John Wiley & Sons A Users Guide to Vacuum Technology Cover A USERS GUIDE TO VACUUM TECHNOLOGY Choose and understand the vacuum technology that fits your proje.. Product #: 978-1-394-17413-3 Regular price: $126.17 $126.17 In Stock

A Users Guide to Vacuum Technology

O'Hanlon, John F. / Gessert, Timothy A.

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4. Edition October 2023
576 Pages, Hardcover
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ISBN: 978-1-394-17413-3
John Wiley & Sons

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A USERS GUIDE TO VACUUM TECHNOLOGY

Choose and understand the vacuum technology that fits your project's needs with this indispensable guide

Vacuum technology is used to provide process environments for other kinds of engineering technology, making it an unsung cornerstone of hundreds of projects incorporating analysis, research and development, manufacturing, and more. Since it is very often a secondary technology, users primarily interested in processes incorporating it will frequently only encounter vacuum technology when purchasing or troubleshooting. There is an urgent need for a guide to vacuum technology made with these users in mind.

For decades, A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology has met this need, with a user-focused introduction to vacuum technology as it is incorporated into semiconductor, optics, solar sell, and other engineering processes. With an emphasis on otherwise neglected subjects and on accessibility to the secondary user of vacuum technology, it balances treatment of older systems that are still in use with a survey of the latest cutting-edge technologies. The result promises to continue as the essential guide to vacuum systems.

Readers of the fourth edition of A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology will also find:
* Expanded treatment of gauges, pumps, materials, systems, and best??operating practices
* Detailed discussion of cutting-edge topics like ultraclean vacuum and contamination control
* An authorial team with decades of combined research and engineering experience

A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology is essential for those entering emerging STEM programs, engineering professionals and graduate students working with a huge range of engineering technologies.

Preface xvii

Symbols xix

Part I Its Basis 1

1 Vacuum Technology 3

1.1 Units of Measurement 8

References 9

2 Gas Properties 11

2.1 Kinetic Picture of a Gas 11

2.1.1 Velocity Distribution 12

2.1.2 Energy Distribution 13

2.1.3 Mean Free Path 14

2.1.4 Particle Flux 15

2.1.5 Monolayer Formation Time 15

2.1.6 Pressure 16

2.2 Gas Laws 16

2.2.1 Boyle's Law 17

2.2.2 Amontons' Law 17

2.2.3 Charles' Law 18

2.2.4 Dalton's Law 18

2.2.5 Avogadro's Law 18

2.2.6 Graham's Law 19

2.3 Elementary Gas Transport Phenomena 19

2.3.1 Viscosity 19

2.3.2 Thermal Conductivity 22

2.3.3 Diffusion 23

2.3.4 Thermal Transpiration 24

References 25

3 Gas Flow 27

3.1 Flow Regimes 27

3.2 Flow Concepts 29

3.3 Continuum Flow 31

3.3.1 Orifice 32

3.3.2 Long Round Tube 34

3.3.3 Short Round Tube 36

3.4 Molecular Flow 37

3.4.1 Orifice 38

3.4.2 Long Round Tube 39

3.4.3 Short Round Tube 39

3.4.4 Irregular Structures 41

3.4.4.1 Analytical Solutions 42

3.4.4.2 Statistical Solutions 43

3.4.5 Components in Parallel and Series 43

3.5 Models Spanning Molecular and Viscous Flow 53

References 55

4 Gas Release from Solids 59

4.1 Vaporization 59

4.2 Diffusion 60

4.2.1 Reduction of Outdiffusion by Vacuum Baking 62

4.3 Thermal Desorption 63

4.3.1 Zero Order 63

4.3.2 First Order 64

4.3.3 Second Order 65

4.3.4 Desorption from Real Surfaces 67

4.3.5 Outgassing Measurements 67

4.3.6 Outgassing Models 69

4.3.7 Reduction by Baking 69

4.4 Stimulated Desorption 71

4.4.1 Electron-Stimulated Desorption 71

4.4.2 Ion-Stimulated Desorption 71

4.4.3 Stimulated Chemical Reactions 72

4.4.4 Photo Desorption 72

4.5 Permeation 73

4.5.1 Atomic and Molecular Permeation 73

4.5.2 Dissociative Permeation 74

4.5.3 Permeation and Outgassing Units 75

4.6 Pressure Limitations During Pumping 76

References 78

Part II Measurement 81

5 Pressure Gauges 83

5.1 Direct Reading Gauges 83

5.1.1 Diaphragm and Bourdon Gauges 84

5.1.2 Capacitance Manometer 85

5.2 Indirect Reading Gauges 88

5.2.1 Thermal Conductivity Gauges 88

5.2.1.1 Pirani Gauge 90

5.2.1.2 Thermocouple Gauge 91

5.2.1.3 Stability and Calibration 92

5.2.2 Spinning Rotor Gauge 93

5.2.3 Ionization Gauges 95

5.2.3.1 Hot Cathode Gauges 95

5.2.3.2 Hot Cathode Gauge Errors 100

5.2.3.3 Cold Cathode Gauge 103

5.2.3.4 Gauge Calibration 105

References 105

6 Flow Meters 109

6.1 Molar Flow, Mass Flow, and Throughput 109

6.2 Rotameters and Chokes 111

6.3 Differential Pressure Devices 112

6.4 Thermal Mass Flow Technique 114

6.4.1 Mass Flow Meter 114

6.4.2 Mass Flow Controller 117

6.4.3 Mass Flow Meter Calibration 119

References 119

7 Pumping Speed 121

7.1 Definition 121

7.2 Mechanical Pump Speed Measurements 122

7.3 High Vacuum Pump Speed Measurements 123

7.3.1 Methods 123

7.3.2 Gas and Pump Dependence 124

7.3.3 Approximate Speed Measurements 125

7.3.4 Errors 125

References 127

8 Residual Gas Analyzers 129

8.1 Instrument Description 129

8.1.1 Ion Sources 131

8.1.1.1 Open Ion Sources 131

8.1.1.2 Closed Ion Sources 133

8.1.2 Mass Filters 134

8.1.2.1 Magnetic Sector 134

8.1.2.2 RF Quadrupole 135

8.1.2.3 Resolving Power 138

8.1.3 Detectors 138

8.1.3.1 Discrete Dynode Electron Multiplier 139

8.1.3.2 Continuous Dynode Electron Multiplier 140

8.2 Installation and Operation 142

8.2.1 Operation at High Vacuum 142

8.2.1.1 Sensor Mounting 142

8.2.1.2 Stability 143

8.2.2 Operation at Medium and Low Vacuum 145

8.2.2.1 Differentially Pumped Analysis 145

8.2.2.2 Miniature Quadrupoles 148

8.3 Calibration 148

8.4 Choosing an Instrument 149

References 150

9 Interpretation of RGA Data 153

9.1 Cracking Patterns 153

9.1.1 Dissociative Ionization 153

9.1.2 Isotopes 154

9.1.3 Multiple Ionization 154

9.1.4 Combined Effects 154

9.1.5 Ion-Molecule Reactions 157

9.2 Qualitative Analysis 158

9.3 Quantitative Analysis 163

9.3.1 Isolated Spectra 164

9.3.2 Overlapping Spectra 165

References 169

Part III Production 171

10 Mechanical Pumps 173

10.1 Rotary Vane 173

10.2 Lobe 177

10.3 Claw 180

10.4 Multistage Lobe 182

10.5 Scroll 184

10.6 Screw 185

10.7 Diaphragm 185

10.8 Reciprocating Piston 187

10.9 Mechanical Pump Operation 189

References 189

11 Turbomolecular Pumps 191

11.1 Pumping Mechanism 191

11.2 Speed-Compression Relations 192

11.2.1 Maximum Compression 193

11.2.2 Maximum Speed 195

11.2.3 General Relation 197

11.3 Ultimate Pressure 198

11.4 Turbomolecular Pump Designs 199

11.5 Turbo-Drag Pumps 201

References 203

12 Diffusion Pumps 205

12.1 Pumping Mechanism 205

12.2 Speed-Throughput Characteristics 207

12.3 Boiler Heating Effects 211

12.4 Backstreaming, Baffles, and Traps 212

References 215

13 Getter and Ion Pumps 217

13.1 Getter Pumps 217

13.1.1 Titanium Sublimation 218

13.1.2 Non-evaporable Getters 223

13.2 Ion Pumps 224

References 229

14 Cryogenic Pumps 233

14.1 Pumping Mechanisms 234

14.2 Speed, Pressure, and Saturation 237

14.3 Cooling Methods 241

14.4 Cryopump Characteristics 245

14.4.1 Sorption Pumps 246

14.4.2 Gas Refrigerator Pumps 249

14.4.3 Liquid Cryogen Pumps 253

References 253

Part IV Materials 257

15 Materials in Vacuum 259

15.1 Metals 260

15.1.1 Vaporization 260

15.1.2 Permeability 260

15.1.3 Outgassing 261

15.1.3.1 Dissolved Gas 262

15.1.3.2 Surface and Near-Surface Gas 264

15.1.4 Structural Metals 269

15.2 Glasses and Ceramics 272

15.3 Polymers 277

References 281

16 Joints Seals and Valves 285

16.1 Permanent Joints 285

16.1.1 Welding 286

16.1.2 Soldering and Brazing 290

16.1.3 Joining Glasses and Ceramics 291

16.2 Demountable Joints 293

16.2.1 Elastomer Seals 294

16.2.2 Metal Gaskets 300

16.3 Valves and Motion Feedthroughs 302

16.3.1 Small Valves 302

16.3.2 Large Valves 304

16.3.3 Special-Purpose Valves 307

16.3.4 Motion Feedthroughs 308

References 313

17 Pump Fluids and Lubricants 315

17.1 Pump Fluids 315

17.1.1 Fluid Properties 315

17.1.1.1 Vapor Pressure 316

17.1.1.2 Other Characteristics 319

17.1.2 Fluid Types 319

17.1.2.1 Mineral Oils 320

17.1.2.2 Esters 321

17.1.2.3 Silicones 321

17.1.2.4 Ethers 322

17.1.2.5 Fluorochemicals 322

17.1.3 Selecting Fluids 323

17.1.3.1 Rotary, Vane, and Lobe Pump Fluids 323

17.1.3.2 Turbo Pump Fluids 325

17.1.3.3 Diffusion Pump Fluids 325

17.1.4 Reclamation 328

17.2 Lubricants 328

17.2.1 Lubricant Properties 329

17.2.1.1 Absolute Viscosity 330

17.2.1.2 Kinematic Viscosity 331

17.2.1.3 Viscosity Index 332

17.2.2 Selecting Lubricants 333

17.2.2.1 Liquid 333

17.2.2.2 Grease 334

17.2.2.3 Solid Film 336

References 338

Part V Systems 341

18 Rough Vacuum Pumping 343

18.1 Exhaust Rate 344

18.1.1 Pump Size 344

18.1.2 Aerosol Formation 346

18.2 Crossover 350

18.2.1 Minimum Crossover Pressure 351

18.2.2 Maximum Crossover Pressure 354

18.2.2.1 Diffusion 354

18.2.2.2 Turbo 357

18.2.2.3 Cryo 357

18.2.2.4 Sputter-Ion 360

References 362

19 High Vacuum Systems 365

19.1 Diffusion-Pumped Systems 365

19.1.1 Operating Modes 368

19.1.2 Operating Issues 369

19.2 Turbo-Pumped Systems 371

19.2.1 Operating Modes 374

19.2.2 Operating Issues 375

19.3 Sputter-Ion-Pumped Systems 376

19.3.1 Operating Modes 377

19.3.2 Operating Issues 379

19.4 Cryo-Pumped Systems 379

19.4.1 Operating Modes 380

19.4.2 Regeneration 380

19.4.3 Operating Issues 382

19.5 High Vacuum Chambers 383

19.5.1 Managing Water Vapor 384

References 386

20 Ultraclean Vacuum Systems 387

20.1 Ultraclean Pumps 389

20.1.1 Dry Roughing Pumps 390

20.1.2 Turbopumps 390

20.1.3 Cryopumps 390

20.1.4 Sputter-Ion, TSP, and NEG Pumps 391

20.2 Ultraclean Chamber Materials and Components 392

20.3 Ultraclean System Pumping and Pressure Measurement 394

References 398

21 Controlling Contamination in Vacuum Systems 401

21.1 Defining Contamination in a Vacuum Environment 401

21.1.1 Establishing Control of Vacuum Contamination 401

21.1.2 Types of Vacuum Contamination 402

21.1.2.1 Particle Contamination 403

21.1.2.2 Gas Contamination 409

21.1.2.3 Film Contamination 410

21.2 Pump Contamination 411

21.2.1 Low/Rough and Medium Vacuum Pump Contamination 411

21.2.1.1 Fluid-Sealed Mechanical Pumps 412

21.2.1.2 Dry Mechanical Pumps 413

21.2.2 High and UHV Vacuum Pump Contamination 415

21.2.2.1 Diffusion Pumps 416

21.2.2.2 Turbo- and Turbo-Drag Pumps 417

21.2.2.3 Cryopumps 418

21.2.2.4 Sputter-Ion and Titanium-Sublimination Pumps 419

21.3 Evacuation Contamination 420

21.3.1 Particle Sources 420

21.3.2 Remediation Methods 421

21.4 Venting Contamination 422

21.5 Internal Components, Mechanisms, and Bearings 423

21.6 Machining Contamination 426

21.6.1 Cutting, Milling, and Turning 426

21.6.2 Grinding and Polishing 427

21.6.3 Welding 428

21.7 Process-Related Sources 429

21.7.1 Deposition Sources 429

21.7.2 Leak Detection 430

21.8 Lubrication Contamination 432

21.8.1 Liquid Lubricants 432

21.8.2 Solid Lubricants 433

21.8.3 Lamellar, Polymer, and Suspension Lubricants 434

21.9 Vacuum System and Component Cleaning 434

21.9.1 Designing a Cleaning Process 435

21.10 Review of Clean Room Environments for Vacuum Systems 436

21.10.1 The Cleanroom Environment 438

21.10.2 Using Vacuum Systems in a Cleanroom Environment 438

References 442

22 High Flow Systems 445

22.1 Mechanically Pumped Systems 447

22.2 Throttled High Vacuum Systems 449

22.2.1 Chamber Designs 449

22.2.2 Turbo Pumped 451

22.2.3 Cryo Pumped 455

References 459

23 Multichambered Systems 461

23.1 Flexible Substrates 462

23.2 Rigid Substrates 465

23.2.1 Inline Systems 465

23.2.2 Cluster Systems 469

23.3 Analytical Instruments 472

References 472

24 Leak Detection 475

24.1 Mass Spectrometer Leak Detectors 476

24.1.1 Forward Flow 476

24.1.2 Counter flow 477

24.2 Performance 478

24.2.1 Sensitivity 478

24.2.2 Response Time 480

24.2.3 Testing Pressurized Chambers 481

24.2.4 Calibration 482

24.3 Leak Hunting Techniques 483

24.4 Leak Detecting with Hydrogen Tracer Gas 486

References 487

Part VI Appendices 489

Appendix A Units and Constants 491

Appendix B Gas Properties 495

Appendix C Material Properties 509

Appendix D Isotopes 519

Appendix E Cracking Patterns 525

Appendix F Pump Fluid Properties 535

Index 543
John F. O'Hanlon, PhD, Emeritus Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Arizona, Tucson, USA and retired IBM Research Staff Member. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE, a Fellow of the AVS and has published widely on vacuum technology and related subjects.

Timothy A. Gessert, PhD, is Principal Scientist and Managing Member of Gessert Consulting, LLC, USA, former Principal Scientist at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, and Fellow and Past President of the AVS. He has published extensively on vacuum technology and related subjects.

J. F. O'Hanlon, The University of Arizona, Arizona, USA; T. A. Gessert, Gessert Consulting, LLC Conifer, Colorado, USA