John Wiley & Sons Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites Cover This book comprehensively reviews rubber-clay nanocomposites in a handbook format for R&D profession.. Product #: 978-0-470-56210-9 Regular price: $148.60 $148.60 In Stock

Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites

Science, Technology, and Applications

Galimberti, Maurizio (Editor)

Cover

1. Edition December 2011
632 Pages, Hardcover
Professional Book

ISBN: 978-0-470-56210-9
John Wiley & Sons

Short Description

This book comprehensively reviews rubber-clay nanocomposites in a handbook format for R&D professionals. Along with valuable details on synthesis, processing, and mechanics, the book includes applications of rubber-clay nanocomposites in automotive tires and as polymer fillers. In addition, it helps scientists understand processing methods for nanocomposites preparation and nanostructure characterization. This book helps promote common knowledge and interpretation of the important aspects of rubber-clay nanocomposites, clarifying the main results achieved in the field of rubbers and crosslinked rubbers - not covered by the more general books on polymer-clay nanocomposites.

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The one-stop resource for rubber-clay nanocomposite information

The first comprehensive, single-volume book to compile all the most important data on rubber-clay nanocomposites in one place, Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites: Science, Technology, and Applications reviews rubber-clay nanocomposites in an easy-to-reference format designed for R&D professionals.

Including contributions from experts from North America, Europe, and Asia, the book explores the properties of compounds with rubber-clay nanocomposites, including their rheology, curing kinetics, mechanical properties, and many others.

Rubber-clay nanocomposites are of growing interest to the scientific and technological community, and have been shown to improve rubber compound reinforcement and impermeability. These natural mineral fillers are of potential interest for large-scale applications and are already making an impact in several major fields. Packed with valuable information about the synthesis, processing, and mechanics of these reinforced rubbers, the book covers assorted rubber-clay nanocomposites applications, such as in automotive tires and as polymer fillers.

Promoting common knowledge and interpretation of the most important aspects of rubber-clay nanocomposites, and clarifying the main results achieved in the field of rubbers and crosslinked rubbers--something not covered in other books in the field--Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites helps scientists understand morphology, vulcanization, permeability, processing methods, and characterization factors quickly and easily.

PREFACE xvii

CONTRIBUTORS xxi

SECTION I CLAYS FOR NANOCOMPOSITES

1 CLAYS AND CLAY MINERALS 3

1.1 What's in a Name / 3

1.2 Multiscale Organization of Clay Minerals / 6

1.3 Intimate Organization of the Layer / 8

1.4 Most Relevant Physicochemical Properties of Clay Mineral / 22

1.5 Availability of Natural Clays and Synthetic Clay Minerals / 33

1.6 Clays and (Modified) Clay Minerals as Fillers / 35

Acknowledgment / 37

References / 37

2 ORGANOPHILIC CLAY MINERALS 45

2.1 Organophilicity/Lipophilicity and the Hydrophilic/Lipophilic Balance (HLB) / 45

2.2 From Clays to Organoclays in Polymer Technology / 47

2.3 Methods of Organoclay Synthesis / 49

2.4 Other Types of Clay Modifications for Clay-Based Nanomaterials / 66

2.5 Fine-Tuning of Organoclays Properties / 69

of Surfactant/CEC Ratio / 69

2.6 Some Introductory Reflections on Organoclay Polymer Nanocomposites / 72

References / 75

3 INDUSTRIAL TREATMENTS AND MODIFICATION OF CLAY MINERALS 87

3.1 Bentonite: From Mine to Plant / 87

3.2 Processing of Bentonite / 90

3.3 Purification of Clay / 93

3.4 Reaction of Clay with Organic Substances / 97

3.5 Particle Size Modification / 99

References / 99

4 ALKYLAMMONIUM CHAINS ON LAYERED CLAY MINERAL SURFACES 101

4.1 Structure and Dynamics / 101

4.2 Thermal Properties / 111

4.3 Layer Separation and Miscibility with Polymers / 115

4.4 Mechanical Properties of Clay Minerals / 121

References / 123

5 CHEMISTRY OF RUBBER-ORGANOCLAY NANOCOMPOSITES 127

5.1 Introduction / 127

5.2 Organic Cation Decomposition in Salts, Organoclays and Polymer Nanocomposites / 128

5.3 Mechanism of Thermal Decomposition of Organoclays / 135

5.4 Role of Organic Cations in Organoclays as Rubber Vulcanization Activators / 137

References / 141

SECTION II PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES

6 PROCESSING METHODS FOR THE PREPARATION OF RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES 147

6.1 Introduction / 147

6.2 Latex Compounding Method / 148

6.3 Melt Compounding / 157

6.4 Solution Intercalation and In Situ Polymerization Intercalation / 170

6.5 Summary and Prospect / 170

Acknowledgment / 171

References / 171

7 MORPHOLOGY OF RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES 181

7.1 Introduction / 181

7.2 Background for the Review of RCN Morphology / 182

7.3 Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites with Pristine Clays / 186

7.4 Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites with Clays Modified with Primary Alkenylamines / 197

7.5 Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites with Clays Modified with an Ammonium Cation Having three Methyls and One Long-Chain Alkenyl Substituents / 206

7.6 Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites with Montmorillonite Modified with Two Substituents Larger Than Methyl / 212

7.7 Rubber Composites with Montmorillonite Modified with an Ammonium Cation Containing a Polar Group / 215

7.8 Rubber Nanocomposites with Montmorillonite Modified with an Ammonium Cation Containing Two Long-Chain Alkenyl Substituents / 219

7.9 Proposed Mechanisms for the Formation of Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites / 228

Abbreviations / 232

Acknowledgment / 233

References / 233

8 RHEOLOGY OF RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES 241

8.1 Introduction / 241

8.2 Rheological Behavior of Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites / 242

8.3 General Remarks on Rheology of Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites / 263

8.4 Overview of Rheological Theories of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites / 269

8.5 Conclusion and Outlook / 270

References / 271

9 VULCANIZATION CHARACTERISTICS AND CURING KINETIC OF RUBBER-ORGANOCLAY NANOCOMPOSITES 275

9.1 Introduction / 275

9.2 Vulcanization Reaction / 276

9.3 Rubber Cross-Linking Systems / 278

9.4 The Role of Organoclay on Vulcanization Reaction / 283

9.5 Vulcanization Kinetics of Rubber-Organoclay Nanocomposites / 290

9.6 Conclusions / 297

References / 298

10 MECHANICAL AND FRACTURE MECHANICS PROPERTIES OF RUBBER COMPOSITIONS WITH REINFORCING COMPONENTS 305

10.1 Introduction / 305

10.2 Testing of Viscoelastic and Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Elastomeric Materials / 307

10.3 Characterization of the Fracture Behavior of Elastomers / 319

10.4 Mechanism of Reinforcement in Rubber-Clay Composites / 328

10.5 Theories and Modeling of Reinforcement / 333

Acknowledgment / 336

References / 336

11 PERMEABILITY OF RUBBER COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING CLAY 343

11.1 Introduction / 343

11.2 Nanocomposites / 346

11.3 Preparation of Elastomer Nanocomposites / 352

11.4 Temperature and Compound Permeability / 352

11.5 Vulcanization of Nanocomposite Compounds and Permeability / 356

11.6 Thermodynamics and BIMSM Montmorillonite Nanocomposites / 358

11.7 Nanocomposites and Tire Performance / 362

11.8 Summary / 364

References / 364

SECTION III COMPOUNDS WITH RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES

12 RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON APOLAR DIENE RUBBER 369

12.1 Introduction / 369

12.2 Preparation Methods / 371

12.3 Cure Characteristics / 377

12.4 Clay Dispersion / 379

12.5 Properties / 387

12.6 Applications and Future Trends / 398

Acknowledgment / 399

References / 399

13 RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON NITRILE

RUBBER 409

13.1 Introduction / 409

13.2 Preparation Methods and Clay

Dispersion / 410

13.3 Cure Characteristics / 414

13.4 Properties / 416

13.5 Outlook / 425

Acknowledgment / 426

References / 426

xii CONTENTS

FOR SCREEN VIEWING IN DART ONLY

14 RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON BUTYL AND

HALOBUTYL RUBBERS 431

14.1 Introduction / 431

and Applications / 431

14.2 Types of Clays Useful in Butyl Rubber-Clay

Nanocomposites / 435

14.3 Compatibilizer Systems for Butyl Rubber-Clay

Nanocomposites / 438

14.4 Methods of Preparation of Butyl Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites / 444

14.5 Properties and Applications of Butyl Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites / 449

14.6 Conclusions / 457

References / 458

15 RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON OLEFINIC RUBBERS (EPM, EPDM) 465

15.1 Introduction / 465

15.2 Types of Clay Minerals Useful in EPM-, EPDM-Clay Nanocomposites / 466

15.3 Compatibilizer Systems for Olefinic Rubber-Clay Nanocomposites / 467

15.4 Preparation of EPDM-Clay Nanocomposites by an In Situ Intercalation Method / 469

15.5 Characteristics of EPDM-Clay Nanocomposites / 473

15.6 Preparation and Characteristics of EPM-Clay Nanocomposites / 479

15.7 Conclusions / 486

References / 486

16 RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS 489

16.1 Introduction / 489

16.2 Selection of Materials / 491

16.3 Experimental / 493

16.4 Numerical / 497

16.5 Discussion of Results / 501

16.6 Summary and Conclusions / 516

16.7 Nomenclature / 517

Acknowledgments / 518

References / 518

SECTION IV APPLICATIONS OF RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES

17 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES 525

17.1 Introduction / 525

17.2 Automotive Application of Rubber / 526

17.3 Prime Requirement of Different Elastomeric Auto Components from Application Point of View / 531

17.4 Elastomeric Nanocomposites and Rubber Industry / 531

17.5 Superiority of Clay/Clay Mineral in Comparison to Other Nanofillers / 534

17.6 Organo-Modified Clay/Clay Minerals / 534

17.7 Scope of Application of Elastomeric Nanocomposites in Automotive Industry / 534

17.8 Disadvantages of Use of Organoclay Elastomeric Nanocomposites in Automotive Industry / 548

17.9 Conclusion / 549

Acknowledgment / 550

References / 550

18 NONAUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF RUBBER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES 557

18.1 Water-Based Nanocomposites / 557

18.2 Applications / 566

References / 573

INDEX 575
Maurizio Galimberti is a Professor of Chemistry for Rubber and Composite Materials Technology at Milan Polytechnic, Milan, Italy, and a Visiting Professor at University of Insubria, Como, Italy. He is the former president and a current board member of the Italian Association of Macromolecules; has published over seventy scientific works in international books and journals; and is the author of more than forty patents.