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Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Medicine

P. M., Visakh (Editor)

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1. Edition November 2022
576 Pages, Hardcover
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ISBN: 978-1-119-55803-3
John Wiley & Sons

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NANOMATERIALS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINE

A comprehensive introduction to nanomaterials and their application in the field of medicine

The use of nanotechnology and nanomaterials more generally is an emerging field that has generated a lot of interest in the last few years. To this point, there have been few books that deal with the recent advances in nanomaterials or nanocomposites in the medical discipline.

Intended as a one-stop reference, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Medicine provides the reader with the most-up-to-date and comprehensive exploration of the field of nanomedicine. The scope of the topic is huge, with nano applications in every medical specialization--from diagnostics to pharmaceuticals, from biological therapies to surgical devices, and from regenerative therapies to gene therapy. As such, this volume provides the most comprehensive coverage of this intriguing field of study.

Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Medicine readers will also find:
* An application-oriented book dedicated towards helping researchers find solutions to both fundamental and applied problems
* Chapters written by leading researchers from industry, academy, government, and private research institutions across the globe

Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Medicine is a useful reference for medical doctors, medical practitioners, post-doctoral research fellows, senior graduate students, and medical libraries.

List of Contributors xi

Preface xvii

1 Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Medicine 1

P. M. Visakh

1.1 Nanoneurology

1

1.2 Nanomolecular

Diagnostics 3

1.3 Nanopharmaceuticals

4

1.4 Role

of Nanotechnology in Biological Therapies 6

1.5 Nanomaterials

for Gene Therapy 8

1.6 Nanotools

for the Treatment of Ocular Diseases 10

1.7 Nanotechnology

Applications in Food and Nutrition Science 11

1.8 Rubber

Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications 13

References 15

2 Nanoneurology 27

LironL. Israel and Eggehard Holler

2.1 Introduction

and Recent Advances 27

2.2 Types

of Nanomaterials 30

2.3 Nanomaterial

Applications for Neurodegenerative Diseases 32

2.4 Nanomaterial

Applications for Strokes 38

2.5 Nanomaterial

Applications for Spinal Cord Injuries 41

2.6 Nanomaterial

Applications for Brain Tumors 44

2.7 Adverse

Effects of Nanomaterials 50

2.8 Regulatory

Issues 53

2.9 Conclusions

54

References 54

3 Nanomolecular Diagnostics 65

Anila Fariq, Ayesha Selhaba, Anum Zulfiqar, and Azra Yasmin

3.1 Introduction

65

3.2 Nanodiagnostics

67

3.3 Nanoparticles

for Molecular Diagnostics 68

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vi Contents

3.4 Applications

of Nanoparticles for Molecular Diagnostics 75

3.5 Comparison

Between Nanomaterials and Other Materials in Molecular

Diagnostics 79

3.6 Prospects

of Nanodiagnostics 79

3.7 Regulatory

Issues 80

3.8 Conclusion

81

References 82

4 Nanopharmaceuticals 87

David Quintanar-Guerrero,

Gerardo Leyva-Gómez,

Nancy Evelyn Magaña Vergara,

and Néstor Mendoza Muñoz

4.1 Introduction

87

4.2 Liposomes

in Nanopharmaceuticals 89

4.3 Polymeric

Nanoparticles in Nanopharmaceuticals 93

4.4 Solid

Lipid Nanoparticles in Nanopharmaceuticals 99

4.5 Dendrimers

in Nanopharmaceuticals 101

4.6 Quantum

Dots in Nanopharmaceuticals 104

4.7 Regulatory

Issues 106

4.8 Conclusion

109

References 109

5 Role of Nanotechnology in Biological Therapies 115

Blanca Ocampo-García,

Liliana Aranda Lara, Guillermina Ferro-Flores,

Enrique Morales-Avila,

and Keila Isaac-Olivé

5.1 Introduction

115

5.2 Biological

Therapies 116

5.3 Nanoparticles

in Biological Therapies 118

5.4 Application

of Nanotechnology in Biological Therapies 131

5.5 Advantages

and Disadvantages of Nanoparticles in Biological Therapies 136

5.6 Conclusion

137

References 137

6 Nanomaterials for Gene Therapy 153

V. Karthik, A. Vigneshwaran, D. Dharun Daniel Raj, T.G.N. Nagrajun, S. Poornima,

R. Subbaiya, and M. Saravanan

6.1 Introduction

and Recent Advances 153

6.2 Nanomaterials

and their Physicochemical Properties 153

6.3 Methods

of Characterizing the Physicochemical Properties of Nanomaterials 154

6.4 Target

Organ Biocompatibility/Toxicity 155

6.5 Gene

Delivery 158

6.6 Regulatory

Issues 163

References 163

7 Nanotools for the Treatment of Ocular Diseases 169

Elisa J. Campos, António Campos, João Martins, and António F. Ambrósio

7.1 Introduction

169

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Contents vii

7.2 Ocular

Anatomy 170

7.3 Physiological

Barriers in the Eye 171

7.4 Methods

of Ocular Disease Treatment 173

7.5 Nanomedicine

in Ocular Therapy 174

7.6 Closing

Remarks 180

Conflict

of Interest 181

References 181

8 Nanotechnology Applications in Food and Nutrition Science 185

Kobra S. Rizi, Majid Rezayi, Ehsan Aryan, Zahra Meshkat, and Majid G. Mobarhan

8.1 Introduction

185

8.2 Nanostructured

Delivery Systems 186

8.3 Nanoparticles

Based on Inorganic Materials 202

8.4 Metal

Nanoparticles 204

8.5 Conclusion

205

References 206

9 Rubber Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications 225

Jayalatha Gopalakrishnan

9.1 Introduction

225

9.2 Rubbers

for Biomedical Applications 226

9.3 Rubber-

based

Nanocomposites 229

9.4 Conclusions

246

References 246

10 Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Medicine 251

P. M Visakh

10.1 Nanomaterials

and Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative

Medicine 251

10.2 Nanorobotics

in Nanomedicine 253

10.3 Nanosensors

255

10.4 Inorganic

Nanoparticles for Drug-delivery

Applications 257

10.5 Intelligent

Nanomaterials for Medicine 259

10.6 Polymer-

based

Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications 261

10.7 Toxicity

of Nanomaterials 263

10.8 Multifunctional

Nanomaterials for Medical Applications 264

10.9 Antimicrobial

Applications of Nanoparticles 265

References 266

11 Nanomaterials and Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative

Medicine 279

Saeid Kargozar, Simin Nazarnezhad, Farzad Kermani, and Francesco Baino

11.1 Introduction

and Recent Advances 279

11.2 Tissue

Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: General Concepts 280

11.3 Implantable

Nanomaterials to Regenerate Living Tissues 282

11.4 Nanomaterials

as Carriers for Therapeutic Agents 283

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viii Contents

11.5 Nanofibrous

Scaffolds 285

11.6 Nano-

topography

Techniques for Tissue-engineered

Scaffolds 288

11.7 Regulatory

Issues 290

11.8 Conclusion

290

References 291

12 Nanorobotics in Nanomedicine 303

Vaishali Y. Londhe and Rupali S. Bhadale

12.1 Introduction

303

12.2 What

is Nanorobotics? 304

12.3 Nanorobotics

in Nanomedicines 306

12.4 Nanorobots

for Medical Imaging 307

12.5 Nanorobots

for Targeted Drug Delivery 309

12.6 Enzymatic

Nanolithography 313

12.7 Biomimetic

Approach 314

12.8 Cell

Biochips 315

12.9 Nanorobots

for Precision Surgery 315

12.10 Nanorobots

for Detoxification 317

12.11 Fabrication

of Nanorobots 318

12.12 Toxicity

321

12.13 Administration

and Retrieval 321

12.14 Clinical

Presence of Nanorobots 322

12.15 Reproducibility

and Standardization 322

12.16 Regulatory

Issues 323

12.17 Conclusion

324

References 325

13 Nanosensors 333

Asit Behera, A.K. Sahoo and S.S. Mohapatra

13.1 Introduction

and Recent Advances 333

13.2 Classification

of Nanosensors 336

13.3 Nanosensor

Fabrication 339

13.4 Inorganic

Nanosensors 343

13.5 Biopolymer-

derived

Nanosensors 346

13.6 Applications

348

13.7 Regulatory

Issues 358

13.8 Conclusions

359

References 360

14 Inorganic Nanoparticles for Drug-delivery

Applications 367

Chinnu Sabu, V.K. Ameena Shirin, Renu Sankar and K. Pramod

14.1 Introduction

367

14.2 Synthesis

of Inorganic Nanoparticles 368

14.3 Properties

of Inorganic Nanoparticles 371

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Contents ix

14.4 Functionalization

of Inorganic Nanoparticles 372

14.5 Quantum

Dots for Drug Delivery 374

14.6 Drug

Delivery by Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles 376

14.7 Silver

Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery 379

14.8 Gold

Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery 383

14.9 Superparamagnetic

Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery 385

14.10 Hybrid

Systems of Inorganic Nanoparticles 386

14.11 Prospects

of Inorganic Nanoparticles 388

14.12 Conclusion

388

References 388

15 Intelligent Nanomaterials for Medicine 401

Ajit Behera and Ranjan K. Mohapatra

15.1 Introduction

to Intelligent Nanomaterials 401

15.2 Design

and Function of Intelligent Nanoparticles 403

15.3 Various

Intelligent Materials for Medicines 405

15.4 Type

of Stimuli in Intelligent Nanomaterials in Medicine 415

15.5 Clinical

Applications of Intelligent Nanomaterials 416

15.6 Potential

Risk Factors in Nanomaterial Application 419

15.7 Summary

and Future Prospects 420

References 420

16 Polymer-based

Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications 427

Chander Amgoth, Kaxi Yu, Shuai Chen, Hongzhen Bai and Guping Tang

16.1 Introduction

and Recent Advances 427

16.2 Polymers

for Biomedical Fields 428

16.3 Synthesis

of Nanocomposites 432

16.4 Characterization

Tools for Nanocomposites 432

16.5 Size,

Shape, and Morphology of Nanocomposites 433

16.6 Polymer

Nanocomposites for Various Applications 436

16.7 Nanocomposites

for Molecular Diagnosis and Biopharmaceutics 437

16.8 Perspectives

of Nanocomposites 441

16.9 Conclusion

442

References 442

17 Toxicity of Nanomaterials 447

Elham Abohamzeh, M. Sheikholeslami and Ahmad Shafee

17.1 Introduction

and Recent Advances 447

17.2 Biomedical

Applications of Nanomaterials 449

17.3 Biodistribution,

Mechanism, and Excretion of Nanomaterials 453

17.4 Toxicity

of Nanomaterials 457

17.5 Physicochemical

Properties and Toxicity of Nanomaterials 461

17.6 Regulatory

Issues 464

17.7 Conclusion

466

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x Contents

References 466

18 Multifunctional Nanomaterials for Medical Applications 479

Jitha S Jayan, Ramya Rajan, Saritha Appukuttan, and Kuruvilla Joseph

18.1 Introduction

and Recent Advances 479

18.2 Multifunctional

Nanomaterials 481

18.3 Diagnostic

Application 483

18.4 Therapeutic

Application 485

18.5 External

Stimuli-responsive

Nanoparticles for Medicinal Applications 487

18.6 Regulatory

Issues 498

18.7 Conclusion

and Future Perspectives 498

References 499

19 Antimicrobial Applications of Nanoparticles 517

19.1 Introduction

517

19.2 Antimicrobial

Properties of Nanoparticles 518

19.3 Antimicrobial

Applications of Nanoparticles 525

19.4 Conclusions

539

References 540

Index 000
Visakh P.M., MSc, MPhil, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Physical Electronics, TUSUR University, Tomsk, Russia. His research interests are polymer chemistry, nanotechnology, nanocomposites and bionanocomposites. He has edited over 35 books.