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Smart Charging Solutions for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

Sachan, Sulabh / Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar / Deb, Sanchari (Editor)

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1. Edition March 2022
464 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-76895-1
John Wiley & Sons

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SMART CHARGING SOLUTIONS

The most comprehensive and up-to-date study of smart charging solutions for hybrid and electric vehicles for engineers, scientists, students, and other professionals.

As our dependence on fossil fuels continues to wane all over the world, demand for dependable and economically feasible energy sources continues to grow. As environmental regulations become more stringent, energy production is relying more and more heavily on locally available renewable resources. Furthermore, fuel consumption and emissions are facilitating the transition to sustainable transportation. The market for electric vehicles (EVs) has been increasing steadily over the past few years throughout the world.

With the increasing popularity of EVs, a competitive market between charging stations (CSS) to attract more EVs is expected. This outstanding new volume is a resource for engineers, researchers, and practitioners interested in getting acquainted with smart charging for electric vehicles technologies. It includes many chapters dealing with the state-of-the-art studies on EV smart charging along with charging infrastructure. Whether for the veteran engineer or student, this is a must-have volume for any library.

Smart Charging Solutions for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles:
* Presents the state of the art of smart charging for hybrid and electric vehicles, from a technological point of view
* Focuses on optimization and prospective solutions for practical problems
* Covers the most important recent developmental technologies related to renewable energy, to keep the engineer up to date and well informed
* Includes economic considerations, such as business models and price structures
* Covers standards and regulatory frameworks for smart charging solutions

Preface xv

1 Smart Charging: An Outlook Towards its Role and Impacts, Enablers, Markets, and the Global Energy System 1
Bikash Sah and Praveen Kumar

1.1 Introduction to Smart Charging 2

1.1.1 Context of SMART 3

1.1.2 Approaches 5

1.1.3 Contributions 5

1.2 Types of Charging 6

1.2.1 Uncoordinated Charging 6

1.2.2 Coordinated Charging 7

1.2.3 Smart Charging 8

1.3 Impact of Smart Charging on Global Energy Systems 14

1.3.1 On the Grid Side 15

1.3.2 On the Demand Side 15

1.3.3 Overall Infrastructure 16

1.4 Types of Smart Charging 16

1.5 Entities of a Smart-Charging System 18

1.5.1 Operators: Generation, Transmission, and Distribution 19

1.5.2 Controllers 19

1.5.3 Aggregators 20

1.5.4 Communication System 20

1.5.5 Stakeholders 22

1.5.5.1 Policymakers 22

1.5.5.2 Manufacturers 23

1.5.5.3 Service and Support Providers 23

1.5.5.4 Consumers 23

1.5.6 Market 24

1.6 Enablers of Smart Charging 24

1.7 Control Architectures 26

1.7.1 Centralized 26

1.7.2 Decentralized 27

1.7.3 Comments on Suitability 28

1.8 Outlook towards Smart Charging 30

1.9 Conclusion 31

References 32

2 Influence of Electric Vehicles on Improvements in the Electric Distribution Grid 39
Michela Longo, Wahiba Yaïci and Dario Zaninelli

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Evolution of the Distribution System 41

2.2.1 Present and Next Challenges of the Distribution System 41

2.2.2 Energy Planning 43

2.2.3 Impacts on the Consumption of Energy Sources 45

2.2.4 Impacts of the Consumption on Distribution Networks 45

2.2.5 Evolution towards Smart Grids 46

2.3 Electric Mobility 50

2.3.1 Electric Vehicle Classification 51

2.3.2 Electric Mobility Maturity in Italy 53

2.3.2.1 Technological Maturity 54

2.3.2.2 Regulatory Maturity 54

2.3.2.3 Market Maturity 54

2.3.3 Electric Vehicle Market 57

2.3.4 Italian EV Market 58

2.3.5 The Influence of Batteries 59

2.3.6 Future Scenarios 61

2.3.7 Plans for the Diffusion of Charging Systems in Italy - PNIRE 64

2.3.8 Models and Diffusion Plans 65

2.3.8.1 The ANCI Guidelines 66

2.3.9 Charging Infrastructure 66

2.4 Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles 68

2.4.1 State-of-the-Art Charging Infrastructure 68

2.4.2 Charging Modes 69

2.4.2.1 Mode 1: Charging in Domestic Environment, Slow (6-8 h) up to 16 A 70

2.4.2.2 Mode 2: Charging in Domestic Environment, Slow (3-4 h) up to 32 A 71

2.4.2.3 Mode 3: Recharge in Domestic and Public Environment, Slow (6-8 h) or Fast (30 min - 1 h) 71

2.4.2.4 Mode 4: Charging in Public Environment, Fast (10-30 min) (Charging in Direct Current) 71

2.4.3 Charging Poles 72

2.4.4 Charging Connectors 75

2.4.5 Pilot Circuit 77

2.4.6 Complete Pilot Circuit 78

2.4.7 Simplified Pilot Circuit 78

2.5 Conclusion 79

References 79

3 Smart Charging Strategies for the Changing Grid 83
Chandana Sasidharan and Shweta Kalia

3.1 Introduction 83

3.2 Charging Strategy based on Vehicle Type 86

3.3 Mapping of Charging Strategies 90

3.4 Evaluation of Charging Strategies 99

References 100

4 Pricing Schemes for Smart Charging 105
Ahad Abessi, Vahid Safari and Mohammad Shadnam Zarbil

Abbreviations 105

Nomenclature 106

4.1 Introduction 108

4.2 Concepts and Issues in Charging Pricing 109

4.3 Different Models of Charging Stations' Dynamic Pricing 111

4.4 Classification of Charging Pricing Models 112

4.4.1 Stochastic Dynamic Pricing 114

4.4.1.1 Profit of Charging Stations 116

4.4.1.2 Customer Satisfaction 117

4.4.1.3 Effect on the Power Grid 117

4.4.1.4 Multi-Objective Optimization Framework 118

4.4.2 Distributed Dynamic Pricing Policy Method 119

4.4.2.1 Distributed Dynamic Pricing Strategy 119

4.4.2.2 Usage-Based Dynamic Pricing (UDP) 121

4.4.2.3 Distributed Demand Response Pricing (D2R) 122

4.4.2.4 Quadratic Cost Function Pricing (QCF) 123

4.4.3 Integrated Dynamic Pricing and Scheduling of EV Charging Stations 123

4.4.4 Competitive Charging Station Pricing 124

4.4.4.1 Charger Station Pricing Game (CSPG) 125

4.4.5 Negotiation Pricing in Charging Stations 126

4.4.5.1 Initial Price of EV User 127

4.4.5.2 Charging Station Operator Initial Price 127

4.4.5.3 Strategy of Price Adjustment for Charging Station Operator 128

4.4.5.4 Price Adjustment Strategy of EV User 128

4.4.6 Charging Pricing of Fast Charging Stations for the Voltage Control of Distribution Network 129

4.4.6.1 The Lower-Layer Optimization Model 129

4.4.6.2 The Upper-Layer Optimization Model 131

4.4.7 Online Reinforcement Learning Approach for Dynamic Pricing 132

4.5 Electricity Pricing of Vehicle Discharging to Grid 134

4.5.1 Scheme of Discharge Pricing 135

4.5.2 Some Common Schemes of Discharge Pricing 137

4.6 Electricity Pricing Currently Used at Charging Stations 137

4.7 Effect of Charging Pricing on Economic Competitiveness of Electric Vehicles 139

4.8 Conclusion 140

References 141

5 Management of Electric Vehicles Using Automatic Learning Algorithms: Application in Office Buildings 143
Andres Alonso Rodriguez, Luis Perdomo, Ameena Al-sumaiti, Francisco Santamaria and Sergio Rivera

5.1 Introduction 143

5.2 Proposed Charging Strategy 145

5.3 Test Bed and Implementation Results 150

5.4 Conclusion 155

References 156

6 High-Power Charging Strategies of EV Batteries and Energy Storage 159
Marta Zurek-Mortka and Jerzy R. Szymanski

Abbreviations 159

6.1 Introduction 160

6.2 EV Battery Set Model 163

6.3 Case Study of Charging High Power Li-Ion Battery for Energy Storage and Electric Work Machines 165

6.4 Proposed Constant Current and Constant Voltage Method for EV Battery Charging 169

6.5 Simulation Tests of EV Battery Charging 170

6.6 Conclusions 172

References 173

7 Integration of Fast Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles with the Industrial Power System 175
Marta Zurek-Mortka and Jerzy R. Szymanski

Abbreviations 176

7.1 Introduction 176

7.2 Structure of Hybrid EV Fast Charging Station 178

7.3 Use of Drive Voltage Frequency Converter for Charging EV Batteries 180

7.4 Fast Charging Converter Integrated with 600V DC Microgrid 183

7.5 Simulation and Experimental Study of Drive Voltage Frequency Converter Used to Charge EV Batteries 187

7.6 Conclusions 192

References 193

8 Regulatory Framework for Smart Charging in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles: Challenges, Driving Forces, and Lessons for Future Roadmap 195
Rajkumar Viral and Divya Asija

List of Abbreviations 196

8.1 Introduction 197

8.1.1 Status of Adopted EV Technology 199

8.1.2 Prospects and Current Market for Smart Charging 202

8.1.3 Status of International Intervened Framework 204

8.2 EV Charging Technology and Smart Charging 205

8.2.1 EV Charging Technology 205

8.2.1.1 Existent Charging Technologies for EVs 207

8.2.1.2 Emergent Charging Technologies for EVs 208

8.2.2 Smart Charging 209

8.2.3 Smart Charging: Current Status and Technological Advancement 211

8.2.3.1 Smart Charging Powered by Service Provider or Grid Operator Needs 211

8.2.3.2 Smart Charging Powered by EV Owners or Building Needs 211

8.2.4 Affordability and Current Infrastructure 214

8.2.4.1 Charging Stations 214

8.2.4.2 The Charger 215

8.2.5 Major Threats in Smart Charging 218

8.3 Smart Charging Standards 220

8.3.1 Standards Developed by IEC 220

8.3.1.1 IEC61851 Standard 220

8.3.1.2 IEC 61980 Standard 221

8.3.1.3 IEC62196 Standard 221

8.3.2 SAE Standards 221

8.3.2.1 SAEJ2293 Standard 221

8.3.2.2 SAEJ1772 Standard 221

8.3.2.3 SAEJ1773 Standard 221

8.3.2.4 SAEJ2847 and SAEJ2836 Standard 222

8.3.2.5 SAEJ2931 Standard 222

8.3.2.6 SAEJ2954 and SAEJ2954 Standard 222

8.3.3 Safety Standards for EV 222

8.3.3.1 NFPA Standards 222

8.3.3.2 NEC 625 223

8.3.3.3 NEC 626 223

8.4 Regulatory Framework 223

8.4.1 International Smart Charging Framework 223

8.4.2 Role of Agents in Smart Charging 226

8.4.3 Regulatory Challenges of Smart Charging and Impact on Global Energy Market 227

8.5 Conclusions and Discussion 229

References 230

9 EV Fast Charging Station Planning with Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Durgapur System 233
Dr. Ashish Kumar Bohre, Dr. Partha Sarathee Bhowmik and Dr. Baseem Khan

9.1 Introduction 234

9.2 Modeling of System 236

9.2.1 Solar PV 236

9.2.2 Battery Storage System (BSS) 237

9.2.3 System Converter 237

9.2.4 Diesel Generator 237

9.2.5 Load Profile 238

9.2.6 Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Station (EV-FCS) Characteristics and Performance 238

9.3 Case Study on Solar and Wind Data 240

9.4 Problem Description and Methodology 242

9.4.1 Cost of Energy (COE) 245

9.4.2 Annual Savings 245

9.4.3 Internal Rate of Return 245

9.4.4 Simple Payback 245

9.4.5 Pollutant Emissions 246

9.5 Results and Discussion 246

9.5.1 System Analysis without EV Fast Charging Stations (EV-FCS) 247

9.5.2 System Analysis with EV Fast Charging Stations (EV-FCS) 261

9.6 Conclusions 278

9.7 Acknowledgment 279

References 279

10 Game Theory Approach for Electric Vehicle Charge Management Considering User Behavior 283
Lokesh Kumar Panwar

Nomenclature 284

10.1 Introduction 285

10.2 Problem Formulation 288

10.3 Profit Maximization Game 292

10.4 Existence and Uniqueness of Nash Equilibrium of Profit Maximization Game 294

10.5 Results and Discussion 296

10.6 Conclusion 302

Appendix A 302

References 304

11 A Novel SMES Based Charging System for Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids 307
Ubaid ur Rehman

Nomenclature 307

List of Abbreviations 307

List of Variables 308

11.1 Introduction 308

11.2 System Modeling 310

11.3 Impact Analysis of SME'S on SG Performance while Accommodating EVs 314

11.4 Conclusion 318

References 319

12 A Novel Intelligent Route Planning Framework for Electric Vehicles with Consideration of Waiting Time in Delhi 321
Lokesh Kumar Panwar

12.1 Introduction 322

12.2 Problem Description 324

12.2.1 Travelling Cost between Two Edges 325

12.2.2 Charging Cost at CS 325

12.2.3 Travelling Time Between Two Edges 325

12.2.4 Waiting Time at CS 326

12.3 Reinforcement Learning (RL) Based EV Navigation System 326

12.3.1 Objective Functions 327

12.3.2 Online Learning and Estimation Waiting Time 328

12.3.3 RL Based Navigation Method 329

12.4 Results and Discussion 331

12.4.1 Simulation Environment 331

12.4.2 Benchmark Cases 333

12.4.3 Distributed Learning Simulation 336

12.5 Conclusion 338

References 338

13 Smart Charging Management for Autonomous Vehicles: A Smart Solution for Smart Cities & Societies: COVID 19 341
Nadia Adnan, Sharina Md Nordin, Malik Fawaz Saleh and Shouvik Sanyal

13.1 Introduction 342

13.2 Autonomous Vehicles: A Promise for Next-Generation Transportation Systems 345

13.3 How Autonomous Vehicle Standards Ensure Safety 346

13.4 Autonomous Cars and Smart Cities 347

13.5 Benefits of Autonomous Vehicles 348

13.6 Adoption Perspectives for Autonomous Vehicles: COVID 19 Situation 349

13.7 During the Fight of Pandemic Situation: How Autonomous Vehicles are Used 349

13.8 Smart Charging Management for Autonomous Vehicles 349

13.9 Challenges Involved in Self Driving Vehicles (V2X) Driving the Development of Autonomous Vehicles 352

13.10 Discussion 354

13.11 Conclusion 354

13.12 Acknowledgment 355

References 356

14 Electric Vehicle Integrated Virtual Power Plants: A Systematic Review 361
Sanchari Deb, Sulabh Sachan, Mohammad Saad Alam and Samir M Shariff

Abbreviations 361

14.1 Introduction 362

14.2 Overview of VPP 364

14.2.1 Definitions of VPP 364

14.2.2 Components of VPP 365

14.2.3 Classification of VPP 366

14.2.4 Benefits of VPP 366

14.3 Global Scenario 366

14.4 Framework for VPP 368

14.5 Research Initiatives 370

14.6 EV Integrated VPP 370

14.7 Conclusions 375

References 375

15 Optimal Location of EV Charging Stations by Modified Direct Search Algorithm 381
Sanchari Deb, Sulabh Sachan and Toni Zhimomi

Abbreviations 381

15.1 Introduction 382

15.1.1 Background 382

15.1.2 Existing Works 383

15.1.3 Contribution 383

15.2 Problem Formulation 383

15.3 Methodology 389

15.3.1 Division of Search Space 390

15.3.2 Arrangement of Elements of Search Space 391

15.3.3 Size Reduction of Search Space 392

15.3.4 Evaluation of Objective Function 393

15.4 Numerical Analysis 393

15.5 Conclusion 395

References 395

16 Recent Trends and Technologies of Electric Vehicles and Their Wireless Charging Methods: A Review 399
D. R. Karthik, Mallikarjunareddy Bandi, Naveenkumar Marati, Balraj Vaithilingam and Kathirvel Karuppazhagi

16.1 Introduction 400

16.2 FAME Status 401

16.3 Basic Operation of WPT of EVs 403

16.4 Components of WPT System 405

16.5 Advancements in WPT and Electric Vehicle Technology 407

16.6 Electric Vehicle Status in India 408

16.7 Standards of Electrical Vehicles, Infrastructure, and WPT 411

16.8 Conclusion 416

References 416

17 Techno-Economic Issues of Grid Connected Large Photovoltaic Plants of Smart City Prayagraj to the EV Charging Station: A Case Study (A Case Study of 5 MW Photovoltaic Power Plant at Prayagraj) 419
Satendra Kumar Singh Kushwaha, Satyprakash, Akhilesh Kumar Gupta, Akbar Ahmad, Bandi Mallikarjuna Reddy and Narendra Kumar Ch

17.1 Introduction 420

17.2 PV Generation Feasibility Study for Prayagraj for EV Charging Stations 422

17.3 Modeling and Challenges of Grid Integrated Photovoltaic System 425

17.4 Real-Time Challenges of 5MW Solar Plant at Naini, Prayagraj, India 429

17.5 Whole System Layout and Description 430

17.6 Cost Analysis of Complete PV System 431

17.7 Conclusion 433

References 433

Index 437
Sulabh Sachan, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, MJP Rohilkhand University Bareilly, India. He received his PhD from MNNIT Allahabad, India in 2018, his MTech in power systems from the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India, in 2013, and his BTech in electrical engineering from KNIT Sultanpur, in 2011. He is a member of IEEE and IEEE PES. His research interests include electric vehicle charging discharging and its integration issues in distribution networks.

Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban, PhD, is a faculty member with the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Esbjerg, Denmark and works with CTIF Global Capsule (CGC), Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus University, Denmark. He received his PhD in electrical engineering from the University of Bologna, Italy. He has almost ten years of teaching, research and industrial experience and is an associate editor on a number of international scientific refereed journals. He has published more than 300 research papers and has won numerous awards for his research and teaching.

Sanchari Deb, PhD, is a post-doctorate fellow at VTT Technical Research Center, Finland. She received her PhD from the Centre for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India in 2020. She holds a Bachelor of Engineering degree in electrical engineering from Assam Engineering College, Guwahati and Master of Engineering degree in power systems from Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra. She is a member of IEEE and IEEE PES, and her research interests are power systems, energy, electric vehicles, charging infrastructure, optimization, and evolutionary algorithms.