John Wiley & Sons Building Electro-Optical Systems Cover Building Electro-Optical Systems In the newly revised third edition of Building Electro-Optical Sys.. Product #: 978-1-119-43897-7 Regular price: $120.56 $120.56 In Stock

Building Electro-Optical Systems

Making It All Work

Hobbs, Philip C. D.

Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Series Nr. 1)

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3. Edition February 2022
832 Pages, Hardcover
Practical Approach Book

ISBN: 978-1-119-43897-7
John Wiley & Sons

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Building Electro-Optical Systems

In the newly revised third edition of Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work, renowned Dr. Philip C. D. Hobbs delivers a birds-eye view of all the topics you'll need to understand for successful optical instrument design and construction. The author draws on his own work as an applied physicist and consultant with over a decade of experience in designing and constructing electro-optical systems from beginning to end.

The book's topics are chosen to allow readers in a variety of disciplines and fields to quickly and confidently decide whether a given device or technique is appropriate for their needs. Using accessible prose and intuitive organization, Building Electro-Optical Systems remains one of the most practical and solution-oriented resources available to graduate students and professionals.

The newest edition includes comprehensive revisions that reflect progress in the field of electro-optical instrument design and construction since the second edition was published. It also offers approximately 350 illustrations for visually oriented learners. Readers will also enjoy:
* A thorough introduction to basic optical calculations, including wave propagation, detection, coherent detection, and interferometers
* Practical discussions of sources and illuminators, including radiometry, continuum sources, incoherent line sources, lasers, laser noise, and diode laser coherence control
* Explorations of optical detection, including photodetection in semiconductors and signal-to-noise ratios
* Full treatments of lenses, prisms, and mirrors, as well as coatings, filters, and surface finishes, and polarization

Perfect for graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, optics, and optical engineering, Building Electro-Optical Systems is also an ideal resource for professional designers working in optics, electro-optics, analog electronics, and photonics.

Preface xxxix

Acknowledgments xliii

1 Basic Optical Calculations 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Wave Propagation 2

1.3 Calculating Wave Propagation in Real Life 7

1.4 Detection 26

1.5 Coherent Detection 26

1.6 Interferometers 29

1.7 Photon Budgets and Operating Specifications 30

1.8 Signal Processing Strategy 36

2 Sources And Illuminators 41

2.1 Introduction 41

2.2 The Spectrum 41

2.3 Radiometry 43

2.4 Continuum Sources 43

2.5 Interlude: Coherence 46

2.6 More Sources 50

2.7 Incoherent Line Sources 55

2.8 Using Low-Coherence Sources: Condensers 56

2.9 Lasers 57

2.10 Gas Lasers 59

2.11 Solid-State Lasers 59

2.12 Diode Lasers 61

2.13 Laser Noise 69

2.14 Diode Laser Coherence Control 76

3 Optical Detection 81

3.1 Introduction 81

3.2 Signal-to-Noise Ratios 82

3.3 Detector Figures of Merit 83

3.4 Quantum Detectors 90

3.5 Photomultipliers 100

3.6 Thermal Detectors 114

3.7 Image Intensifiers 115

3.8 Silicon Array Sensors 116

3.9 How Do I Know Which Noise Source Dominates? 124

3.10 Hacks 129

4 Lenses, Prisms, and Mirrors 137

4.1 Introduction 137

4.2 Optical Materials 137

4.3 Light Transmission 140

4.4 Surface Quality 141

4.5 Windows 142

4.6 Pathologies of Optical Elements 143

4.7 Fringes 143

4.8 Mirrors 147

4.9 Glass Prisms 149

4.10 Prism Pathologies 153

4.11 Lenses 154

4.12 Complex Lenses 158

4.13 Other Lenslike Devices 162

5 Coatings, Filters, and Surface Finishes 165

5.1 Introduction 165

5.2 Metal Mirrors 165

5.3 Transmissive Optical Coatings 168

5.4 Simple Coating Theory 171

5.5 Moth-Eye Finishes 179

5.6 Absorptive Filters 180

5.7 Beam Dumps and Baffles 182

5.8 White Surfaces and Diffusers 186

6 Polarization 191

6.1 Introduction 191

6.2 Polarization of Light 191

6.3 Interaction of Polarization with Materials 193

6.4 Absorption Polarizers 197

6.5 Brewster Polarizers 197

6.6 Birefringent Polarizers 198

6.7 Double-Refraction Polarizers 199

6.8 TIR Polarizers 202

6.9 Retarders 203

6.10 Polarization Control 206

7 Exotic Optical Components 211

7.1 Introduction 211

7.2 Gratings 211

7.3 Grating Pathologies 214

7.4 Types of Gratings 215

7.5 Resolution of Grating Instruments 218

7.6 Fine Points of Gratings 219

7.7 Holographic Optical Elements 222

7.8 Photonic Crystals and Metamaterials 223

7.9 Retroreflective Materials 224

7.10 Scanners 225

7.11 Modulators 231

8 Fiber Optics 239

8.1 Introduction 239

8.2 Fiber Characteristics 239

8.3 Fiber Theory 242

8.4 Fiber Types 247

8.5 Other Fiber Properties 251

8.6 Working with Fibers 255

8.7 Fiber Devices 260

8.8 Diode Lasers and Fiber Optics 264

8.9 Fiber Optic Sensors 264

8.10 Intensity Sensors 265

8.11 Spectrally Encoded Sensors 266

8.12 Polarimetric Sensors 269

8.13 Fiber Interferometers 270

8.14 Two-Beam Fiber Interferometers 270

8.15 Multiple Beam Fiber Interferometers 272

8.16 Phase and Polarization Stabilization 274

8.17 Multiplexing and Smart Structures 276

8.18 Fiber Sensor Hype 276

9 Optical Systems 279

9.1 Introduction 279

9.2 What, Exactly, Does a Lens Do? 279

9.3 Diffraction 288

9.4 Aberrations 300

9.5 Representing Aberrations 303

9.6 Optical Design Advice 306

9.7 Practical Applications 308

9.8 Illuminators 311

10 Optical Measurements 315

10.1 Introduction 315

10.2 Grass on the Empire State Building 315

10.3 Detection Issues: When Exactly Is Background Bad? 318

10.4 Measure the Right Thing 322

10.5 Getting More Signal Photons 324

10.6 Reducing the Background Fluctuations 326

10.7 Optically Zero-Background Measurements 328

10.8 Spectrally Resolved Measurements 329

10.9 Electronically Zero-Background Measurements 333

10.10 Labeling Signal Photons 336

11 Designing Electro-Optical Systems 343

11.1 Introduction 343

11.2 Do You Really Want To Do This? 343

11.3 Very Basic Marketing 350

11.5 Technical Taste 354

11.6 Instrument Design 357

11.7 Guiding Principles 361

11.8 Design for Alignment 364

11.9 Turning a Prototype into a Product 367

12 Building Optical Systems 371

12.1 Introduction 371

12.2 Construction Style 371

12.3 Build What You Designed 372

12.4 Assembling Lab Systems 373

12.5 Optical Assembly and Alignment Philosophy 381

12.6 Collimating Beams 381

12.7 Focusing 383

12.8 Alignment and Testing 385

12.9 Prototypes 386

12.10 Aligning Beams with Other Beams 387

12.11 Advanced Tweaking 390

12.12 Aligning Laser Systems 395

12.13 Adhesives 397

12.14 Cleaning 400

12.15 Environmental Considerations 402

13 Signal Processing 405

13.1 Introduction 405

13.2 Analog Signal Processing Theory 406

13.3 Modulation and Demodulation 409

13.4 Amplifiers 416

13.5 Departures From Linearity 416

13.6 Noise and Interference 420

13.7 Frequency Conversion 435

13.8 Filtering 438

13.10 Reducing Interference and Noise 450

13.11 Data Acquisition and Control 452

14 Electronic Building Blocks 457

14.1 Introduction 457

14.2 Resistors 457

14.3 Capacitors 460

14.4 Transmission Lines 470

14.5 Transmission Line Devices 476

14.6 Diodes 477

14.7 Bipolar Junction Transistors 479

14.8 Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) 486

14.9 Heterojunction FETs 487

14.10 Signal Processing Components 488

14.11 Digitizers 496

14.12 Analog Behavior of Digital Circuits 505

15 Electronic Subsystem Design 507

15.1 Introduction 507

15.2 Design Approaches 507

15.3 Perfection 514

15.4 Feedback Loops 516

15.5 Local Feedback 522

15.6 Signal Detectors 522

15.7 Phase-Locked Loops 530

15.8 Calibration 535

15.9 Filters 537

15.10 Other Stuff 540

15.11 More Advanced Feedback Techniques 542

15.12 Hints 544

15.13 Linearizing 545

15.14 Ultrastable Low Frequency Circuits 548

15.15 Digital Control and Communication 549

15.17 Bulletproofing 553

15.18 Interference 557

15.19 Reliable Designs 558

16 Electronic Construction Techniques 559

16.1 Introduction 559

16.2 Circuit Strays 559

16.3 Circuit Boards 560

16.4 Stray Coupling 563

16.5 Ground Plane Construction 563

16.6 Technical Noise and Interference 566

16.7 Product Construction 572

16.8 Getting Ready 574

16.10 Surface Mount Prototypes 582

16.11 Prototyping Filters 585

16.12 Tuning, or, You Can't Hit What You Can't See 587

17 Digital Signal Processing 591

17.1 Introduction 591

17.2 Elementary Operations 592

17.3 Dead Time Correction 595

17.4 Fourier Domain Techniques 595

17.5 The Fast Fourier Transform 602

17.6 Power Spectrum Estimation 608

17.7 Digital Filtering 612

17.9 Resampling 617

17.10 Fixing Space-Variant Instrument Functions 618

17.11 Finite Precision Effects 619

17.12 Pulling Data Out of Noise 620

17.13 Phase Recovery Techniques 624

18 Front Ends 627

18.1 Introduction 627

18.2 Photodiode Front Ends 628

18.3 Key Idea: Reduce the Swing Across Cd 630

18.4 Transimpedance Amplifiers 631

18.5 External Input Stages 635

18.7 Advanced Photodiode Front Ends 652

18.8 Other Types of Front End 658

18.9 Hints 660

19 Bringing Up the System 665

19.1 Introduction 665

19.2 Avoiding Catastrophe 667

19.3 Debugging and Troubleshooting 670

19.4 Getting Ready 671

19.5 Indispensable Equipment 673

19.6 Debugging Pickup and Interference Problems 676

19.7 Digital Troubleshooting 677

19.8 Analog Electronic Troubleshooting 678

19.9 Oscillations 681

19.10 Other Common Problems 683

19.11 Debugging and Troubleshooting Optical Subsystems 685

19.12 Localizing the Problem 688

20 Thermal Control 695

20.1 Introduction 695

20.2 Thermal Problems and Solutions 696

20.3 Heat Flow 699

20.4 Insulation 705

20.5 Temperature Sensors 707

20.6 Temperature Actuators: Heaters and Coolers 712

20.7 Heat Sinks 716

20.8 Temperature Controller Design 722

20.9 Temperature Controllers 725

Appendix A Good Books 735

A.1 Why Books? 735

A.2 Good Books for Instrument Builders 735

Notation 743

Physical Constants and Rules of Thumb 745

Index 747
Philip C.D. Hobbs, PhD, is the Principal of ElectroOptical Innovations, a consultancy in Briarcliff Manor, New York.

P. C. D. Hobbs, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center