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Nanodiamonds in Analytical and Biological Sciences

Principles and Applications

Hsiao, Wesley Wei-Wen / Le, Trong-Nghia (Editor)

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1. Edition November 2023
288 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-394-20213-3
John Wiley & Sons

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NANODIAMONDS IN ANALYTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Comprehensive resource highlighting the significance and applications of fluorescent and non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in various domains

Nanodiamonds in Analytical and Biological Sciences combines the disciplines of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology to demonstrate the significance of nanodiamonds, offering precise analysis of the impacts and up-to-date applications of fluorescent and non-fluorescent nanodiamonds, including in COVID-19 and artificial intelligence, with illustrations, case studies, practical examples, and novel perspectives included throughout.

Edited by two highly qualified scholars with significant experience in the field, topics covered include:
* Fundamental properties, synthesis, mechanisms, and functionalization of nanodiamonds, and toxicity assessment
* Fabrication and surface modification of fluorescent nanodiamonds and in vitro and in vivo bioimaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds
* Nanodiamond-enabled drug delivery and nanodiamond for mass spectrometry-based analysis of peptides, proteins, and proteomes
* Quantum sensing, applications in physico-chemical and biomedical sensing, and perspective and outlook on the future of nanodiamond research
* Nano-scale thermometry of fluorescent nanodiamonds and nanodiamond-enabled drug delivery

Offering a balanced, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive overview of the significance of fluorescent and non-fluorescent nanodiamonds, Nanodiamonds in Analytical and Biological Sciences is an essential resource for academic researchers and industry professionals working in fields spanning chemistry, physics, materials science and biology.

Contributors xii

Editor's Preface: Nanodiamonds -- A Rising Star in Nanotechnology xv

1 Nanodiamonds 1
Tan-Thanh Huynh, Marvin Chen, Thi-Hong-Hanh Le, Xuan Mai Lam, Kartika Wardhani, and Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao

1.1 Structure and Classification of Nanodiamonds 1

1.2 Preparation of Nanodiamonds 4

1.2.1 High-Pressure, High-Temperature 5

1.2.2 Detonation Technique 6

1.2.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition 7

1.2.4 Alternative Methods of Producing Nanodiamonds 8

1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties of Nanodiamonds 9

1.4 Colloidal Properties of Nanodiamonds 12

2 Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 19
Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao, Hsuan-Yi Lin, Ming-Wei Jen, Tan-Thanh Huynh, Thi-Hong-Hanh Le, and Yan-Kai Tzeng

2.1 Introduction to Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 19

2.2 Optical Properties of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 21

2.2.1 Vacancy-Related Color Centers 22

2.2.2 Negative Nitrogen-Vacancy Center 23

2.2.3 Silicon-Vacancy Center 25

2.3 Introduction to Förster Resonance Energy Transfer 26

2.3.1 Theory 27

2.3.2 FRET Efficiency 28

3 Fabrication of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 35
Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao, Jo-Yu Wang, Syun-Ying Wang, Stefanny Angela, and Yan-Kai Tzeng

3.1 Introduction to FND Fabrication 35

3.2 Theoretical Simulations 36

3.3 Production and Characterization of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 39

3.4 Latest Developments in High-Pressure, High-Temperature Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 41

3.5 Production of Ultrasmall Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 42

3.6 Synthesis of Highly Dispersible Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 45

3.7 Brightly Synthesized Fluorescent Nanodiamonds Using Solar Energy 46

4 Surface Modification of Nanodiamonds 52
Stefanny Angela, Tzu-Chun You, Dinh Minh Pham, Trong-Nghia Le, and Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao

4.1 Surface Modification of Nanodiamonds 52

4.2 Surface Functionalization of Nanodiamonds 53

4.3 Encapsulation of Nanodiamonds 55

4.4 Bioconjugation of Nanodiamonds 58

4.5 Application of Surface-Modified Nanodiamonds 60

4.5.1 Biotechnological Applications 60

4.5.2 Biomedical Applications 63

5 Toxicity Assessments of Nanodiamonds 73
Duc-Thang Vo, Tzu-Syuan You, Yu-Teng Lin, Stefanny Angela, Trong-Nghia Le, and Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao

5.1 Cellular Uptake of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 73

5.2 In vitro Assessments 75

5.3 In vivo Assessments 80

5.4 Nanodiamonds' Phytotoxic Effect 87

5.5 Role of Oxidative Stress in Nanodiamonds' Toxicity 88

6 In vitro Bioimaging of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 95
Trong-Nghia Le, Yen-Tse Chiang, Yuen Yung Hui, Thi-Hong-Hanh Le, Yan-Kai Tzeng, Neha Sharma, Wei-Hung Chiang, and Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao

6.1 Bioimaging Applications 95

6.2 Epifluorescence and Confocal Fluorescence Imaging 96

6.3 Single-Particle Tracking 98

6.4 Two-Photon Fluorescence Imaging 102

6.5 Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging 103

6.5.1 Introduction to Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy 103

6.5.2 Principles of FLIM 104

6.5.3 Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting 105

6.5.4 FND for FLIM 105

6.6 Super-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging 108

6.6.1 Introduction to STED Microscopy 108

6.6.2 Principle of STED 109

6.6.3 FND-Enabled STED 111

6.6.4 Combining STED with other Techniques for Bioimaging 113

6.7 Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Imaging 115

6.8 Cathodoluminescence Imaging 117

6.9 Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy 120

7 In Vivo Bioimaging of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 128
Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao, Yun-Yu Chen, Thi-Hong-Hanh Le, Yuen Yung Hui, Stefanny Angela, and Trong-Nghia Le

7.1 Wide-Field Fluorescence Imaging 128

7.2 Time-Gated Fluorescence Imaging 129

7.3 Photoacoustic Imaging 131

7.4 Tissue Imaging by Microwave Modulation 133

7.5 Magnetically Modulated Fluorescence Imaging 135

7.6 Tissue Imaging Combining Microwaves and Quadruple Coils 137

8 Quantum Sensing of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 141
Yuen Yung Hui, Miranda Liu, Stefanny Angela, Thi-Hong-Hanh Le, and Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao

8.1 Quantum Coherence 141

8.2 NV -- Centers for Quantum Sensing 143

8.3 Emerging Sensing Technologies Using FND 146

8.3.1 Magnetic Field Sensor 146

8.3.2 Orientation Tracker for NV Axis 150

8.3.3 Nanoscopic Spin Probe 151

9 Nanoscale Thermometry with Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 156
Thi-Hong-Hanh Le, Richard Hsin, Duc-Thang Vo, Yan-Kai Tzeng, Trong-Nghia Le, and Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao

9.1 NV Thermometry in Biosystems 156

9.2 Ultrahigh Precision Temperature Measurement 157

9.3 Time-Resolved Nanothermometry 158

9.4 All-Optical Luminescence Nanothermometry 159

9.5 Scanning Thermal Imaging 161

9.6 Intracellular Temperature Sensing 161

10 Nanodiamond-Enabled Drug Delivery 171
Stefanny Angela, Raymond Hsin, Steven Che-Wei Lu, Trong-Nghia Le, and Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao

10.1 Introduction 172

10.2 Drug Delivery Through Nanodiamonds 173

10.2.1 Delivery of Small Molecules 173

10.2.2 Delivery of Peptides and Proteins 179

10.2.3 Gene Delivery 184

10.3 Fluorescent Nanodiamond-Based Theranostics Platform 189

11 Nanodiamond for Mass-Spectrometry-Based Analysis of Peptides, Proteins, and Proteomes 198
Dinh Minh Pham, Ryu Endo, Chris Chen-Hua Chang, Thi-Hong-Hanh Le, and Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao

11.1 Principles of Analyzing Macro Biomolecules with Mass Spectrometry 199

11.2 The Post-Era of Genomics 199

11.3 Bioinformatics for the Coming of Big-Data Biology 200

11.4 Nanodiamonds for the Mass-Spectrometry-Based Analysis of Peptides, Proteins, and Proteomics 201

11.5 Origin of Interactions Between Nanodiamonds and Proteins or Peptides 201

11.5.1 Surface Properties of Carboxylated/Oxidized Nanodiamonds 201

11.5.2 Interactions of Proteins and Peptides with Carboxylated/Oxidized Nanodiamonds 203

11.5.3 Other Surface-Functionalized Nanodiamonds 206

11.6 SPEED Platform for MS-Based Study of Cellular Cytoplasmic Proteins and Human Fluids 207

11.7 SPEED Platform for MS-Based Study of Membrane Proteins 211

11.8 Surface-Functionalized Nanodiamonds for MS-Based Study of Protein Posttranslational Modifications 215

11.8.1 Nanodiamonds for the Selective Enrichment and MS-based Analysis of Phosphopeptides 215

11.9 Nanodiamonds for Enrichment and MS-Based Analysis of Glycopeptides 216

12 Emerging Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Nanodiamond Sensing 223
Shahzad Ahmad Qureshi, Haroon Aman, Yu--Chen Lin, and Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao

12.1 Machine Learning Algorithms for Nanodiamond Sensing 225

12.1.1 Support Vector Machine 225

12.1.2 k-Nearest Neighbors 225

12.1.3 Random Forest 226

12.1.4 Artificial Neural Network 226

12.1.5 Convolutional Neural Networks 226

12.1.6 Principal Component Analysis 230

12.2 Machine Learning Revolutionizes Biosensing and Disease Diagnosis 230

12.3 Improving Speed and Accuracy with Magnetic Field 232

12.4 Fluorescent-Nanodiamond-Based Immunomagnetic Microscopy of Tumors 233

12.5 Scaling the Nanomedicine in Clinical Research 233

12.6 Convolutional Neural Network Enhances Fluorescence Imaging 234

12.7 Challenges and Conclusion 235

13 Perspective and Outlook on Nanodiamond Research 239
Trong-Nghia Le, Shu-Wei Chang, Joshua Ko, Yu-Jou Lin, Wei-Hung Chiang, and Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao

13.1 Strengths of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds 239

13.2 Nanodiamond's Surface Chemistry 241

13.3 Nanodiamond in Bioimaging 242

13.4 Nanodiamond in Quantum Sensing 242

13.5 Nanodiamond as Therapeutic Carrier 243

13.6 Nanodiamond for Biomedical Analysis 243

13.7 Challenges of Fluorescent Nanodiamond Research 244

References 245

Index 247
Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. He is former CEO and co-founder of FND Biotech, a company focusing on the development of Fluorescent Nanodiamond (FND)-enabled biotechnologies.

Trong-Nghia Le is a postdoctoral researcher at Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, under supervision of Professor Huan-Cheng Chang. His research interests include the applications of fluorescent nanodiamonds, biosensing, nanotechnology, polymer science, self-assembly nanoparticles, and targeted drug delivery.

W. W.-W. Hsiao, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan; T.-N. Le, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan