

2 Recent Trends and Possible Future Trajectory of COVID-19 7
Ismaila Adams, Ofosua Adi-Dako, Eugene Boafo, Emmanuel K. Ofori, and Seth K. Amponsah

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Overview of COVID-19 8

2.3 Current State of the Pandemic 10

2.4 Epidemiological Projections and Modeling 11

2.5 Potential Scenarios for the Future 12

2.6 Impact of COVID-19 on Public Health and Healthcare Systems 13

2.7 Socioeconomic and Behavioral Considerations 14

2.8 Global Preparedness and Response 15

2.9 Conclusion and Recommendations 16

3 Mpox: New Challenges with the Disease 20
Julia Wang, Lynn Nguyen, Vernon Volante, Jeannez Daniel, and Charles Preuss

3.1 History of Mpox virus 20

3.2 Characteristics 20

3.3 Epidemiology 20

3.4 Transmission 21

3.5 Pathogenicity 22

3.6 Risk Factors 23

3.7 Diagnostic Testing 24

3.8 Symptoms 24

3.9 Long-Term Effects and Complications 25

3.10 Vaccinations 26

3.11 Epidemic Management 27

3.12 Pharmacology 28

3.13 Future Implications 29

3.14 Conclusion 29

4 Ebola Virus Disease: Transmission Dynamics and Management 31
Kshama Patel, Jasmine Primus, Carina Copley, and Yashwant V. Pathak

4.1 Introduction 31

4.2 Transmission Dynamics 33

4.3 Disease Management 34

4.4 Morbidity 36

4.5 Intersections 37

4.6 Conclusion 39

5 Avian Influenza Outbreaks over the Last Decade: An Analytical Review and Containment Strategies 42
Abdullah Abdelkawi, Zaineb Zinoune, Aliyah Slim, and Yashwant V. Pathak

5.1 Background 42

5.2 Causative Microorganisms 43

5.3 Strategies for Containment 45

5.4 Ongoing Investigations and Prospective Look into Avian Influenza 46

6 Swine Flu: Current Status and Challenges 50
Lucy Mohapatra, Geeta Patel, Alok S. Tripathi, Alka, Deepak Mishra, Sambit K. Parida, Mohammad Yasir, and Rahul K. Maurya

6.1 Introduction 50

6.2 Current Status - Swine Flu 51

6.3 Pathogenesis Related to Swine Flu 53

6.4 Diagnosis 55

6.5 Treatment and Management of Swine Flu 57

6.6 Challenges During Combating Swine Flu 58

6.7 Conclusion 60

7 Zika Virus Disease: An Emerging Global Threat 66
Ofosua Adi-Dako, Awo A. Kwapong, and Selorme Adukpo

7.1 Introduction 66

7.2 Epidemiology of the Zika Virus Infection 66

7.3 Infection and Pathophysiology 67

7.4 Immune Response and Vaccine 68

7.5 Zika Virus Infection Diagnosis and Management 69

7.6 Development of Antiviral Therapeutic Drug against Zika Virus 69

7.7 The Way Forward 70

8 Current Perspectives in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever 72
Manish P. Patel, Vaishnavi M. Oza, Hemangi B. Tanna, Avinash D. Khadela, Praful D. Bharadia, and Jayvadan K. Patel

8.1 Introduction 72

8.2 Life Cycle of Dengue Mosquitoes 74

8.3 Life Cycle of Dengue Virus 74

8.4 Risk Factors Responsible for Dengue Fever 75

8.5 Pathophysiology of Dengue Fever 75

8.6 Clinical Manifestation 76

8.7 Diagnosis of Dengue Fever 78

8.8 Prevention of Disease 80

8.9 Management of Dengue Disease 83

8.10 Conclusion 85

9 West Nile Virus: Evolutionary Dynamics, Advances in Diagnostics, and Therapeutic Interventions 87
Bibhuti B. Kakoti, Lawandashisha Nongrang, Chinmoyee Borah, Monali Lahiri, Mainak Ghosh, and Ankit Choudhary

9.1 Introduction 87

9.2 Geographical Distribution 88

9.3 The Virus and its Genome 89

9.4 Etiology and Pathogenesis 90

9.5 Relationship Between Host-Pathogen in West Nile Virus Infection 92

9.6 Clinical Presentation of West Nile Virus 93

9.7 Management of West Nile Virus 95

9.8 Recent Advancements in Diagnostics, Clinical Assessment, and Treatment 96

9.9 Conclusion and Future Prediction 98

10 Hantavirus Disease: A Global Update over the Last Decade 106
Anita Patel, Nisarg Patel, and Jayvadan K. Patel

10.1 Introduction 106

10.2 Life Cycle 106

10.3 Ecology and Evolution of Hantavirus 108

10.4 Epidemiology of Hantavirus Infections 111

10.5 The Clinical Course of Hantavirus Diseases and Pathology 113

10.6 Laboratory Diagnosis of Hantavirus Infection 114

10.7 Treatment and Prevention 116

10.8 Recent Outbreaks of Hantavirus 121

10.9 Summary and Conclusion 122

11 Current Advances in Marburg Virus Disease 129
Emmanuel K. Ofori and Eric N.Y. Nyarko

11.1 Introduction 129

11.2 Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of MARV 134

11.3 Marburg Virus Disease (MVD) 135

11.4 Conclusion 142

12 Recent Advances in Combating Nipah Virus Disease 145
Mehul Chorawala, Aanshi Pandya, Ishika Shah, Bhupendra G. Prajapati, Nirjari Kothari, and Aayushi Shah

12.1 Introduction 145

12.2 Recent Advancements in Nipah Virus Diagnostic Tools 151

12.3 Recent Development in Therapeutics and Treatment Modalities Against NiV Disease 152

12.4 Conclusion and Future Directions 158

13 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) 164
Orhan E. Arslan

13.1 Introduction 164

13.2 Discussion 165

13.3 Conclusions 174

14 Chikungunya Fever: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestation, and Management 181
Chandrakanta, Bhupendra G. Prajapati, and Archana N. Sah

14.1 Introduction 181

14.2 Epidemiology 184

14.3 Clinical Manifestation 186

14.4 Diagnosis of Chikungunya Fever 189

14.5 Management of Chikungunya Fever 190

14.6 Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs 191

14.7 Non-Pharmacological Treatment 191

14.8 Medicinal Plants for CHIKV and Its Associated Symptoms 191

14.9 Future Prospectives 193

14.10 Conclusion 193

15 Lassa Fever: Recent Clinical Reports and Management Update 199
Abigail Aning, Kwasi A. Bugyei, Bismarck A. Hottor, and Seth K. Amponsah

15.1 Background 199

15.2 Geographical Distribution 199

15.3 Mode of Transmission 199

15.4 Reservoir Hosts 199

15.5 Incidence and Prevalence 200

15.6 Clinical Presentation 200

15.7 Diagnostic Methods 201

15.8 Recent Clinical Reports 201

15.9 Management and Treatment 202

15.10 Future Prospects and Research Directions 203

15.11 Conclusions 204

16 Lyme Disease Management: Antibiotics and Beyond 207
Aparoop Das, Kalyani Pathak, Manash P. Pathak, Urvashee Gogoi, and Riya Saikia

16.1 Introduction to Lyme Disease 207

16.2 Modes of Transmission 208

16.3 Recent Trends in Lyme Disease Management 209

16.4 Future Directions and Challenges in Lyme Disease Management 214

16.5 Conclusion 215

17 Chagas Disease: Historical and Current Trends 220
Vivek Patel, Dhara Patel, Grishma Patel, and Jayvadan K. Patel

17.1 Introduction 220

17.2 Discovery of Chagas Disease 221

17.3 Etiology of Chagas Disease 222

17.4 Lifecycle of T. cruzi 222

17.5 Clinical Forms of Chagas Disease 223

17.6 Diagnosis and Management of Chagas Disease 224

17.7 Conclusion 231

18 Legionnaires' Disease: Current Trends in Microbiology and Pharmacology 237
Julia Wang, Neha Chintapally, Meera Nagpal, Anjali Mahapatra, and Charles Preuss

18.1 History of Legionella spp. 237

18.2 Bacterial Life Cycle 238

18.3 Pathogenicity 238

18.4 Alterations to Host Cell Pathways 239

18.5 Ubiquitin Pathways 240

18.6 Legionella-Amoeba Interactions 241

18.7 Risk Factors 241

18.8 Detection/Diagnostic Testing 241

18.9 Symptoms 242

18.10 Long-Term Effects and Co-morbidities 243

18.11 Prevention 243

18.12 Pharmacology 244

18.13 Treatments in Development 245

18.14 New Technologies 246

18.15 Conclusion 248

19 Babesiosis: An Emerging Global Threat 253
Komal Parmar and Jayvadan K. Patel

19.1 Introduction 253

19.2 World-Wide Babesiosis Human Infection 253

19.3 Life Cycle and Transmission 255

19.4 Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Diagnosis of Babesiosis 256

19.5 Management of Babesiosis 256

19.6 Conclusion 257

20 Epidemiology and Current Trends in Malaria 261
Priya Patel, Arti Bagada, and Nasir Vadia

20.1 History of Malaria 261

20.2 Types of Malaria 262

20.3 Worldwide Trend of Malaria (Geographical and Country)/The Spatial Epidemiology of Malaria Globally 264

20.4 History of Malaria Control by Various Authorities/Agencies 267

20.5 Diagnosis and Treatment 270

20.6 Prevention and Elimination of Malaria 272

20.7 Vaccine for Malaria and Current Trends of Malaria Treatment 273

20.8 Challenges for National Governments 275

20.9 Malaria Eradication Programme 276

20.10 Conclusion 278

21 Cryptosporidiosis: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Management 283
Subhasundar Maji, Moitreyee Chattopadhyay, Debankini Dasgupta, Ananya Chanda, and Sandipan Dasgupta

21.1 Introduction 283

21.2 Epidemiology 284

21.3 What Is Cryptosporidium? 284

21.4 Mechanism of Cryptosporidium Infection 286

21.5 Diagnostic Methods 287

21.6 Management 288

21.7 Prevention and Control 291

21.8 Future Perspectives 293

21.9 Conclusion 294

22 Leishmaniasis: Current Trends in Microbiology and Pharmacology 297
Ismaila Adams, Awo A. Kwapong, Eugene Boafo, Elizabeth Twum, and Seth K. Amponsah

22.1 Introduction 297

22.2 Leishmania Species and Clinical Manifestations 298

22.3 Microbiology of Leishmania 299

22.4 Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis 301

22.5 Drug Therapy for Leishmaniasis 303

22.6 Drug Resistance in Leishmania 304

22.7 Strategies to Overcome Drug Resistance in Leishmania 305

22.8 New Developments in Antileishmanial Drugs 306

22.9 Repurposing Existing Drugs 308

22.10 Vector Control and Leishmaniasis Prevention 309

22.11 Conclusion 309

23 Recent Trends in Toxoplasmosis Diagnosis and Management 314
Mehul Chorawala, Nirjari Kothari, Aayushi Shah, Aanshi Pandya, Ishika Shah, and Bhupendra G. Prajapati

23.1 Introduction 314

23.2 Recent Advances in Diagnosis 319

23.3 Current Management of Toxoplasmosis 321

23.4 Need for Novel Treatment 324

23.5 Novel or Repurposed Therapeutic Molecules as Anti-Toxoplasma Activity 324

23.6 Conclusion and Outlook 329

24 Recent Trends in Neurocysticerosis Diagnosis and Management 337
Sachin P. Bhatt, Avani N. Joshi, and Bhupendra G. Prajapati

Abbreviations 337

24.1 Introduction 337

24.2 Immunologic Diagnosis 341

24.3 Management Approaches by Neurocysticercosis Form 344

24.4 Conclusion 347

25 Trichinosis: History and Current Trends 351
Moitreyee Chattopadhyay, Sandipan Dasgupta, Ananya Chanda, Subhasundar Maji, and Shwetlana Bandyopadhyay

25.1 Background 351

25.2 Historical Reports of Trichinosis Infection 351

25.3 The Discovery of Trichinosis 352

25.4 Major Outbreaks of Trichinosis 353

25.5 Trichinosis Episodes in Animals 356

25.6 The Nematode: Trichinella sp. 358

25.8 Control of Trichinella Infection in Humans 363

25.9 Current Trend in Trichinella Epidemiology 363

25.10 Conclusion 364

26 Schistosomiasis: Recent Clinical Reports and Management 368
Emmanuel K. Ofori and Akua O. Forson

26.1 Introduction 368

26.2 Parasitology Diagnosis 371

26.3 Biomarkers: Screening, Detection of Worm Antigens and Specific Antibodies 371

26.4 Radiology 372

26.5 Management 372

26.6 Conclusion 374

27 Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis: Evolutionary Dynamics, Advances in Diagnostics and Therapeutic Interventions 378
Lucy Mohapatra, Alok S. Tripathi, Bhupendra G. Prajapati, Alka, Deepak Mishra, Mohammad Yasir, and Rahul K. Maurya

27.1 Introduction 378

27.2 Epidemiology for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis 379

27.3 Pathogenesis of Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis 379

27.4 Evolutionary Dynamics Involved in Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis 383

27.5 Diagnosis for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis 385

27.6 Advances in Therapeutic Interventions for Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis 387

27.7 Conclusion 389

28 Epidemiology and Current Treatment Trends in "Thelaziasis" 396
Rihana B. Patnool, Badrud D. Mohammad, Vishwas H. Nagendra, Bhupendra G. Prajapati, Muhasina K. Muhamadkazim, and Sivasankaran Ponnusankar

28.1 Introduction 396

28.2 Causative Agents 397

28.3 Morphology 399

28.4 Mode of Transmission 402

28.5 Hosts and Vectors 403

28.6 Life Cycle of Thelazia Species 405

28.7 Molecular Acumens of Thelaziasis Species 406

28.8 Geographical Distribution 406

28.9 Clinical Presentations of Thelaziasis 407

28.10 Diagnosis of Thelaziasis 407

28.11 Treatment Options for Thelaziasis 407

28.12 Precautionary Measures 408

28.13 Preventive Measures for Thelaziasis 408

28.14 Recent Trends in Thelaziasis Control 409

28.15 Conclusion 409

29 Trypanosomiasis: Current Trends in Microbiology and Pharmacology 411
Verner N. Orish

29.1 Introduction 411

29.2 History 412

29.3 Parasite 413

29.4 Epidemiology of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) 416

29.5 Life Cycle of Trypanosoma 417

29.6 Other Mechanisms of Transmission 418

29.7 Pathogenesis of HAT 419

29.8 Clinical Manifestations 420

29.9 Diagnosis 420

29.10 Treatment 421

29.11 Control and Prevention 423

29.12 Challenges of Control and Prevention 424

29.13 Conclusion 424

30 Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases of the Decade: Current Challenges and Future Directions 428
Seth K. Amponsah, Ranjita Shegokar, and Yashwant V. Pathak

30.1 Introduction 428

30.2 Factors Leading to the Emergence and Re-Emergence of Infectious Diseases 429

30.3 Current Challenges of Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases 430

30.4 Strategies/Possible Interventions 431

30.5 Future Directions 433

30.6 Conclusion 434

References 434

Index 438
Seth Kwabena Amponsah, MPhil, PhD is Head of the Department of Medical Pharmacology, University of Ghana Medical School. He has published over 50 research articles, ten book chapters, and edited a book.

Ranjita Shegokar, PhD is Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) at Capnopharm GmbH. She has authored several research articles and book chapters. Yashwant Pathak, PhD is Professor and Associate Dean for Faculty Affairs at College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, and an Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Pharmacy, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.

S. K. Amponsah, University of Ghana, Ghana; R. Shegokar, Capnopharm GmbH; Y. V. Pathak, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA