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UAS Integration into Civil Airspace

Policy, Regulations and Strategy

Marshall, Douglas M.

Aerospace Series (PEP)


1. Edition April 2022
208 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-118-33949-7
John Wiley & Sons

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UAS Integration into Civil Airspace

Explores current Unmanned Air Systems policies with a view to developing a common airspace access and integration strategy

UAS Integration into Civil Airspace: Policy, Regulations and Strategy examines the current state of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) airspace access and integration around the world, focusing on the efforts that have produced a regulatory response to the demand for access. This analysis discusses the proposed architectures for a common strategic and analytical thread that may serve as templates for the entire community, as well as for regulators and policymakers who must balance the needs and demands of UAS users with the general public's right to safe skies and privacy. An understanding of the market forces and business cases that are fuelling the development of the technology is also covered with a focus on the economics of the industry.

The book presents a strategy for airspace access and integration that will facilitate humanitarian, environmental, social and security uses of unmanned aircraft systems on a global scale.

Key features:
* Discusses existing and evolving policies and regulations from nations around the world for operating Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in civil airspace
* Examines the current status of technological developments such as UTM and U-space and explores the technological potential in the years to come
* Presents a comprehensive airspace integration strategy that balances the many conflicting interests in the UAS world, with due regard for safety, utility and affordability

UAS Integration into Civil Airspace: Policy, Regulations and Strategy is essential reading for all professionals involved in UAS industry, as well as students in mechanical engineering and law.

Preface xi

Aerospace Series Preface xvii

Acknowledgements xix

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xxi

1 Background 1

Introduction 1

Setting the Stage for Integration of Remotely Piloted Aircraft into Non-segregated Airspace 2

The Law of the Sea and the Law of the Air 2

A Brief History of Aviation Regulations 3

International Civil Aviation Regulations 4

The Chicago Convention and the International Civil Aviation Organization 6

Conclusion 9

References 9

2 UAS Airspace Integration in the European Union 11

Regulations, Opinions, Decisions 11

Implementing Organizations 39

Eurocontrol 60

Conclusion 66

References 66

3 ICAO 69

ICAO Model UAS Regulations 69

Advisory Circulars 70

DRAFT Canada AC 922-001, RPAS Safety Assurance 71

UTM Guidance 71

ICAO RPAS Concept of Operations 75

ICAO U-AID Guidance 80

The ICAO UAS Toolkit 81

RPAS Manual (Doc.) 10019 1st Edition 82

Conclusion 86

References 86

4 UAS Airspace Integration in the United States 87

The FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (Hereafter FMRA), Public Law 112-95, Title III - Safety, Subtitle B - Unmanned Aircraft Systems 88

The FAA Extension, Safety, and Security Act of 2016 Title II, Subtitle B-UAS Safety (Pub. L. 114-190) 91

The FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 (Pub. L. 115-254) 92

The Response from the FAA and NASA 96

Status of UTM Today 104

UTM Vision 104

Participation 109

Performance Authorizations 109

Airspace Authorization 110

Recent Developments in UAM/AAM 110

Conclusion 111

References 111

5 Global Airspace Integration Activities 113

Australia 113

Brazil 115

Canada 116

China 117

France 119

Germany 120

Ireland 121

Italy 122

Japan 123

Mexico 124

Netherlands 124

New Zealand 125

Norway 125

Singapore 126

South Africa 127

Sweden 128

United Kingdom 129

Conclusion 130

References 131

6 The Role of Standards 133

Conclusion 141

References 142

7 The Technology 143

Conclusion 150

References 152

8 Cybersecurity and Cyber Resilience 153

Describing the Threat 155

ICAO 157

IATF 157

Global Resilient Aviation Network Concept of Operations - Trust Framework 162

ICAO Council and Assembly Documents 166

Declaration on Cybersecurity in Civil Aviation (Dubai, 2017) 166

Conclusion 172

References 173

Index 175
Douglas M. Marshall
TrueNorth Consulting LLC., USA

D. M. Marshall, New Mexico State University