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Biosphere Reserves and Sustainable Development Goals 2

Issues, Tensions, Processes and Governance in the Mediterranean

Romagny, Bruno / Cibien, Catherine / Barthes, Angela (Editor)


1. Edition March 2024
352 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-78630-842-9
John Wiley & Sons

Further versions


Since 1971, UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme has embraced a number of principles that link the political, scientific and academic spheres.

Biosphere Reserves and Sustainable Development Goals 2 is a reminder of the fundamental issues involved in governance. The diversity and multiplicity of stakeholders, and the complexity of the interplay between them, as well as their organization, are decisive factors in the proper management of resources and territories.

The book also presents a number of case studies demonstrating that, between the strong development aspirations of their populations, the impact of human activities and the need to conserve their biological heritage, the biosphere reserves of the southern Mediterranean are facing major issues: agricultural pollution, forest fires, water use in a context of climate change, etc.

Presentation of the Authors of the Two Volumes xiii

Introduction xxiii
Angela BARTHES, Catherine CIBIEN and Bruno ROMAGNY

Part 1 Process, Governance and Climate Change Across the Mediterranean 1

Introduction to Part 1 3
Catherine CIBIEN

Chapter 1 Biosphere Reserves in National Legislation and Public Policy 5
Catherine CIBIEN, Lahoucine AMZIL, Joelle BARAKAT, Antonio BONTEMPI, Pierre DOUMET and Maria Carmen ROMERA-PUGA

1.1 Introduction 5

1.2 The place of the "biosphere reserve" in national legislation 6

1.3 The place of MAB national committees in national governments 9

1.4 The place of the "biosphere reserve" model in public policy 13

1.5 Discussion 26

1.6 References 28

Chapter 2 The Emergence and Evolution of Mediterranean Biosphere Reserves in France 31
Catherine CIBIEN

2.1 Profound changes across first-generation sites (1977) 31

2.2 The recognition of local development projects promoting natural and cultural heritage 34

2.3 References 37

Chapter 3 Perspectives on Mediterranean Biosphere Reserves 39
Ken REYNA, Martí BOADA and Mchich DERAK

3.1 Close-up on the strengthening of the Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve's governance 39

3.2 Close-up on the Montseny Biosphere Reserve 42

3.3 Close-up on the Menorca Biosphere Reserve 43

3.4 Close-up on environmental education and SDGs, an opportunity for Mediterranean Biosphere Reserves 44

3.5 Close-up on the Intercontinental Biosphere Reserve of the Mediterranean 46

3.6 References 50

Chapter 4 From the Ecological Quality Status Evaluation to the Knowledge Transferability A Cross-cutting Experience in Montseny Biosphere Reserve 51

4.1 Introduction 51

4.2 Mediterranean river basins as valuable and complex socio-ecosystems 52

4.3 Study area: Montseny Biosphere Reserve 54

4.4 Research areas 58

4.5 Environmental education, communication and training program 63

4.6 A 15-year period implementing PROECA in the Montseny Biosphere Reserve 66

4.7 Conclusion 68

4.8 Acknowledgements 69

4.9 References 69

Chapter 5 Do We Need to Choose Between Biodiversity, Industry and Tourism? A Metabolic Approach to Manage the Mediterranean Biosphere Reserve of Menorca 73

5.1 Introduction 73

5.2 Societal metabolism 74

5.3 MuSIASEM: integrating information from multiple scales to improve participation and stakeholder engagement 75

5.4 The case of Menorca: a Mediterranean Biosphere Reserve with an action plan to implement the sustainable development goals 79

5.5 Menorca 2025 An Action Plan for the Menorca Biosphere Reserve 81

5.6 Metabolic performance of economic sectors in Menorca Application of he MuSIASEM approach 83

5.7 Discussion: do we need to choose between biodiversity, industry and tourism? 85

5.8 Conclusion 88

5.9 References 89

Chapter 6 The Jabal Moussa Biosphere Reserve (Lebanon): A Private Association Initiative 95
Pierre DOUMET and Joelle BARAKAT

6.1 Introduction 95

6.2 Rich by nature 95

6.3 A privately run biosphere reserve 98

6.4 International recognition 99

6.5 Administration led by socio-economic expectations 100

6.6 Efforts at increasing understanding and awareness of an exceptional biodiversity 102

6.7 References 103

Chapter 7 Understandings of Administration and Challenges to Governance in the Arganeraie Biosphere Reserve (Morocco) 105
Abdelaziz AFKER

7.1 Introduction 105

7.2 A biosphere reserve built around an iconic tree: the argan tree 105

7.3 An integrated approach to conservation and ecodevelopment 107

7.4 Participation-oriented administration 110

7.5 Regarding the research/education/management dialogue 111

7.6 References 112

Chapter 8 Reconciling Conservation and Sustainable Development: The Example of the Arganeraie 113
Abdelaziz AFKER and Saïd BOUJROUF

8.1 Introduction 113

8.2 The ABR, between conservation and sustainable territorial development: reconciling the irreconcilable 114

8.3 The complex challenges characterizing the ABR, or relevance and adaptation in conciliatory resilience 116

8.4 Changes and scalable trends in the ABR: from project territories to a territorial project 117

8.5 The ABR, complexities and improved governance 119

8.6 References 120

Chapter 9 Patrimonialization and Challenges to Sustainable Development within the Arganeraie Biosphere Reserve 123

9.1 Introduction 123

9.2 The ABR: a territory valued for the endemism of its heritage resources 124

9.3 The ABR patrimonialization process 130

9.4 Paths of governance for the integrated management of the ABR 134

9.5 Conclusion 138

9.6 References 139

Chapter 10 The Oasis du Sud Marocain Biosphere Reserve: Challenges and Issues for the Durability of Water Resources 141

10.1 Introduction 141

10.2 Specificities of the Oasis du Sud Marocain Biosphere Reserve and the question of water 142

10.3 Regional development and the deterioration of water resources 144

10.4 Challenges and complexities of water resource management within the OSMBR 145

10.5 Conclusion 146

10.6 References 147

Part 2 Issues and Case Studies in the Southern Mediterranean 149

Introduction to Part 2 151
Catherine CIBIEN

Chapter 11 Pesticide Residue in the Waters of the IBRM 153
Hind EL BOUZAIDI, Fatimazahra HAFIANE, El Habib EL AZZOUZI and Mohammed FAEKHAOUI

11.1 Introduction 153

11.2 Materials and methods 154

11.3 Results and discussions 156

11.4 Evaluation of the risks of pesticides to human health 160

11.5 Evaluation of the risks of pesticides for the environment 160

11.6 Conclusion 161

11.7 References 162

Chapter 12 Forest Fires: Their Impact on the Sustainable Development of the IBRM 165
Rachid SAMMOUDI, Abdelkader CHAHLAOUI, Nadia MACHOURI, Lahoucine AMZIL, El Habib EL AZZOUZI, Reda NACER, Kawtar JABER and Maya KOUZAIHA

12.1 Introduction 165

12.2 The phenomenon of forest fires in the northern provinces 167

12.3 Links between sustainable development and forest fires 169

12.4 Conclusion 170

12.5 References 171

Chapter 13 The Social and Solidarity Economy and Biodiversity in the Intercontinental Biosphere of the Mediterranean 173
Hicham ATTOUCH, Soukaina BOUZIANI and Sonia ADERGHAL

13.1 Some framing of the concept of the social and solidarity economy 173

13.2 Development of natural resources in the Intercontinental Biosphere Reserve of the Mediterranean (IBRM) and the SSE framework 175

13.3 The role of the SSE in the conservation and development of natural resources 177

13.4 Conclusion 180

13.5 References 180

Chapter 14 The Media Coverage of the Biosphere Reserve: Ambivalence Between the Protection of Nature and the Promotion of Territories The Case of RBIM 183
Lahoucine AMZIL, Yamina EL KIRAT EL ALLAME and Faiza EL MEJJAD

14.1 Introduction 183

14.2 Biosphere reserves: general background 184

14.3 The media environment around the biosphere reserve 188

14.4 Representation of RBIM in the Moroccan media 195

14.5 Concluding remarks 201

14.6 References 202

Chapter 15 Mid-Atlas Cedar Forests and Climate Change 205

15.1 Introduction 205

15.2 General overview of climatic changes 206

15.3 The vulnerability of forests to climate change 209

15.4 Potential impacts of climate change on cedar forests 212

15.5 Conclusion 214

15.6 References 215

Chapter 16 The Legacy and Future of Conservation in El Kala National Park (Algeria) 219

16.1 Introduction 219

16.2 Declinism, forest exploitation and management in the EKNP 221

16.3 The spread of fishing and marine conservation in the EKNP 233

16.4 Marine conservation and declinist rhetoric 244

16.5 Conclusion 246

16.6 References 247

Chapter 17 Social Representations of Biospheres and Sustainable Local Development in Bou Hedma (Tunisia) 251
Abdelkarim BRAHMI

17.1 Introduction 251

17.2 Bou Hedma National Park 252

17.3 Methodological research framework 253

17.4 Social representations of Bou Hedma National Park among the surrounding population 254

17.5 Discussion and interpretation 256

17.6 The cultural dimension 260

17.7 The political dimension 260

17.8 The environmental dimension 261

17.9 Conclusion 262

17.10 References 263

Chapter 18 Architecture and the Biosphere Environment in Pedagogy: Design Visions for Sustainable Dwelling Communities 265

18.1 Introduction 265

18.2 Architecture and the environment 266

18.3 Jabal Moussa Biosphere Reserve and the studio's premise 267

18.4 Conclusion 288

18.5 References 289

List of Authors 291

Index 295

Summary of Volume 1 297
Bruno Romagny is an economist and director of research at the French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development (IRD - Institut de recherche pour le développement), Laboratoire populationenvironnement-développement (LPED), France.

Catherine Cibien is director of the French committee of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme.

Angela Barthes is a professor at the University of Aix-Marseille, France, and specializes in environmental education and rural development.

B. Romagny, French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development; C. Cibien, UNESCO; A. Barthes, University of Aix-Marseille, France