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Electrical Processes in Organic Thin Film Devices

From Bulk Materials to Nanoscale Architectures

Petty, Michael C.

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1. Edition February 2022
480 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-63127-9
John Wiley & Sons

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Electrical Processes in Organic Thin Film Devices

A one-stop examination of fundamental electrical behaviour in organic electronic device architectures

In Electrical Processes in Organic Thin Film Devices: From Bulk Materials to Nanoscale Architectures, distinguished researcher Michael C. Petty delivers an in-depth treatment of the electrical behaviour of organic electronic devices focused on first principles. The author describes the fundamental electrical behaviour of various device architectures and offers an introduction to the physical processes that play a role in the electrical conductivity of organic materials.

Beginning with band theory, the text moves on to address the effects of thin film device architectures and nanostructures. The book discusses the applications to devices currently in the marketplace, like displays, as well as those under development (transistors, solar cells, and memories).

Electrical Processes in Organic Thin Film Devices also describes emerging organic thin film architectures and explores the potential for single molecule electronics and biologically inspired devices. Finally, the book also includes:
* A detailed introduction to electronic and vibrational states in organic solids, including classical band theory, disordered semiconductors, and lattice vibrations
* Comprehensive explorations of electrical conductivity, including electronic and ionic processes, carrier drift, diffusion, the Boltzmann Transport Equation, excess carriers, recombination, doping, and superconductivity
* An overview of important electro-active organic materials, like molecular crystals, charge-transfer complexes, conductive polymers, carbon nanotubes, and graphene
* Practical considerations of defects and nanoscale phenomena, including transport processes in low-dimensional systems, surfaces and interface states
* In-depth examinations of metal contacts, including ohmic contacts, the Schottky Barrier, and metal/molecule contacts
* A systematic guide to the operating principles of metal/insulator/semiconductor structures and the field effect
* A set of problems (with solutions on-line) for each chapter of the book

Perfect for electronics developers and researchers in both industry and academia who study and work with molecular and nanoscale electronics, Electrical Processes in Organic Thin Film Devices also deserves a place in the libraries of undergraduate and postgraduate students in courses on molecular electronics, organic electronics, and plastic electronics.

Chapter 1 - Electronic and Vibrational States in Organic Solids

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Band Theory for Inorganic Single Crystals

1.2.1 Schrödinger Wave Equation

1.2.2 Density of Electron States

1.2.3 Occupation of Energy States

1.2.4 Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators

1.2.5 Electrons and Holes

1.2.6 Doping

1.3 Lattice Vibrations

1.4 Amorphous Inorganic Semiconductors

1.5 Organic Semiconductors

1.5.1 Electronic Orbitals and Bands in Important Organic Compounds

1.5.2 Molecular Crystals

1.5.3 Polymers

1.5.4 Charge-transfer Complexes

1.5.5 Graphene

1.5.6 Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes

1.5.7 Doping of Organic Semiconductors

Problems

References

Further Reading

Chapter 2 - Electrical Conductivity: Fundamental Principles

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Classical Model

2.3 Boltzmann Transport Equation

2.4 Ohm's Law

2.5 Charge Carrier Mobility

2.6 Equilibrium Carrier Statistics

2.6.1 Intrinsic Conduction

2.6.2 Carrier Generation and Recombination

2.6.3 Extrinsic Conduction

2.6.4 Fermi Level Position

2.6.5 Meyer-Neldel Rule

2.7 Excess Carriers

2.7.1 Quasi-Fermi Level

2.7.2 Diffusion and Drift

2.7.3 Gradients in the Quasi-Fermi Levels

2.7.4 Carrier Lifetime

2.8 Superconductivity

Problems

References

Further Reading

Chapter 3 - Defects and Nanoscale Phenomena

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Material Purity

3.3 Point and Line Defects

3.4 Traps and Recombination Centres

3.4.1 Direct Recombination

3.4.2 Recombination via Traps

3.5 Grain Boundaries and Surfaces

3.5.1 Interface States

3.6 Polymer Defects

3.6.1 Solitons

3.6.2 Polarons and Bipolarons

3.7 Disordered Semiconductors

3.8 Electron Transport in Low Dimensional Systems

3.8.1 Two-dimensional Transport

3.8.2 One-dimensional Transport

3.8.3 Zero-dimensional Transport

3.9 Nanosystems

3.9.1 Scaling Laws

3.9.2 Interatomic Forces

Problems

References

Further Reading

Chapter 4 - Electrical Contacts: Ohmic and Rectifying Behaviour

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Practical Considerations

4.3 Neutral, Ohmic and Blocking Contacts

4.4 Schottky Barrier

4.4.1 Barrier Formation

4.4.2 Image Force

4.4.3 Current versus Voltage Behaviour

4.4.4 Effect of an Interfacial Layer

4.4.5 Organic Schottky Diodes

4.5 Molecular Devices

4.5.1 Metal/Molecule Contacts

4.5.2 Break Junctions

4.5.3 Molecular Rectifying Diodes

4.5.4 Molecular Resonant Tunnelling Devices

Problems

References

Further Reading

Chapter 5 - Metal/Insulator/Semiconductor Devices: The Field Effect

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Ideal MIS device

5.3 Departures from Ideality

5.3.1 Insulator Charge and Work Function Differences

5.3.2 Interface Traps

5.4 Organic MIS Devices

5.4.1 Inorganic Semiconductor/Organic Insulator Structures

5.4.2 Organic Semiconductor Structures

Problems

References

Further Reading

Chapter 6 - DC Conductivity

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Electronic versus Ionic Conductivity

6.3 Quantum Mechanical Tunnelling

6.4 Variable Range Hopping

6.5 Fluctuation-induced Tunnelling

6.6 Space Charge Injection

6.6.1 Effect of Traps

6.6.2 Two-carrier Injection

6.7 Schottky, Fowler-Nordheim and Poole-Frenkel Effects

6.8 Electrical Breakdown

6.8.1 Intrinsic Breakdown

6.8.2 Electromechanical Breakdown

6.8.3 Thermal Runaway

6.8.4 Contact Instability

6.8.5 Other Effects

6.9 Electromigration

6.10 Measurement of Trapping Parameters

6.10.1 Thermally Stimulated Conductivity

6.10.2 Capacitance Spectroscopy

Problems

References

Further Reading

Chapter 7 - Polarization and AC Conductivity

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Polarization

7.2.1 Dipole Creation

7.2.2 Permanent Polarization

7.2.3 Piezoelectricity, Pyroelectricity and Ferroelectricity

7.3 Conductivity at High Frequencies

7.3.1 Displacement Current

7.3.2 Frequency-dependent Permittivity

7.3.3 AC Conductivity

7.4 Impedance Spectroscopy

7.5 AC Electrical Measurements

7.5.1 Lock-in Amplifier

7.5.2 Scanning Microscopy

7.6 Electrical Noise

Problems

References

Further Reading

Chapter 8 - Organic Field Effect Transistors

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Physics of Operation

8.3 Transistor Fabrication

8.4 Practical Device Behaviour

8.4.1 Contact Resistance

8.4.2 Material Morphology and Traps

8.4.3 Short Channel Effects

8.4.4 Organic Semiconductors

8.4.5 Gate Dielectric

8.5 Organic Integrated Circuits

8.6 Nanotube and Graphene FETs

8.7 Single-electron Transistors

8.8 Transistor-based Chemical Sensors

8.8.1 Ion-sensitive FETs

8.8.2 Charge-flow Transistor

Problems

References

Further Reading

Chapter 9 - Electronic Memory

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Memory Types

9.3 Resistive Memory

9.4 Organic Flash Memory

9.5 Ferroelectric RAMs

9.6 Spintronics

9.7 Molecular Memories

Problems

References

Further Reading

Chapter 10 - Light-emitting Devices

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Light Emission Processes

10.3 Operating Principles

10.4 Colour Measurement

10.5 Photometric Units

10.6 OLED Efficiency

10.7 Device Architectures

10.7.1 Top- and Bottom-emitting OLEDs

10.7.2 Electrodes

10.7.3 Hole- and Electron-transport Layers

10.7.4 Triplet Management

10.7.5 Blended-layer and Molecularly-engineered Devices

10.8 Increasing the Light Output

10.8.1 Efficiency Losses

10.8.2 Microlenses and Shaped Substrates

10.8.3 Microcavities

10.8.4 Device Degradation

10.9 Full-colour Displays

10.10 Organic Semiconductor Lasers

10.11 OLED Lighting

10.12 Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells

10.13 Light-emitting Transistors

Problems

References

Further Reading

Chapter 11 - Photoconductive and Photovoltaic Devices

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Photoconductivity

11.2.1 Optical Absorption

11.2.2 Carrier Lifetime

11.2.3 Photosenstivity

11.3 Xerography

11.4 Photovoltaic Principles

11.4.1 Electrical Characteristics

11.4.2 Efficiency

11.5 Organic Solar Cells

11.5.1 Carrier Collection

11.5.2 Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

11.5.3 Electrodes and Device Architectures

11.5.4 Tandem Cells

11.5.5 Upconversion

11.5.6 Device Degradation

11.6 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

11.7 Hybrid Solar Cells

11.7.1 Polymer-Metal Oxide Devices

11.7.2 Inorganic Semiconductor-Polymer Hole-transporter Cells

11.7.3 Perovskite Solar Cells

11.8 Luminescent Solar Concentrator

11.9 Organic Photodiodes and Phototransistors

Problems

References

Further Reading

Chapter 12 - Emerging Devices and Systems

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Molecular Logic Circuits

12.3 Inspiration from the Natural World

12.3.1 Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins

12.3.2 Nucleotides, DNA and RNA

12.3.3 ATP, ADP

12.3.4 The Biological Membrane and Ion Transport

12.3.5 Electron Transport

12.3.6 Neurons

12.4 Computing Strategies

12.4.1 Von Neumann Computer

12.4.2 Biological Information Processing

12.4.3 Artificial Neural Networks

12.4.4 Organic Neuromorphic Devices

12.4.5 DNA and Microtubule Electronics

12.4.6 Quantum Computing

12.4.7 Evolvable Electronics

12.5 Fault Tolerance and Self Repair

12.6 Bacteriorhodopsin - A Light-driven Proton Pump

12.7 Photosynthesis and Artificial Molecular Architectures

12.8 Bio-chemical Sensors

12.8.1 Biocatalytic Sensors

12.8.2 Bioaffinity Sensors

12.9 Electronic Olfaction and Gustation

Problems

References

Further Reading
Michael C. Petty is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Engineering at the University of Durham in the United Kingdom. He is Past President of the International Society for Molecular Electronics and Biocomputing and a previous Chairman of the School of Engineering at Durham University. He has published extensively in the areas of organic electronics and molecular electronics.

M. C. Petty, University of Durham, UK