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3D Scanning for Advanced Manufacturing, Design, and Construction

Confalone, Gary C. / Smits, John / Kinnare, Thomas

Additive Manufacturing Skills in Practice.


1. Edition February 2023
224 Pages, Hardcover
Practical Approach Book

ISBN: 978-1-119-75851-8
John Wiley & Sons

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3D Scanning for Advanced Manufacturing, Design, and Construction

Learn how 3D scanning technology drives advanced manufacturing and modern construction

3D scanning technology allows non-contact scanning of objects for unprecedented data collection, analysis, and modeling. 3D models created this way are valuable at every stage of the design and build process and they have become a staple in additive manufacturing or 3D printing. As 3D printing transforms global industry at every scale, there has never been a better time for engineers and industrial professionals to be competitive in the area of 3D scanning, a multibillion-dollar market that continues to grow.

3D Scanning Technology for Advanced Manufacturing, Design, and Construction provides a comprehensive introduction to 3D scanning and its applications in both the AEC and manufacturing industries. After establishing the history and basic principles of 3D scanning, it includes discussions of the various scanner types and software interfaces, the use of 3D point clouds for analysis and reverse engineering, and much more. It covers the full range of technology and processes that engineers, architects, and manufacturing professionals use to increase accuracy and quality while reducing project timelines.

Readers of 3D Scanning Technology for Advanced Manufacturing, Design, and Construction will also find:
* Case studies that highlight techniques useful for specific real-world applications
* Comparisons of various scanning devices and software that aid in choosing the proper technologies for a specific project
* Resources and references for online learning, organizations, and certifications

Perfect for engineers, technicians, students, and industry professionals new to laser scanning, 3D Scanning Technology for Advanced Manufacturing, Design, and Construction will earn its place in libraries of technical, vocational, and continuing education audiences seeking to improve their knowledge of 3D scanning.

Preface xi

How to Use This Book xiii

Chapter 1 History of Metrology 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 The History of Metrology 2

1.3 The International System of Units (SI) 3

1.4 The History of the Metric System 3

1.5 The History of the British Imperial System (IS) 4

1.6 Evolution of Metrology 13

1.7 Milestones of Metrology 22

Chapter 2 3D Scanning Basics 25

2.1 Basics of Laser Light Technology 25

2.2 Laser Safety 25

2.3 So What Exactly Is a Laser? 28

2.4 Laser Types 29

2.5 LIDAR vs Laser-Radar 32

2.6 Laser-Radar 32

2.7 Basics of 3D Scanning 35

2.8 How It Works 35

2.9 Limitations 35

2.10 Accuracy 36

2.11 Modern Metrology 37

Chapter 3 Scanning Equipment 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Triangulating Laser Scanners 39

3.3 Data Acquisition Variables 41

Chapter 4 Data Acquisition and Processing Software 65

4.1 Introduction 65

4.2 Data Acquisition Software 66

4.3 Inspection Software 71

4.4 Data Export Options 72

4.5 Point Clouds 73

4.6 Processing and Registration 78

4.7 Survey Controls 80

4.8 Polygonal Mesh 81

4.9 Using Processed Datasets 82

Chapter 5 Post-Processing 85

5.1 Introduction 85

5.2 Coordinate Systems 86

5.3 Scaling 93

5.4 Mapping Techniques 93

5.5 CAD to Part Comparison 97

5.6 Root Mean Square and Standard Deviation 98

5.7 The Method of Least Squares 99

5.8 What Is Uncertainty? 102

5.9 Contributing Factors to Uncertainty 105

5.10 Typical Post-processing Workflow 108

Chapter 6 Reverse Engineering for Industrial and Consumer Applications 111

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 Industrial Applications 112

6.3 Case Studies 118

6.4 Racing Yacht Boat Build 118

6.5 Reverse Engineering: Cessna Caravan Performance Upgrade 121

6.6 Replication of a Classic Propeller Design 123

6.7 Roller Coaster Inspection 126

6.8 Argomaiden Sculpture 129

Chapter 7 Reverse Engineering for Architecture, Engineering, and Construction 133

7.1 Introduction 133

7.2 Modeling for Architects and Engineers 134

7.3 Case Studies 142

7.4 Research Facility Coordinate Control System 142

7.5 Architectural Ornament Replication 146

7.6 Fonthill Castle, Bronx, NY 149

7.7 Infrastructure Preservation 153

7.8 Generating Station Turbine Replacement 158

Chapter 8 Future Directions 161

8.1 Software Development 162

8.2 Technology 162

8.3 Extended Reality 163

8.4 UAV and AV 165

8.5 Industry Trends 165

8.6 Summary 168

Chapter 9 Resources 169

9.1 Units of Measure 175

9.2 Coordinate Metrology Society (CMS) Certification 181

9.3 Certification Committee 181

9.4 CMS Certification Levels 183

9.5 CMS Level-Two Certification 185

9.6 National Metrology Laboratories and Institutes 187

Metrology Glossary 191

Index 201
Gary C. Confalone, BSEE, MSME, is the CEO of ECM Global, a company specializing in 3D scanning and reverse engineering. He has spent the past three decades working in the metrology industry with the first half of his career focused on the development of laser-based measurement systems, and processes, for the aerospace industry. He has served as Chair for both the Coordinate Metrology Society and the 3D Certification Committee, and was recently awarded the American Society for Quality (ASQ) Hromi Medal. Gary received a Bachelor's degree from the University of Massachusetts, and a Master's Degree from Boston University.

John Smits, AIA, is VP of ECM, AEC Division, a registered architect, and one of the initial adopters of large volume 3D laser scanning technology as applied specifically to the architecture, engineering, and construction professions. He has shared his expertise as a speaker at trade shows, conferences, and online webinars, and authored articles in academic journals and trade magazines. John earned a Bachelor's degree in Architecture from the University of Virginia and a Master's degree in Architecture from Washington University in St. Louis.

Thomas Kinnare, BSME, is Principal Engineer and lead developer of the ECM Training Division. Over the past two decades, Tom has been instrumental in the advancement of 3D metrology practices throughout the industry, working to institute an international metrology education and certification training program. He currently serves on the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Y14.45, GD&T Reporting Subcommittee, and the Coordinate Measurement Society Certification Committee. Tom earned his Bachelor's degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.