John Wiley & Sons Optical Engineering Science Cover A practical guide for engineers and students that covers a wide range of optical design and optical .. Product #: 978-1-119-30280-3 Regular price: $109.52 $109.52 In Stock

Optical Engineering Science

Rolt, Stephen

Cover

1. Edition February 2020
664 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-30280-3
John Wiley & Sons

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A practical guide for engineers and students that covers a wide range of optical design and optical metrology topics

Optical Engineering Science offers a comprehensive and authoritative review of the science of optical engineering. The book bridges the gap between the basic theoretical principles of classical optics and the practical application of optics in the commercial world. Written by a noted expert in the field, the book examines a range of practical topics that are related to optical design, optical metrology and manufacturing. The book fills a void in the literature by coving all three topics in a single volume.

Optical engineering science is at the foundation of the design of commercial optical systems, such as mobile phone cameras and digital cameras as well as highly sophisticated instruments for commercial and research applications. It spans the design, manufacture and testing of space or aerospace instrumentation to the optical sensor technology for environmental monitoring. Optics engineering science has a wide variety of applications, both commercial and research. This important book:
* Offers a comprehensive review of the topic of optical engineering
* Covers topics such as optical fibers, waveguides, aspheric surfaces, Zernike polynomials, polarisation, birefringence and more
* Targets engineering professionals and students
* Filled with illustrative examples and mathematical equations

Written for professional practitioners, optical engineers, optical designers, optical systems engineers and students, Optical Engineering Science offers an authoritative guide that covers the broad range of optical design and optical metrology topics and their applications.

Preface xxi

Glossary xxv

About the Companion Website xxix

1 Geometrical Optics 1

1.1 Geometrical Optics - Ray and Wave Optics 1

1.2 Fermat's Principle and the Eikonal Equation 2

1.3 Sequential Geometrical Optics - A Generalised Description 3

1.4 Behaviour of Simple Optical Components and Surfaces 10

1.5 Paraxial Approximation and Gaussian Optics 15

1.6 Matrix Ray Tracing 16

Further Reading 21

2 Apertures Stops and Simple Instruments 23

2.1 Function of Apertures and Stops 23

2.2 Aperture Stops, Chief, and Marginal Rays 23

2.3 Entrance Pupil and Exit Pupil 25

2.4 Telecentricity 27

2.5 Vignetting 27

2.6 Field Stops and Other Stops 28

2.7 Tangential and Sagittal Ray Fans 28

2.8 Two Dimensional Ray Fans and Anamorphic Optics 28

2.9 Optical Invariant and Lagrange Invariant 30

2.10 Eccentricity Variable 31

2.11 Image Formation in Simple Optical Systems 31

Further Reading 36

3 Monochromatic Aberrations 37

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Breakdown of the Paraxial Approximation and Third Order Aberrations 37

3.3 Aberration and Optical Path Difference 41

3.4 General Third Order Aberration Theory 46

3.5 Gauss-Seidel Aberrations 47

3.6 Summary of Third Order Aberrations 55

Further Reading 58

4 Aberration Theory and Chromatic Aberration 59

4.1 General Points 59

4.2 Aberration Due to a Single Refractive Surface 60

4.3 Reflection from a Spherical Mirror 64

4.4 Refraction Due to Optical Components 67

4.5 The Effect of Pupil Position on Element Aberration 78

4.6 Abbe Sine Condition 81

4.7 Chromatic Aberration 83

4.8 Hierarchy of Aberrations 92

Further Reading 94

5 Aspheric Surfaces and Zernike Polynomials 95

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Aspheric Surfaces 95

5.3 Zernike Polynomials 100

Further Reading 109

6 Diffraction, Physical Optics, and Image Quality 111

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 The Eikonal Equation 112

6.3 Huygens Wavelets and the Diffraction Formulae 112

6.4 Diffraction in the Fraunhofer Approximation 115

6.5 Diffraction in an Optical System - the Airy Disc 116

6.6 The Impact of Aberration on System Resolution 120

6.7 Laser Beam Propagation 123

6.8 Fresnel Diffraction 130

6.9 Diffraction and Image Quality 132

Further Reading 138

7 Radiometry and Photometry 139

7.1 Introduction 139

7.2 Radiometry 139

7.3 Scattering of Light from Rough Surfaces 146

7.4 Scattering of Light from Smooth Surfaces 147

7.5 Radiometry and Object Field Illumination 151

7.6 Radiometric Measurements 155

7.7 Photometry 158

Further Reading 166

8 Polarisation and Birefringence 169

8.1 Introduction 169

8.2 Polarisation 170

8.3 Birefringence 178

8.4 Polarisation Devices 187

8.5 Analysis of Polarisation Components 191

8.6 Stress-induced Birefringence 196

Further Reading 197

9 Optical Materials 199

9.1 Introduction 199

9.2 Refractive Properties of Optical Materials 200

9.3 Transmission Characteristics of Materials 212

9.4 Thermomechanical Properties 215

9.5 Material Quality 219

9.6 Exposure to Environmental Attack 221

9.7 Material Processing 221

Further Reading 222

10 Coatings and Filters 223

10.1 Introduction 223

10.2 Properties of Thin Films 223

10.3 Filters 232

10.4 Design of Thin Film Filters 244

10.5 Thin Film Materials 246

10.6 Thin Film Deposition Processes 247

Further Reading 250

11 Prisms and Dispersion Devices 251

11.1 Introduction 251

11.2 Prisms 251

11.3 Analysis of Diffraction Gratings 257

11.4 Diffractive Optics 273

11.5 Grating Fabrication 274

Further Reading 276

12 Lasers and Laser Applications 277

12.1 Introduction 277

12.2 Stimulated Emission Schemes 279

12.3 Laser Cavities 284

12.4 Taxonomy of Lasers 293

12.5 List of Laser Types 298

12.6 Laser Applications 301

Further Reading 308

13 Optical Fibres and Waveguides 309

13.1 Introduction 309

13.2 Geometrical Description of Fibre Propagation 310

13.3 Waveguides and Modes 317

13.4 Single Mode Optical Fibres 324

13.5 Optical Fibre Materials 329

13.6 Coupling of Light into Fibres 330

13.7 Fibre Splicing and Connection 334

13.8 Fibre Splitters, Combiners, and Couplers 335

13.9 Polarisation and Polarisation Maintaining Fibres 335

13.10 Focal Ratio Degradation 336

13.11 Periodic Structures in Fibres 336

13.12 Fibre Manufacture 338

13.13 Fibre Applications 339

Further Reading 339

14 Detectors 341

14.1 Introduction 341

14.2 Detector Types 341

14.3 Noise in Detectors 354

14.4 Radiometry and Detectors 364

14.5 Array Detectors in Instrumentation 365

Further Reading 368

15 Optical Instrumentation - Imaging Devices 369

15.1 Introduction 369

15.2 The Design of Eyepieces 370

15.3 Microscope Objectives 378

15.4 Telescopes 381

15.5 Camera Systems 392

Further Reading 405

16 Interferometers and Related Instruments 407

16.1 Introduction 407

16.2 Background 407

16.3 Classical Interferometers 409

16.4 Calibration 418

16.5 Interferometry and Null Tests 420

16.6 Interferometry and Phase Shifting 425

16.7 Miscellaneous Characterisation Techniques 426

Further Reading 433

17 Spectrometers and Related Instruments 435

17.1 Introduction 435

17.2 Basic Spectrometer Designs 436

17.3 Time Domain Spectrometry 454

Further Reading 457

18 Optical Design 459

18.1 Introduction 459

18.2 Design Philosophy 461

18.3 Optical Design Tools 467

18.4 Non-Sequential Modelling 487

18.5 Afterword 495

Further Reading 495

19 Mechanical and Thermo-Mechanical Modelling 497

19.1 Introduction 497

19.2 Basic Elastic Theory 498

19.3 Basic Analysis of Mechanical Distortion 501

19.4 Basic Analysis of Thermo-Mechanical Distortion 517

19.5 Finite Element Analysis 525

Further Reading 529

20 Optical Component Manufacture 531

20.1 Introduction 531

20.2 Conventional Figuring of Optical Surfaces 532

20.3 Specialist Shaping and Polishing Techniques 539

20.4 Diamond Machining 541

20.5 Edging and Bonding 547

20.6 Form Error and Surface Roughness 550

20.7 Standards and Drawings 551

Further Reading 557

21 System Integration and Alignment 559

21.1 Introduction 559

21.2 Component Mounting 561

21.3 Optical Bonding 573

21.4 Alignment 577

21.5 Cleanroom Assembly 583

Further Reading 586

22 Optical Test and Verification 587

22.1 Introduction 587

22.2 Facilities 589

22.3 Environmental Testing 591

22.4 Geometrical Testing 595

22.5 Image Quality Testing 603

22.6 Radiometric Tests 604

22.7 Material and Component Testing 609

Further Reading 612

Index 613
STEPHEN ROLT, D.Phil, formerly Senior Optical Engineer at Durham University, United Kingdom. He has had a thirty-year career in optics that has embraced both industry and academia. Dr. Rolt spent 20 years in applied research at the Standard Communication Laboratories and has filed over 25 patents in the optical technology field.