John Wiley & Sons Security in Wireless Communication Networks Cover A current, state-of-the-art examination of security in wireless networks, this book will be highly r.. Product #: 978-1-119-24436-3 Regular price: $89.63 $89.63 In Stock

Security in Wireless Communication Networks

Qian, Yi / Ye, Feng / Chen, Hsiao-Hwa

Wiley - IEEE

Cover

1. Edition December 2021
384 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-24436-3
John Wiley & Sons

Short Description

A current, state-of-the-art examination of security in wireless networks, this book will be highly relevant to students, instructors, and engineers working in the various areas of wireless security.

Topics and technology to be addressed include?: Basics of communication network security; Security in wireless local area networks (e.g., Bluetooth, Wi-Fi) ; Security in wide area wireless networks (e.g., GSM, UMTS, LTE); Security in wireless ad-hoc and sensor networks (e.g., wireless monitoring networks, vehicle ad-hoc networks, mobile computing).

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Receive comprehensive instruction on the fundamentals of wireless security from three leading international voices in the field

Security in Wireless Communication Networks delivers a thorough grounding in wireless communication security. The distinguished authors pay particular attention to wireless specific issues, like authentication protocols for various wireless communication networks, encryption algorithms and integrity schemes on radio channels, lessons learned from designing secure wireless systems and standardization for security in wireless systems.

The book addresses how engineers, administrators, and others involved in the design and maintenance of wireless networks can achieve security while retaining the broadcast nature of the system, with all of its inherent harshness and interference. Readers will learn:
* A comprehensive introduction to the background of wireless communication network security, including a broad overview of wireless communication networks, security services, the mathematics crucial to the subject, and cryptographic techniques
* An exploration of wireless local area network security, including Bluetooth security, Wi-Fi security, and body area network security
* An examination of wide area wireless network security, including treatments of 2G, 3G, and 4G
* Discussions of future development in wireless security, including 5G, and vehicular ad-hoc network security

Perfect for undergraduate and graduate students in programs related to wireless communication, Security in Wireless Communication Networks will also earn a place in the libraries of professors, researchers, scientists, engineers, industry managers, consultants, and members of government security agencies who seek to improve their understanding of wireless security protocols and practices.

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xxiii

About the Companion Website xxv

Part I Introduction and Mathematics Background 1

1 Introduction 3

1.1 General Computer Communication Network Architecture 3

1.1.1 Wired Communication Network Infrastructure 3

1.1.2 Wireless Communication Network Infrastructure 4

1.2 Different Types of Wireless Communication Systems 5

1.2.1 Classification of Wireless Communication Systems 5

1.2.1.1 Based on Coverage 5

1.2.1.2 Based on Topology 6

1.2.1.3 Based on Mobility 6

1.2.2 Wireless Personal Area Networks 7

1.2.3 Wireless Local Area Networks 7

1.2.4 Wireless Wide Area Networks 7

1.3 Network Security and Wireless Security 9

1.3.1 Network Security 9

1.3.2 Security Threats in Wireless Networks 10

1.4 Summary 11

2 Basic Network Security Concepts 13

2.1 Security Attacks 13

2.1.1 Passive Attacks 13

2.1.1.1 Eavesdropping 13

2.1.1.2 Traffic Analysis 14

2.1.2 Active Attacks 15

2.2 Security Services 16

2.2.1 Access Control 17

2.2.2 Authentication 17

2.2.3 Confidentiality 18

2.2.4 Integrity 18

2.2.5 Non-repudiation 19

2.2.6 Availability 19

2.3 Security Mechanisms 21

2.3.1 Encipherment 21

2.3.2 Authentication 21

2.3.3 Access Control 22

2.3.4 Digital Signature 22

2.3.5 Data Integrity 23

2.3.6 Traffic Padding and Routing Control 23

2.3.7 Notarization 24

2.4 Other Security Concepts 24

2.4.1 Levels of Impact 24

2.4.2 Cryptographic Protocols 25

2.5 Summary 25

3 Mathematical Background 27

3.1 Basic Concepts in Modern Algebra and Number Theory 27

3.1.1 Group 27

3.1.1.1 Abelian Group 28

3.1.1.2 Cyclic Group 28

3.1.2 Ring 29

3.1.3 Field 29

3.2 Prime Numbers, Modular Arithmetic, and Divisors 30

3.2.1 Prime Numbers 30

3.2.2 Modular Arithmetic 30

3.2.3 Divisors and GCD 31

3.2.4 Multiplicative Inverse 33

3.3 Finite Field and Galois Field 34

3.4 Polynomial Arithmetic 35

3.4.1 Ordinary Polynomial Arithmetic 35

3.4.2 Polynomial Arithmetic in Finite Fields 36

3.4.3 Modular Polynomial Arithmetic 37

3.4.4 Computational Considerations 39

3.4.5 Generating a Finite Field with a Generator 40

3.5 Fermat's Little Theorem, Euler's Totient Function, and Euler's Theorem 41

3.5.1 Fermat's Little Theorem 41

3.5.2 Euler Totient Function phi(n) 42

3.5.3 Euler's Theorem 43

3.6 Primality Testing 44

3.7 Chinese Remainder Theorem 46

3.8 Discrete Logarithm 48

3.9 Summary 49

Part II Cryptographic Systems 51

4 Cryptographic Techniques 53

4.1 Symmetric Encryption 53

4.2 Classical Cryptographic Schemes 53

4.2.1 Classical Substitution Ciphers 54

4.2.1.1 Caesar Cipher 54

4.2.1.2 Monoalphabetic Cipher 55

4.2.1.3 Playfair Cipher 57

4.2.1.4 Polyalphabetic Cipher 58

4.2.1.5 Autokey Cipher 59

4.2.1.6 One-Time Pad 60

4.2.2 Classical Transposition Ciphers 60

4.2.2.1 Rail Fence Cipher 60

4.2.2.2 Row Transposition Cipher 60

4.2.2.3 Product Cipher 61

4.2.3 More Advanced Classical Ciphers 61

4.2.3.1 Rotor Machines 61

4.2.3.2 Steganography 61

4.3 Stream Cipher 62

4.3.1 Rivest Cipher 4 62

4.4 Modern Block Ciphers 63

4.4.1 Overview of Modern Block Ciphers 63

4.4.2 Feistel Block Cipher 64

4.4.2.1 Ideal Block Cipher 64

4.4.2.2 Feistel Cipher Structure 65

4.4.3 Block Cipher Design 67

4.5 Data Encryption Standards (DES) 67

4.5.1 Overview of DES 67

4.5.2 Initial Permutation (IP) 68

4.5.3 DES Round Function 69

4.5.3.1 DES S-Boxes 71

4.5.3.2 DES Permutation Function 72

4.5.4 DES Key Schedule 72

4.5.5 DES Security 74

4.5.6 Multiple Encryption and DES 75

4.6 Summary 76

5 More on Cryptographic Techniques 77

5.1 Advanced Encryption Standards 77

5.1.1 The AES Cipher: Rijndael 77

5.1.2 AES Data Structure 77

5.1.3 Details in Each Round 79

5.1.3.1 Substitute Bytes 79

5.1.3.2 Shift Rows 81

5.1.3.3 Mix Columns 81

5.1.3.4 Add Round Key 82

5.1.3.5 AES Key Expansion 82

5.1.3.6 AES Decryption 84

5.1.3.7 AES Implementation Aspects 84

5.2 Block Cipher Modes of Operation 85

5.2.1 Electronic Codebook (ECB) Mode 85

5.2.2 Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode 86

5.2.3 Cipher Feedback (CFB) Mode 87

5.2.4 Output Feedback (OFB) Mode 88

5.2.5 The Counter (CTR) Mode 89

5.2.6 Last Block in Different Modes 90

5.2.7 XTS-AES Mode 90

5.3 Public Key Infrastructure 92

5.3.1 Basics of Public Key Cryptography 92

5.3.2 Public-Key Applications 94

5.3.3 Security of Public Key Schemes 94

5.4 The RSA Algorithm 95

5.4.1 RSA Key Setup 95

5.4.2 RSA Encryption and Decryption 96

5.4.3 RSA Security Analysis 96

5.4.3.1 Factoring Problem 97

5.4.3.2 Timing attacks 97

5.4.3.3 Chosen Ciphertext Attacks 97

5.5 Diffie-Hellman (D-H) Key Exchange 97

5.5.1 Finite-Field Diffie-Hellman 97

5.5.2 Elliptic-Curve Diffie-Hellman 98

5.5.3 Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Vulnerability 98

5.6 Summary 99

6 Message Authentication, Digital Signature, and Key Management 101

6.1 Message Authentication 101

6.1.1 Message Authentication Functions 101

6.1.2 Message Authentication Code 102

6.1.3 Hash Functions 103

6.1.4 Size of MAC and Hash Value 104

6.2 MAC and Hash Algorithms 105

6.2.1 Data Authentication Algorithm 105

6.2.2 A Basic Hash Function Structure 106

6.2.3 Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) 106

6.2.4 SHA-512 107

6.2.4.1 SHA-512 Compression Function 108

6.2.4.2 SHA-512 Round Function 109

6.2.5 Whirlpool 111

6.2.6 Other MAC Functions 112

6.2.6.1 Keyed Hash Functions as MACs 112

6.2.6.2 Cipher-Based MAC 113

6.3 Digital Signature and Authentication 114

6.3.1 Digital Signature Properties 115

6.3.2 Digital Signature Standard and Algorithm 116

6.3.3 The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm 117

6.3.3.1 ECDSA Domain Parameters 117

6.3.3.2 ECDSA Private/Public Keys 118

6.3.3.3 ECDSA Digital Signature Generation 119

6.3.3.4 ECDSA Digital Signature Verification 120

6.3.4 Authentication Protocols 120

6.4 Key Management 122

6.4.1 Key Distribution with Symmetric Key Encryptions 122

6.4.2 Symmetric Key Distribution Using Public Key Cryptosystems 123

6.4.3 Distribution of Public Keys 124

6.4.4 Public Key Infrastructure 126

6.4.5 X.509 Authentication Service 126

6.5 Summary 128

Part III Security for Wireless Local Area Networks 129

7 WLAN Security 131

7.1 Introduction to WLAN 131

7.1.1 Wi-Fi Operating Modes 131

7.1.2 Challenges in WLAN Security 132

7.1.3 Tricks that Fail to Protect WLAN 133

7.2 Evolution of WLAN Security 133

7.3 Wired Equivalent Privacy 135

7.3.1 WEP Access Control 135

7.3.2 WEP Integrity and Confidentiality 136

7.3.3 WEP Key Management 136

7.3.4 WEP Security Problems 137

7.3.4.1 Problems in WEP Access Control 138

7.3.4.2 Problems in WEP Integrity 138

7.3.4.3 Problems in WEP Confidentiality 138

7.3.4.4 Problems in WEP Key Management 139

7.3.5 Possible WEP Security Enhancement 140

7.4 IEEE 802.1X Authentication Model 140

7.4.1 An Overview of IEEE 802.1X 140

7.4.2 Protocols in IEEE 802.1X 141

7.4.3 Mapping the IEEE 802.1X model to WLAN 143

7.5 IEEE 802.11i Standard 143

7.5.1 Overview of IEEE 802.11i 143

7.5.2 IEEE 802.11i Access Control 143

7.5.3 IEEE 802.1i Key Management 145

7.5.4 IEEE 802.11i Integrity and Confidentiality 147

7.5.4.1 TKIP Mode 147

7.5.4.2 AES-CCMP Mode 148

7.5.5 Function Michael 148

7.5.6 Weakness in 802.11i 150

7.6 Wi-Fi Protected Access 3 and Opportunistic Wireless Encryption 150

7.6.1 WPA3-Personal 150

7.6.2 WPA3-Enterprise 150

7.6.3 Opportunistic Wireless Encryption 151

7.7 Summary 152

8 Bluetooth Security 153

8.1 Introduction to Bluetooth 153

8.1.1 Overview of Bluetooth Technology 153

8.1.2 Bluetooth Vulnerabilities and Threats 154

8.1.2.1 Bluesnarfing 155

8.1.2.2 Bluejacking 155

8.1.2.3 Bluebugging 155

8.1.2.4 Car Whisperer 155

8.1.2.5 Fuzzing Attacks 155

8.1.3 Bluetooth Security Services and Security Modes 156

8.1.3.1 Bluetooth Security Services 156

8.1.3.2 Bluetooth Security Modes 156

8.2 Link Key Generation 157

8.2.1 Link Key Generation for Security Modes 2 and 3 157

8.2.2 Link Key Generation for Security Mode 4 158

8.2.3 Association Model in Mode 4 159

8.2.3.1 Numeric comparison 159

8.2.3.2 Out-of-Band (OOB) 160

8.2.3.3 Passkey entry 162

8.3 Authentication, Confidentiality, and Trust and Service Levels 163

8.3.1 Authentication 163

8.3.2 Confidentiality 164

8.3.3 Trust and Security Service Levels 165

8.4 Cryptographic Functions for Security Modes 1, 2, and 3 166

8.4.1 SAFER+ 166

8.4.1.1 Overview of the SAFER+ Structure 166

8.4.1.2 SAFER+ Round Function 166

8.4.1.3 SAFER+ Key Schedule for 128-Bit Key 168

8.4.2 Function E1(s) 168

8.4.3 Function E21(s) 170

8.4.4 Function E22(s) 170

8.4.5 Function E3(s) 171

8.4.6 Function E0(s) 171

8.5 Cryptographic Functions in Security Mode 4 (SSP) 173

8.5.1 Function P192(s) 173

8.5.2 Function f1(s) 174

8.5.3 Function g(s) 174

8.5.3.1 Function f2(s) 174

8.5.3.2 Function f3(s) 174

8.6 Summary 174

9 Zigbee Security 177

9.1 Introduction to Zigbee 177

9.1.1 Overview of Zigbee 177

9.1.2 Security Threats Against Zigbee 178

9.2 IEEE 802.15.4 Security Features 179

9.2.1 Security Levels 179

9.2.2 IEEE 802.15.4 Frame Structure 180

9.3 Zigbee Upper Layer Security 182

9.3.1 Zigbee Security Models 182

9.3.2 Security Keys in Zigbee 183

9.3.3 Zigbee Network Layer Security 184

9.3.4 Zigbee Application Support Layer Security 184

9.3.5 Other Security Features in Zigbee 185

9.4 Security-Related MAC PIB Attributes 187

9.5 Mechanisms Used in Zigbee Security 188

9.5.1 AES-CTR 188

9.5.2 AES-CBC-MAC 189

9.5.3 Overview of the AES-CCM 189

9.5.4 Nonces Applied to the Security Mechanisms 189

9.5.5 Matyas-Meyer-Oseas Hash Function 190

9.6 Summary 191

10 RFID Security 193

10.1 Introduction to RFID 193

10.1.1 Overview of RFID Subsystems 193

10.1.2 Types of RFID Tags 193

10.1.3 RFID Transactions 194

10.1.4 RFID Frequency Bands 194

10.2 Security Attacks, Risks, and Objectives of RFID Systems 195

10.2.1 Security Attacks to RFID Systems 195

10.2.2 RFID Privacy Risks 195

10.2.3 Security Objectives 196

10.3 Mitigation Strategies and Countermeasures for RFID Security Risks 196

10.3.1 Cryptographic Strategies 196

10.3.1.1 Encryption 196

10.3.1.2 One-Way Hash Locks 196

10.3.1.3 EPC Tag PINs 197

10.3.2 Anti-Collision Algorithms 197

10.3.2.1 Tree-Walking 197

10.3.2.2 The Selective Blocker Tag 197

10.3.3 Other Mitigation Strategies 198

10.3.3.1 Physical Shielding Sleeve (The Faraday Cage) 198

10.3.3.2 Secure Reader Protocol 1.0 198

10.4 RFID Security Mechanisms 199

10.4.1 Hash Locks 199

10.4.1.1 Default Hash Locking 199

10.4.1.2 Randomized Hash Locking 200

10.4.2 HB Protocol and the Enhancement 200

10.4.2.1 HB Protocol 200

10.4.2.2 HB+ Protocol 202

10.4.2.3 HB++ Protocol 203

10.5 Summary 205

Part IV Security for Wireless Wide Area Networks 207

11 GSM Security 209

11.1 GSM System Architecture 209

11.1.1 Mobile Station 209

11.1.2 Base Station Subsystem 210

11.1.3 Network Subsystem 211

11.2 GSM Network Access Security Features 212

11.2.1 GSM Entity Authentication 212

11.2.2 GSM Confidentiality 214

11.2.3 GSM Anonymity 215

11.2.4 Detection of Stolen/Compromised Equipment in GSM 215

11.3 GSM Security Algorithms 215

11.3.1 Algorithm A3 216

11.3.2 Algorithm A8 216

11.3.3 Algorithm COMP128 216

11.3.4 Algorithm A5 220

11.3.4.1 A5/1 220

11.3.4.2 Algorithm A5/2 223

11.4 Attacks Against GSM Security 225

11.4.1 Attacks Against GSM Authenticity 225

11.4.1.1 Attacks Against GSM Confidentiality 226

11.4.2 Other Attacks against GSM Security 227

11.5 Possible GSM Security Improvements 227

11.5.1 Improvement over Authenticity and Anonymity 227

11.5.2 Improvement over Confidentiality 228

11.5.3 Improvement of the Signaling Network 228

11.6 Summary 228

12 UMTS Security 229

12.1 UMTS System Architecture 229

12.1.1 User Equipment 229

12.1.2 UTRAN 230

12.1.3 Core Network 231

12.2 UMTS Security Features 231

12.3 UMTS Network Access Security 232

12.3.1 Authentication and Key Agreement 232

12.3.1.1 The AKA Mechanism 232

12.3.1.2 Authentication Vector Generation 234

12.3.1.3 AKA on the UE Side 236

12.3.2 Confidentiality 237

12.3.3 Data Integrity 238

12.3.4 User Identity Confidentiality 239

12.4 Algorithms in Access Security 240

12.4.1 Encryption Algorithm f8 240

12.4.1.1 Integrity Algorithm f9 241

12.4.2 Description of KASUMI 242

12.4.2.1 An Overview of KASUMI Algorithm 242

12.4.2.2 Round Function Fi(s) 244

12.4.2.3 Function FL 244

12.4.2.4 Function FO 244

12.4.2.5 Function FI 245

12.4.2.6 S-boxes S7 and S9 245

12.4.2.7 Key Schedule 247

12.4.3 Implementation and Operational Considerations 248

12.5 Other UMTS Security Features 249

12.5.1 Mobile Equipment Identification 249

12.5.2 Location Services 249

12.5.3 User-to-USIM Authentication 249

12.6 Summary 250

13 LTE Security 251

13.1 LTE System Architecture 251

13.2 LTE Security Architecture 253

13.3 LTE Security 255

13.3.1 LTE Key Hierarchy 255

13.3.2 LTE Authentication and Key Agreement 257

13.3.3 Signaling Protection 258

13.3.3.1 Protection of Radio-Specific Signaling 259

13.3.3.2 Protection of User-Plane Traffic 259

13.3.4 Overview of Confidentiality and Integrity Algorithms 259

13.3.4.1 Confidentiality Mechanism 259

13.3.4.2 Integrity Mechanism 260

13.3.5 Non-3GPP Access 261

13.4 Handover Between eNBs 261

13.4.1 Overview 261

13.4.2 Key Handling in Handover 262

13.4.2.1 Initialization 262

13.4.2.2 Intra-eNB Key Handling 264

13.4.2.3 Intra-MME Key Handling 265

13.4.2.4 Inter-MME Key Handling 266

13.5 Security Algorithms 268

13.5.1 128-EEA2 268

13.5.2 128-EIA2 269

13.5.3 EEA3 270

13.5.4 EIA3 271

13.6 Security for Interworking Between LTE and Legacy Systems 273

13.6.1 Between LTE and UMTS 273

13.6.1.1 Idle Mode Mobility from E-UTRAN to UTRAN 273

13.6.1.2 Idle Mode Mobility from UTRAN to E-UTRAN 274

13.6.1.3 Handover Mode from E-UTRAN to UTRAN 275

13.6.1.4 Handover Mode from UTRAN to E-UTRAN 276

13.6.2 Between E-UTRAN and GERAN 277

13.6.2.1 Idle Mode 277

13.6.2.2 Handover Mode 277

13.7 Summary 278

Part V Security for Next Generation Wireless Networks 279

14 Security in 5G Wireless Networks 281

14.1 Introduction to 5GWireless Network Systems 281

14.1.1 The Advancement of 5G 281

14.1.2 5GWireless Network Systems 282

14.2 5G Security Requirements and Major Drives 283

14.2.1 Security Requirements for 5GWireless Networks 283

14.2.2 Major Drives for 5GWireless Security 284

14.2.2.1 Supreme Built-in-Security 284

14.2.2.2 Flexible Security Mechanisms 285

14.2.2.3 Automation 285

14.2.3 Attacks in 5G Wireless Networks 286

14.2.3.1 Eavesdropping and Traffic Analysis 286

14.2.3.2 Jamming 286

14.2.3.3 DoS and DDoS 287

14.2.3.4 Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) 287

14.3 A 5G Wireless Security Architecture 287

14.3.1 New Elements in 5G Wireless Security Architecture 287

14.3.2 A 5G Wireless Security Architecture 288

14.3.2.1 Network Access Security (I) 288

14.3.2.2 Network Domain Security (II) 289

14.3.2.3 User Domain Security (III) 289

14.3.2.4 Application Domain Security (IV) 289

14.4 5GWireless Security Services 289

14.4.1 Cryptography in 5G 289

14.4.2 Identity Management 290

14.4.3 Authentication in 5G 291

14.4.3.1 Flexible Authentication 291

14.4.3.2 Authentication Through Legacy Cellular System 291

14.4.3.3 SDN Based Authentication in 5G 293

14.4.3.4 Authentication of D2D in 5G 294

14.4.3.5 Authentication of RFID in 5G 294

14.4.4 Data Confidentiality in 5G 295

14.4.4.1 Power Control 295

14.4.4.2 Artificial Noise and Signal Processing 297

14.4.5 Handover Procedure and Signaling Load Analysis 297

14.4.6 Availability in 5G 297

14.4.7 Location and Identity Anonymity in 5G 300

14.5 5G Key Management 300

14.5.1 3GPP 5G Key Architecture 300

14.5.2 Key Management in 5G Handover 301

14.5.3 Key Management for D2D Users 302

14.6 Security for New Communication Techniques in 5G 303

14.6.1 Heterogeneous Network and Massive MIMO in 5G 303

14.6.2 Device-to-Device Communications in 5G 304

14.6.3 Software-Defined Network in 5G 306

14.6.4 Internet-of-Things in 5G 308

14.7 Challenges and Future Directions for 5G Wireless Security 308

14.7.1 New Trust Models 308

14.7.2 New Security Attack Models 308

14.7.3 Privacy Protection 309

14.7.4 Flexibility and Efficiency 309

14.7.5 Unified Security Management 309

14.8 Summary 310

15 Security in V2X Communications 311

15.1 Introduction to V2X Communications 311

15.1.1 Generic System Architecture of V2X Communications 311

15.1.2 Dedicated Short Range Communications 312

15.1.3 Cellular Based V2X Communications 313

15.2 Security Requirements and Possible Attacks in V2X Communications 314

15.2.1 Security Requirements 314

15.2.2 Attacks in V2X Communications 315

15.2.3 Basic Solutions 316

15.3 IEEEWAVE Security Services for Applications and Management Messages 316

15.3.1 Overview of the WAVE Protocol Stack and Security Services 316

15.3.2 Secure Data Service and Security Service Management Entity 318

15.3.3 CRL Verification Entity and P2P Certificate Distribution Entity 319

15.4 Security in Cellular Based V2X Communications 320

15.4.1 LTE-V2X Communication Security 320

15.4.2 5G-V2X Communication Security 322

15.5 Cryptography and Privacy Preservation in V2X Communications 323

15.5.1 Identity Based Schemes 323

15.5.2 Group Signature Based Schemes 325

15.5.3 Batch Verification Schemes 326

15.5.4 Reputation and Trust Based Schemes 327

15.5.5 Identity Anonymity Preservation 328

15.5.6 Location Anonymity Preservation 328

15.6 Challenges and Future Research Directions 329

15.6.1 Highly Efficient Authentication Schemes 329

15.6.2 Efficient Revocation Mechanisms 330

15.6.3 Advancing OBU and TPD Technologies 330

15.6.4 Advancing Cryptography and Privacy Preservation Schemes 330

15.6.5 Advancing Solutions to HetNet, SDN, and NFV 330

15.6.6 Advancing Artificial Intelligence in V2X Communication Security 330

15.7 Summary 331

References 333

Index 345
Yi Qian, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA. He is a recipient of the Henry Y. Kleinkauf Family Distinguished New Faculty Teaching Award in 2011, the Holling Family Distinguished Teaching Award in 2012, the Holling Family Distinguished Teaching/Advising/Mentoring Award in 2018, and the Holling Family Distinguished Teaching Award for Innovative Use of Instructional Technology in 2018, all from University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.

Feng Ye, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Dayton, USA. He received his PhD from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA, in 2015. He is the author or co-author over 60 technical papers.

Hsiao-Hwa Chen, PhD, is Distinguished Professor in the Department of Engineering Science at the National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan. He received his PhD from the University of Oulu, Finland, in 1991. He is the author or co-author of over 400 technical papers.

H.-H. Chen, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan