John Wiley & Sons From LED to Solid State Lighting Cover FROM LED TO SOLID STATE LIGHTING A comprehensive and practical reference complete with hands-on exe.. Product #: 978-1-118-88147-7 Regular price: $114.02 $114.02 In Stock

From LED to Solid State Lighting

Principles, Materials, Packaging, Characterization, and Applications

Lee, S. W. Ricky / Lo, Jeffery C. C. / Tao, Mian / Ye, Huaiyu

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1. Edition October 2021
256 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-118-88147-7
John Wiley & Sons

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FROM LED TO SOLID STATE LIGHTING

A comprehensive and practical reference complete with hands-on exercises and experimental data

In From LED to Solid State Lighting: Principles, Materials, Packaging, Characterization, and Applications, accomplished mechanical engineers Shi-Wei Ricky Lee, Jeffery C. C. Lo, Mian Tao, and Huaiyu Ye deliver a practical overview of the design and construction of LED lighting modules, from the fabrication of the LED chip to the LED modules incorporated in complete LED lighting fixtures. The distinguished authors discuss the major advantages of solid-state lighting, including energy savings, environmental friendliness, and lengthy operational life, as well as the contributions offered by the packaging of light-emitting diodes in the pursuit of these features.

Readers will discover presentations of the technical issues that arise in packaging LED components, like interconnection, phosphor deposition, and encapsulation. They'll also find insightful elaborations on optical design, analysis, and characterization. Discussions of LED applications, technology roadmaps, and IP issues round out the included material.

This important book also includes:
* Thorough introductions to lighting, photometry, and colorimetry, the fundamentals of light-emitting diodes, and the fabrication of LED wafers and chips
* Practical discussions of the packaging of LED chips, wafer-level packaging of LED arrays, and optical and electrical characterization
* Comprehensive explorations of board-level assembly and LED modules and optical and electrical characterization
* In-depth examinations of thermal management, reliability engineering for LED packaging, and applications for general lighting

Perfect for post-graduate students and practicing engineers studying or working in the field of LED manufacturing for solid state lighting applications, From LED to Solid State Lighting: Principles, Materials, Packaging, Characterization, and Applications is also an indispensable resource for managers and technicians seeking a one-stop guide to the subject.

Preface ix

About the Authors xi

1 LED for Solid-State Lighting 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Evolution of Light Sources and Lighting Systems 2

1.3 Historical Development of LED 4

1.4 Implementation of White Light Illumination with LED 6

1.5 LED for General Lighting 8

References 9

2 Packaging of LED Chips 11

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Overall Packaging Process and LED Package Types 12

2.2.1 PTH LED Component 13

2.2.2 SMD LED Component 14

2.3 Chip Mounting and Interconnection 16

2.3.1 Die Attach Adhesive 17

2.3.2 Soldering and Eutectic Bonding 21

2.3.3 Wire Bonding 26

2.3.4 Flip Chip 29

2.4 Phosphor Coating and Dispensing Process 33

2.4.1 Dispersed Dispensing 34

2.4.2 Conformal Coating 37

2.4.3 Remote Phosphor 41

2.5 Encapsulation and Molding Process 43

2.5.1 Encapsulant Filling with Lens 43

2.5.2 Lens Molding 44

2.6 Secondary Optics and Lens Design 45

References 48

3 Chip Scale and Wafer Level Packaging of LED 53

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 Chip Scale Packaging 55

3.3 Enabling Technologies for Wafer Level Packaging 58

3.3.1 Photolithography 58

3.3.2 Wafer Etching 61

3.3.3 TSV Filling 64

3.3.4 Bond Pad Metallization 66

3.3.5 Wafer Level Phosphor Deposition Methods 68

3.3.6 Moldless Encapsulation 78

3.4 Designs and Structures of LED Wafer Level Packaging 82

3.5 Processes of LED Wafer Level Packaging 86

References 96

4 Board Level Assemblies and LED Modules 99

4.1 Introduction 99

4.2 Board Level Assembly Processes 100

4.2.1 Metal Core Printed Circuit Board 100

4.2.2 Printed Circuit Board with Thermal Vias 107

4.2.3 Wave Soldering 112

4.2.4 Surface Mount Reflow 114

4.3 Chip on Board Assemblies 118

4.4 LED Modules and Considerations 124

References 127

5 Optical, Electrical, and Thermal Performance 131

5.1 Evaluation of Optical Performance 131

5.1.1 Basic Concepts about Radiometric and Photometric 131

5.1.2 Irradiance Measurement Calibration 140

5.1.3 Common Measurement Equipment 141

5.2 Power Supply and Efficiency 144

5.2.1 Electrical characteristic of LED 145

5.2.2 Power supply for LED 146

5.2.3 Power efficiency 147

5.3 Consideration of LED Thermal Performance 148

5.3.1 Thermal characterization methods for LED 148

5.3.2 Thermal management methods 155

Reference 156

6 Reliability Engineering for LED Packaging 159

6.1 Concept of Reliability and Test Methods 160

6.1.1 Reliability of electronic components or system 160

6.1.2 Common failure mechanisms and reliability tests 161

6.2 Failure Analysis and Life Assessment 165

6.2.1 Methodology for failure analysis 165

6.2.2 Weibull analysis and acceleration model for life assessment 166

6.3 Design for Reliability 169

References 171

7 Emerging Applications of LED 173

7.1 LED for Automotive Lighting 173

7.1.1 Development 173

7.1.2 Typical structures 174

7.1.3 Challenges 175

7.1.4 Conclusion 178

7.2 Micro and Mini LED Display 178

7.2.1 Development 179

7.2.2 Typical structures 184

7.2.3 Challenges 186

7.2.4 Conclusion 186

7.3 LED for Visible Light Communications 187

7.3.1 Development 188

7.3.2 Typical applications 189

7.3.3 Challenges 190

7.3.4 Conclusion 191

References 192

8 LED beyond Visible Light 197

8.1 Applications of UV LED 197

8.1.1 Structures 198

8.1.2 Applications 201

8.1.3. Challenges 204

8.1.4 Conclusion 208

8.2 Applications of IR-LED 208

8.2.1 Structures 209

8.2.2 Applications 210

8.2.3 Challenges 214

8.2.4 Conclusion 215

8.3 Future Outlook and Other Technology Trends 216

8.3.1 Better light source 216

8.3.2 Interconnection 217

8.3.3 Interaction with human 218

8.3.4 Light on demand 219

References 219
Shi-Wei Ricky Lee, PhD, received his PhD degree in Aeronautical & Astronautical Engineering from Purdue University in 1992. Currently he is Chair Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Director of Foshan Research Institute for Smart Manufacturing at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST).

Jeffery C. C. Lo, PhD, received his Bachelor (1st Class Honour) and MPhil degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) in 2002 and 2004 respectively. He is currently the Program Manager at the Center for Advanced Microsystems Packaging at HKUST and Assistant Director of FRISM.

Mian Tao, PhD, received his MSc degree from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) in Mechanical Engineering in 2010 and PhD degree in 2016. His research interests include thermal characterization and management of high power electronics and development of advanced microelectronic packages.

Huaiyu Ye, PhD, received his PhD degree from the Department of Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology in 2014. Currently he is Associate Professor of Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech).