John Wiley & Sons The Sounds of Language Cover The fully updated, new edition of the bestselling introduction to phonetics and phonology The Sound.. Product #: 978-1-119-87848-3 Regular price: $45.70 $45.70 In Stock

The Sounds of Language

An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology

Zsiga, Elizabeth C.

LAWZ - Linguistics in the World

Cover

2. Edition March 2024
640 Pages, Softcover
Textbook

ISBN: 978-1-119-87848-3
John Wiley & Sons

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The fully updated, new edition of the bestselling introduction to phonetics and phonology

The Sounds of Language presents a comprehensive introduction to both the physical and cognitive aspects of speech sounds. Assuming no prior knowledge of phonetics or phonology, this student-friendly textbook clearly explains fundamental concepts and theories, describes key phonetic and phonological phenomena, explores the history and intersection of the two fields, offers practical advice on collecting and reading data, and more.

Twenty-four concise chapters, written in non-technical language, are organized into six sections that each focus on a particular sub-discipline: Articulatory Phonetics, Acoustic Phonetics, Segmental Phonology, Suprasegmental Phonology, the Phonology/Morphology Interface, and Variation and Change. The book's flexible modular approach allows instructors to easily choose, re-order, combine, or skip sections to meet the needs of one- and two-semester courses of varying levels. Now in its second edition, The Sounds of Language contains updated references, new problem sets, new examples, and links to new online material. The new edition features new chapters on Lexical Phonology; Word Structure and Sound Structure; and Variation, Probability, and Phonological Theory. Chapters on Sociolinguistic Variation, Child Language Acquisition, and Adult Language Learning have also been extensively updated and revised.

Offering uniquely broad and balanced coverage of the theory and practice of two major branches of linguistics, The Sounds of Language:
* Covers a wide range of topics in phonetics and phonology, from the anatomy of the vocal tract to the cognitive processes behind the comprehension of speech sounds
* Features critical reviews of different approaches that have been used to address phonetics and phonology problems
* Integrates data on sociolinguistic variation, first language acquisition, and second language learning
* Surveys key phonological theories, common phonological processes, and computational techniques for speech analysis
* Contains numerous exercises and progressively challenging problem sets that allow students to practice data analysis and hypothesis testing
* Includes access to a companion website with additional exercises, sound files, and other supporting resources

The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Second Edition, remains the ideal textbook for undergraduate and beginning graduate classes on phonology and phonetics, as well as related courses in linguistics, applied linguistics, speech science, language acquisition, and cognitive science programs.

Preface xvii

Preface to the Second Edition xviii

About the Companion Website xx

Part I Articulation 1

1 The Vocal Tract 3

1.1 Seeing the Vocal Tract: Tools for Speech Research 4

1.2 The Parts of the Vocal Tract 7

Chapter Summary 13

Further Reading 13

Review Exercises 14

Further Analysis and Discussion 15

Further Research 15

Go online 15

References 15

2 Basics of Articulation: Manner and Place in English 16

2.1 The Dance of the Articulators 17

2.2 Phonetic Transcription 18

Chapter Summary 30

Further Reading 31

Review Exercises 31

Further Research 34

Go online 34

3 A Tour of the Consonants 35

3.1 "Exotic" Sounds and the Phonetic Environment 36

3.2 Pulmonic Consonants 39

3.3 Non-Pulmonic Consonants 47

3.4 Positional Variation in English 50

Chapter Summary 53

Further Reading 54

Review Exercises 54

Further Analysis and Discussion 55

Go online 56

References 56

4 A Map of the Vowels 58

4.1 The Landscape 59

4.2 Cardinal Vowels 60

4.3 Building Inventories: Dimensions of Vowel Quality 62

4.4 Nasality and Voice Quality 69

4.5 Length and Diphthongs 70

4.6 Tone 71

4.7 Positional Variants of the Vowels of English 73

Chapter Summary 74

Further Reading 74

Review Exercises 74

Further Analysis and Discussion 76

Further Research 77

References 77

5 Anatomy, Physiology, and Gestural Coordination 78

5.1 Anatomy and Physiology of Respiration 79

5.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Larynx 81

5.3 Anatomy of the Tongue and Supralaryngeal Vocal Tract 87

5.4 Gestural Coordination 91

5.5 Palatography 93

Chapter Summary 95

Further Reading 96

Review Exercises 96

Further Analysis and Discussion 98

Further Research 99

Go online 99

Part II Acoustics and Perception 101

6 The Physics of Sound: Pendulums, Pebbles, and Waves 103

6.1 What Is Sound? 104

6.2 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Pendulum and a Tuning Fork 106

6.3 Adding Sinusoids: Complex Waves 109

6.4 Sound Propagation 112

6.5 Decibels 114

6.6 Resonance 115

6.7 The Vocal Tract as a Sound-producing Device: Source-Filter Theory 118

Chapter Summary 120

Further Reading 120

Review Exercises 120

Go online 121

7 Looking at Speech Waveforms, Spectra, and Spectrograms 122

7.1 Pre-Digital Speech Analysis 123

7.2 Digitization 125

7.3 Looking at Waveforms 132

7.4 Spectra 134

7.5 Spectrograms 139

Chapter Summary 145

Further Reading 145

Review Exercises 145

Further Analysis and Discussion 146

Further Research 149

Go online 150

References 150

8 Speech Analysis: Under the Hood 151

8.1 Building Sounds Up 152

8.2 Breaking Sounds Down 162

Chapter Summary 171

Further Reading 172

Review Exercises 172

Further Analysis and Discussion 172

Further Research 173

Go online 173

References 173

9 Hearing and Speech Perception 174

9.1 Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear 175

9.2 Neuro-anatomy 181

9.3 Speech Perception 186

Chapter Summary 194

Further Reading 194

Review Exercises 195

Further Analysis and Discussion 196

Go online 196

References 197

Part III Segmental Phonology 199

10 Phonology 1: Abstraction, Contrast, Predictability 201

10.1 The Necessity of Abstraction 202

10.2 Contrast and Predictability: Phonemes and Allophones 206

10.3 Some Complicating Factors 213

10.4 Structuralism, Behaviorism, and the Decline of Phonemic Analysis 217

Chapter Summary 218

Further Reading 219

Review Exercises 219

Further Analysis and Discussion 220

Further Research 222

Go online 223

References 223

11 Phonotactics and Alternations 224

11.1 Phonotactic Constraints 225

11.2 Analyzing Alternations 228

11.3 Alternations: What to Expect 235

Chapter Summary 248

Further Reading 249

Review Exercises 249

Further Analysis and Discussion 251

Go online 253

References 253

12 What Is a Possible Language? Distinctive Features 254

12.1 Introduction 255

12.2 Distinctive Features 258

12.3 How have our Hypotheses Fared? 270

Chapter Summary 272

Further Reading 272

Review Exercises 272

Further Analysis and Discussion 273

Further Research 275

Go online 275

References 275

13 Rules and Derivations in Generative Grammar 276

13.1 Generative Grammars 277

13.2 Underlying Representations 278

13.3 Writing Rules 280

13.4 Autosegmental Representations and Feature Geometry 289

13.5 How Have Our Hypotheses Fared? 303

Chapter Summary 303

Further Reading 304

Review Exercises 304

Further Analysis and Discussion 305

Further Research 310

Go online 310

14 Constraint-based Phonology 311

14.1 Constraints and Rules in Linguistic Theory 312

14.2 The Basics of Optimality Theory 315

14.4 Challenges and Directions for Further Research 328

Chapter Summary 330

Further Reading 331

Review Exercises 331

Go online 336

References 336

Part IV Suprasegmental Phonology 337

15 Syllables and Prosodic Domains 339

15.1 Syllables 340

15.2 The Prosodic Hierarchy 350

Chapter Summary 356

Further Reading 357

Review Exercises 357

16 Stress 363

16.1 What is Linguistic Stress? 364

16.2 Cross-Linguistic Typology 366

16.3 A Feature for Stress? 369

16.4 Metrical Structure 370

16.5 Stress in English 375

Chapter Summary 380

Further Reading 380

Review Exercises 380

Further Analysis and Discussion 382

Further Research 384

Go online 384

References 384

17 Tone and Intonation 385

17.1 Tone 386

17.2 Intonation 402

Chapter Summary 407

Further Reading 408

Review Exercises 408

Further Analysis and Discussion 409

Further Research 411

Go online 411

References 411

Part V Phonology and Morphology 413

18 Word Structure and Sound Structure 415

18.1 Basics of Morphology: Some Definitions and Examples 416

18.2 Phonologically Sensitive Morphology 424

18.3 What Is in the Lexicon? 432

Chapter Summary 433

Recommended Readings 434

Review Exercises 435

Further Analysis and Discussion 435

Further Research 440

Reference 441

19 Lexical Phonology 442

19.1 Lexical and Post-Lexical Phonology 443

19.2 Properties of Lexical Phonology 444

19.3 Theoretical Approaches to the Phonology/Morphology Interface 455

19.4 Summary and Directions for Future Research 463

Chapter Summary 464

Recommended Readings 465

Review Exercises 465

Further Analysis and Discussion 466

Further Research 468

References 469

Part VI Variation And Change 471

20 Diachronic Change 473

20.1 Languages Change 474

20.2 Historical Reconstruction 479

20.3 History of English 486

Chapter Summary 493

Further Reading 494

Review Exercises 494

Further Analysis and Discussion 495

Further Research 498

Go online 498

References 498

21 Sociolinguistic Variation 500

21.1 Variation by Place 502

21.2 Other Sources of Variation 511

Chapter Summary 515

Recommended Reading 516

On Regional Dialects 516

On Other Sources of Variation 516

Review Exercises 516

Further Analysis and Discussion 517

Further Research 518

Go online 518

References 518

22 Variation, Probability, and Phonological Theory 520

22.1 Variation Is Ubiquitous 521

22.2 Variable Rules 525

22.3 Constraint-based Approaches to Phonological Variation 527

22.4 Summary and Directions for Future Research 541

Chapter Summary 542

Suggested Reading 542

Review Exercises 542

Further Analysis and Discussion 543

Further Research 546

References 547

23 Child Language Acquisition 548

23.1 Language Acquisition and Language Learning 549

23.2 Research Tools 549

23.3 Perception in the First Year 551

23.4 Child Language Production 556

23.5 Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory 560

Chapter Summary 564

Further Reading 564

Review Exercises 565

Further Analysis and Discussion 566

Further Research 567

Go online 567

References 567

24 Adult Language Learning 568

24.1 The Contexts of Adult Language Learning 569

24.2 Research Tools 571

24.3 L2 Perception 573

24.4 L2 Production 576

24.5 L2 Grammar Learning 578

24.6 Acquisition, Learning, and Linguistic Theory 582

Chapter Summary 583

Further Reading 584

Review Exercises 584

Further Analysis and Discussion 585

Further Research 586

Go online 586

References 587

Sources of Language Data 588

Index 598
ELIZABETH C. ZSIGA is Professor of Linguistics at Georgetown University, where she has taught undergraduate and graduate students since 1994. Her research focuses on the sound systems of diverse languages and the intersections between phonetics and phonology. She is the author of The Phonology/Phonetics Interface and has published widely in leading scholarly journals.

E. C. Zsiga, Georgetown University, USA