John Wiley & Sons Polysaccharides Cover This book provides the whole spectrum of polysaccharides from basic concepts to commercial market ap.. Product #: 978-1-119-71138-4 Regular price: $235.51 $235.51 In Stock

Polysaccharides

Properties and Applications

Inamuddin / Ahamed, Mohd Imran / Boddula, Rajender / Altalhi, Tariq A. (Editor)

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1. Edition August 2021
784 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-71138-4
John Wiley & Sons

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This book provides the whole spectrum of polysaccharides from basic concepts to commercial market applications. Chapters cover various types of sources, classification, properties, characterization, processing, rheology and fabrication of polysaccharide-based materials and their composites and gels. The applications of polysaccharides include in cosmetics, food science, drug delivery, biomedicine, biofuel production, marine, packaging, chromatography and environmental remediation. It also reviews the fabrication of inorganic and carbon nanomaterials from polysaccharides. The book incorporates industrial applications and will fill the gap between the exploration works in the laboratory and viable applications in related ventures.

Preface xxiii

1 Natural Polysaccharides From Aloe vera L. Gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller): Processing Techniques and Analytical Methods 1
Silvana Teresa Lacerda Jales, Raquel de Melo Barbosa, Girliane Regina da Silva, Patricia Severino and Tulio Flávio Accioly de Lima Moura

1.1 Introduction 2

1.1.1 Gel Composition from A. vera 3

1.2 Applications of A. vera Mucilaginous Gel or Fractions 5

1.3 Aloe vera Gel Processing 5

1.3.1 Obtaining Polysaccharide Fraction or Acemannan 8

1.4 Analytical Methods Applied 9

1.4.1 Total Carbohydrates, Oligosaccharides, Acemannan and Free Sugars 9

1.4.2 Analytical Techniques 12

1.4.2.1 Chromatography Analysis 12

1.4.2.2 Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) 13

1.4.2.3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 14

1.4.2.4 Mass Spectrometry 15

1.4.2.5 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy 16

1.4.2.6 Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling 16

1.5 Conclusion 17

References 17

2 Cell Wall Polysaccharides 23
Ata Ullah, Lutufur Rahman, Muhammad Bilal Yazdani, Muhammad Irfan, Waheed S. Khan and Asma Rehman

2.1 Introduction to Cell Wall 23

2.2 Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides 24

2.2.1 Cellulose 24

2.2.2 Hemicellulose 25

2.2.2.1 Xyloglucan 25

2.2.2.2 Xylans 25

2.2.2.3 Mannans 26

2.2.3 Callose 26

2.2.4 Pectic Polysaccharides 26

2.2.4.1 Homogalacturonan (HG) 27

2.2.4.2 Arabinan 27

2.3 Algal Cell Wall Polysaccharides 28

2.3.1 Alginates 28

2.3.2 Sulfated Galactans 28

2.3.3 Fucoidans 30

2.4 Fungal Cell Wall Polysaccharides 30

2.4.1 Glucan 31

2.4.2 Chitin and Chitosan 31

2.5 Bacterial Cell Wall Polysaccharides 32

2.5.1 Peptidoglycan 32

2.5.2 Lipopolysaccharides 33

References 33

3 Marine Polysaccharides: Properties and Applications 37
Tonmoy Ghosh, Rabinder Singh, Asha Arumugam Nesamma and Pannaga Pavan Jutur

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Polysaccharide Origins 38

3.3 Properties 38

3.3.1 Cellulose 38

3.3.2 Chitosan 40

3.3.3 Alginate 41

3.3.4 Carrageenan 41

3.3.5 Agar 41

3.3.6 Porphyran 42

3.3.7 Fucoidan 42

3.3.8 Ulvan 42

3.3.9 Exopolysaccharides From Microalgae 43

3.4 Applications of Polysaccharides 44

3.4.1 Biomedical Applications 44

3.4.1.1 Cellulose 44

3.4.1.2 Chitosan 44

3.4.1.3 Alginate 45

3.4.2 Food Applications 45

3.4.2.1 Cellulose 45

3.4.2.2 Chitosan 46

3.4.2.3 Alginates 46

3.4.2.4 Carrageenan 47

3.4.2.5 Agar 47

3.4.3 Pharmaceutical and Nutraceutical Applications 47

3.4.3.1 Cellulose 47

3.4.3.2 Chitosan 47

3.4.3.3 Alginate 48

3.4.3.4 Carrageenan 48

3.4.3.5 Porphyran 49

3.4.3.6 Fucoidan 49

3.4.4 Agriculture 50

3.5 Conclusions 50

References 51

4 Seaweed Polysaccharides: Structure, Extraction and Applications 61
Oya Irmak ^ahin

4.1 Introduction 61

4.1.1 Agar 62

4.1.2 Carrageenan 63

4.1.3 Alginate (Alginic Acid, Algin) 65

4.1.4 Fucoidan 67

4.1.5 Laminaran 68

4.1.6 Ulvan 69

4.2 Conclusion 70

References 70

5 Agars: Properties and Applications 75
Sudhakar Padmesh and Aditi Singh

5.1 History and Origin of Agar 75

5.1.1 Agarophytes Used in Agar Manufacturing 76

5.2 Physical Properties of Agar Producing Seaweeds 76

5.3 Agar Manufacturing 78

5.3.1 Types of Agar Manufacturing 78

5.3.1.1 Freeze-Thaw Method 78

5.3.1.2 Syneresis Method 78

5.4 Structure of Agar 79

5.5 Heterogeneity of Agar 80

5.6 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Agar 80

5.7 Chemical Characteristics of Agar 82

5.8 Factors Influencing the Characteristics of Agar 83

5.8.1 Techniques to Analyze the Fine Chemical Structure of Agar 85

5.8.2 Synergies and Antagonisms of Agar Gels 86

5.9 Uses of Agar in Various Sectors 87

5.9.1 Applications of Agar in Food Industry 88

5.9.2 Application of Agar in Harvesting Insects and Worms 89

5.9.3 Vegetable Tissue Culture Formulations 90

5.9.4 Culture Media for Microbes 91

5.9.5 Industrial Applications of Agar 91

5.10 Conclusion and Discussion 91

References 92

6 Biopolysaccharides: Properties and Applications 95
Sinem Tunçer

6.1 Structure and Classification of Biopolysaccharides 95

6.1.1 Structure 95

6.1.2 Classification 97

6.1.3 Structural Characterization Techniques 98

6.2 Uses and Applications of Biopolysaccharides 99

6.2.1 Functional Fibers 100

6.2.2 Biomedicine 101

6.2.2.1 Tissue Engineering 102

6.2.2.2 Wound Healing 107

6.2.2.3 Drug Loading and Delivery 110

6.2.2.4 Therapeutics 114

6.2.3 Cosmetics 115

6.2.4 Foods and Food Ingredients 116

6.2.5 Biofuels 119

6.2.6 Wastewater Treatment 120

6.2.7 Textiles 121

6.3 Conclusion 122

References 123

7 Chitosan Derivatives: Properties and Applications 135
Gincy Marina Mathew, Sarah Bill Ulaeto, Reshmy R., Rajeev Kumar Sukumaran, Parameswaran Binod, Ashok Pandey and Raveendran Sindhu

7.1 Introduction 135

7.2 Properties of Chitosan Derivatives 142

7.2.1 Physiochemical Properties 142

7.2.2 Functional Properties 143

7.2.3 Biological Properties of Chitosan 144

7.3 Applications of Chitosan Derivatives 145

7.3.1 Anticancer Agents 145

7.3.2 Bone Tissue Material Formation 147

7.3.3 Wound Healing, Tissue Regeneration and Antimicrobial Resistance 148

7.3.4 Drug Delivery 149

7.3.5 Chromatographic Separations 150

7.3.6 Waste Management 150

7.3.7 Food Industry 151

7.3.8 In Cosmetics 152

7.3.9 In Paint as Antifouling Coatings 152

7.4 Conclusions 152

Acknowledgement 153

References 153

8 Green Seaweed Polysaccharides Inventory of Nador Lagoon in North East Morocco 163
El Asri Ouahid, Ramdani Mohamed and Fadlaoui Soufiane

8.1 Introduction 163

8.2 Nador Lagoon: Situation and Characteristics 164

8.3 Seaweed 165

8.4 Polysaccharides in Seaweed 166

8.5 Algae Polysaccharides in Nador Lagoon's Seaweed 167

8.5.1 C. prolifera 167

8.5.1.1 Sulfated Galactans 168

8.5.2 U. rigida & E. intestinalis 168

8.5.2.1 Ulvan 169

8.5.3 C. adhaerens, C. bursa, C. tomentosum 170

8.5.3.1 Sulfated Arabinans 170

8.5.3.2 Sulfated Arabinogalactans 170

8.5.3.3 Mannans 171

8.6 Conclusion 172

References 172

9 Salep Glucomannan: Properties and Applications 177
Abdullah Kurt

9.1 Introduction 177

9.2 Production 179

9.3 Composition and Physicochemical Structure 181

9.4 Rheological Properties 183

9.5 Purification and Deacetylation 188

9.6 Food Applications 191

9.6.1 Beverage 191

9.6.2 Ice Cream and Emulsion Stabilizing 192

9.6.3 Edible Film/Coating 194

9.6.4 Gelation 195

9.7 Health Benefits 196

9.8 Conclusions and Future Trends 197

References 198

10 Exudate Tree Gums: Properties and Applications 205
Aruna Jyothi Kora

10.1 Introduction 205

10.1.1 Gum Arabic 206

10.1.2 Gum Karaya 208

10.1.3 Gum Kondagogu 209

10.1.4 Gum Ghatti 209

10.1.5 Gum Tragacanth 210

10.1.6 Gum Olibanum 211

10.2 Nanobiotechnology Applications 211

10.3 Minor Tree Gums 214

10.4 Conclusions 214

Acknowledgment 217

References 218

11 Cellulose and its Derivatives: Properties and Applications 221
Rafael de Avila Delucis, Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori, André Ricardo Fajardo and Sandro Campos Amico

11.1 Introduction 221

11.2 Main Raw Materials 222

11.3 Composition and Chemical Structure of Lignocellulosic Materials 224

11.4 Cellulose: Chemical Backbone and Crystalline Formats 225

11.5 Cellulose Extraction 228

11.5.1 Mechanical Methods 228

11.5.2 Chemical Methods 231

11.6 Cellulose Products and its Derivatives 232

11.7 Main Applications 236

11.8 Conclusion 241

References 242

12 Starch and its Derivatives: Properties and Applications 253
Bhanita Goswami and Debajyoti Mahanta

12.1 Introduction 253

12.2 Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Starch 254

12.2.1 Size, Morphology and Crystallinity of Starch Granules 255

12.2.2 Physical Properties due to Associated Lipids, Proteins and Phosphorus With Starch Granules 257

12.2.3 Solubility and Swelling Capacity of Starch 257

12.2.4 Gelatinization and Retrogradation of Starch 258

12.2.5 Birefringence and Glass Transition Temperature of Starch 259

12.2.6 Rheological and Thermal Properties of Starch 260

12.2.7 Transmittance and Opacity of Starch 260

12.2.8 Melt Processability of Starch 261

12.3 Modification of Starch 261

12.3.1 Physical Modification of Starch 262

12.3.2 Chemical Modification of Starch 263

12.3.3 Dual Modification of Starch 265

12.3.4 Enzymatic Modification of Starch 265

12.3.5 Genetic Modification of Starch 265

12.4 Application of Starch and its Derivatives 266

12.4.1 In Food Industry 266

12.4.2 In Paper Industry 266

12.4.3 Starch as Binders 267

12.4.4 In Detergent Products 267

12.4.5 As Biodegradable Thermoplastic Materials or Bioplastics 267

12.4.6 In Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Industries 268

12.4.7 As Industrial Raw Materials 269

12.4.8 As Adsorbents for Environmental Applications 269

12.4.9 As Food Packaging Materials 269

12.4.10 In Drug Delivery 270

12.4.11 As Antimicrobial Films and Coatings 270

12.4.12 In Advanced Functional Materials 271

12.5 Conclusion 273

References 274

13 Crystallization of Polysaccharides 283
Mohsen Khodadadi Yazdi, Farzad Seidi, Yongcan Jin, Payam Zarrintaj, Huining Xiao, Amin Esmaeili, Sajjad Habibzadeh and Mohammad Reza Saeb

13.1 Introduction 283

13.2 Principles of Crystallization of Polysaccharides 285

13.3 Techniques for Crystallinity Measurement 287

13.4 Crystallization Behavior of Polysaccharides 287

13.4.1 Cellulose 287

13.4.2 Chitosan and Chitin 290

13.4.3 Starch 291

13.5 Polymer/Polysaccharide Crystalline Nanocomposites 293

13.6 Conclusion 293

References 294

14 Polysaccharides as Novel Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications 301
Nandini A. Pattanashetti, Anand I. Torvi, Arun K. Shettar, Pramod B. Gai and Mahadevappa Y. Kariduraganavar

14.1 Introduction 301

14.2 Types of Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering 303

14.3 Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering 304

14.4 Polysaccharide-Based Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering 305

14.4.1 Alginate-Based Scaffolds 306

14.4.2 Chitosan-Based Scaffolds 307

14.4.3 Cellulose-Based Scaffolds 309

14.4.4 Dextran and Pullulan-Based Scaffolds 310

14.4.5 Starch-Based Scaffolds 311

14.4.6 Xanthan-Based Scaffolds 312

14.4.7 Glycosaminoglycans-Based Scaffolds 313

14.5 Current Challenges and Future Perspectives 316

Acknowledgements 317

References 317

15 Structure and Solubility of Polysaccharides 325
Vickramjeet Singh, Shikha Indoria, K.J. Jisha and Ramesh L. Gardas

15.1 Introduction 325

15.2 Polysaccharide Structure and Solubility in Water 326

15.3 Solubility and Molecular Weight 329

15.4 Solubility and Branching 330

15.5 Polysaccharide Solutions 332

15.6 Conclusions 334

Acknowledgments 334

References 334

16 Polysaccharides: An Efficient Tool for Fabrication of Carbon Nanomaterials 337
Yuliya Dzyazko and Vladimir Ogenko

16.1 Introduction 337

16.2 Aerogels 338

16.2.1 Plant and Bacterial Cellulose 339

16.2.2 Carbon Derived From Nanocrystalline Cellulose of Plant Origin 344

16.2.3 Carbon Aerogels Produced From Bacterial Cellulose 348

16.2.4 Chitosan and Sodium Alginate for Preparation of Carbon Aerogels 350

16.3 Graphene-Like Materials and Nanotubes Produced From Polysaccharides 352

16.4 Biocarbon Quantum Dots 355

16.5 Membranes Containing Carbon Nanoparticles Derived From Cellulose 356

16.6 Conclusions 358

References 358

17 Rheology and Structural Properties of Polysaccharides 367
Andreea Irina Barzic

17.1 Introduction 367

17.2 General Structural Features of Polysaccharides 368

17.3 Main Types of Polysaccharides and Their Structural Properties 370

17.4 Rheological Behavior of Polysaccharides 374

17.4.1 Semi-Diluted and Concentrated Solutions of Polysaccharides 374

17.4.2 Gels of Polysaccharides 375

17.4.3 Polysaccharide Liquid Crystals 377

17.5 Conclusions 379

References 379

18 Gums-Based Bionanostructures for Medical Applications 385
Hira Munir, Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Imran Khan and Hafiz M.N. Iqbal

18.1 Plants and Their Bioactive Compounds 386

18.2 Natural Gums--Physicochemical Features 386

18.3 Sources of Natural Gums 387

18.3.1 Exudate Gums 387

18.3.2 Mucilages 387

18.3.3 Seaweed Polysaccharides 388

18.3.4 Microbial Polysaccharides 388

18.3.5 Animal Polysaccharide 388

18.3.6 Other Sources of Polysaccharide Gums 388

18.4 Classification of Gums 388

18.4.1 According to the Charge 388

18.4.2 According to the Source 389

18.4.3 According to Shape 389

18.4.4 According to Monomeric Units in Chemical Structure 389

18.4.5 Semi-Synthetic Gums 390

18.5 Composition of Natural Gums 390

18.6 Extraction and Purification of Natural Gums 390

18.7 Modification and Hydrolysis of Natural Gums 390

18.8 Medical Applications of Gums-Based Bio-Nanostructures 390

18.8.1 Conductive Adhesive Properties and Pharmaceutical Applications 391

18.8.2 Application in Imaging and Cell Studies 393

18.8.3 Application in Sutures 393

18.8.4 Biomaterials for Implantation 394

18.9 Conclusions 395

References 395

19 Alginates: Properties and Applications 399
Sapna Raghav, Pallavi Jain and Dinesh Kumar

19.1 Introduction 399

19.2 Properties of Sodium Alginate (Na-Alg) 400

19.2.1 Thickening Property of Alginates 401

19.2.2 Gelling Property of Alginates 401

19.2.3 Film-Forming Property 402

19.2.4 Lipophilicity 402

19.2.5 Solubility 402

19.2.6 pH Sensitivity 402

19.3 Chemical Properties 402

19.4 Applications 403

19.4.1 Bone Tissue Engineering 404

19.4.2 Pharmaceutical Applications 405

19.4.2.1 Small Chemical Drug Delivery 405

19.4.2.2 Protein Delivery 406

19.4.3 Wound Dressing 406

19.4.4 Vaccine Delivery 408

19.4.5 Water Treatment Application 410

19.4.6 Alginate for Anion Removal 410

19.5 Conclusions and Prospects 414

Acknowledgments 414

Abbreviations 414

References 414

20 Marine Polysaccharides: Properties and Applications 423
Olugbenga Samuel Michael, Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji, Ayodele Eugene Ayeni, Muhammad Akram, Inamuddin, Juliana Bunmi Adetunji, Mathew Olaniyan and Musa Abidemi Muhibi

20.1 Introduction 424

20.2 Marine Bacteria That Produce Polysaccharides 425

20.3 Marine Fungi That Produce Polysaccharide 431

20.4 Production, Extraction and Purification of Polysaccharides 431

20.4.1 Solid State Fermentation 432

20.4.2 Submerged Fermentation 432

20.4.3 Extraction and Purification of Polysaccharides 432

20.5 Characterization via Molecular, Biochemical and Cultural Characterization of Marine Polysaccharides 433

20.6 Conclusion and Future Recommendation to Knowledge 434

References 434

21 Polysaccharides: Promising Constituent for the Preparation of Nanomaterials 441
Rafeeya Shams, Quratul Eain Hyder Rizvi, Aamir Hussain Dar, Ishrat Majid, Shafat Ahmad Khan and Anurag Singh

21.1 Introduction 441

21.1.1 Classification and Types of Nanomaterials 442

21.2 Preparation of Polysaccharide-Dependent Nanomaterials 445

21.2.1 Electrospinning 445

21.2.2 Dip Coating, Film Casting, and Physical Mixing 446

21.2.3 Layer by Layer Assembly 447

21.2.4 Ionotropic Gelation, Colloidal Assembly and Coprecipitation 447

21.2.5 In Situ NP Preparation 447

21.2.6 Ionotropic Gelation 448

21.3 Biocompatibility of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials 451

21.4 Conclusions and Summary 452

References 452

22 Anticancer Potential of Polysaccharides 459
Ali Raza, Javed Iqbal, Muhammad Usman Munir, Anila Asif and Arsalan Ahmed


22.1 Introduction 459

22.2 Mode of Action 460

22.2.1 Cell-Cycle Arrest 460

22.2.2 Receptor 460

22.2.3 Immunomodulatory Effect 461

22.2.4 Chemotherapy Enhancement 461

22.2.5 Mitochondrial Membrane Inhibition 461

22.2.6 Free Radicals Capture 462

22.3 Polysaccharides in Cancer Treatment 462

22.3.1 Lung Cancer 463

22.3.2 Blood Cancer 464

22.3.3 Liver Cancer 465

22.3.4 Gastric and Colon Cancer 465

22.3.5 Bladder and Kidney Cancer 466

22.3.6 Breast Cancer 466

22.3.7 Cervical Cancer 467

22.4 Polysaccharides in Conventional Therapies 468

22.4.1 Chemotherapy 468

22.4.2 Radiotherapy 469

22.4.3 Surgery 469

22.4.4 Phototherapy 469

22.4.5 Drug Delivery 469

22.4.6 Bioimaging 470

22.4.7 Food Supplement 470

22.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Trends 471

References 471

23 Polysaccharide-Based Membrane for Packaging Applications 477
Saumya Pandey

23.1 Introduction 477

23.2 Polysaccharides as Biomaterials for Biodegradable Packaging 478

23.2.1 Polysaccharides Extracted From Animals 481

23.2.1.1 Chitin and Chitosan 481

23.2.2 Polysaccharides Extracted From Plants 481

23.2.2.1 Cellulose 481

23.2.2.2 Pectin 482

23.2.2.3 Starch 483

23.2.2.4 Galactomannans 484

23.2.3 Polysaccharides Extracted From Algae 484

23.2.3.1 Carrageenan 484

23.2.3.2 Alginate 484

23.2.4 Polysaccharides Synthesized by Microorganisms 485

23.2.4.1 Pullulan 485

23.2.4.2 Gellan Gum 485

23.2.4.3 Xanthan Gum 486

23.2.4.4 FucoPol 486

23.3 Properties of Polysaccharide-Based Packaging Film or Coating 486

23.3.1 Barrier Properties of Film or Coatings 486

23.3.2 Mechanical Properties of the Film 488

23.4 Polysaccharides-Based Nanocomposites Packaging 489

23.5 Polysaccharides-Based Films and Coatings in Food Packaging Applications 490

23.5.1 Food Preservation and Self-Life Extension 490

23.5.2 Antimicrobial Coating 490

23.5.3 Delaying of Post-Harvest Ripening 491

23.5.4 Restoring Color, Aroma and Nutritional Value 491

23.5.5 Antioxidant Properties 491

23.6 Conclusion and Prospects 492

References 493

24 Applications of Polysaccharides in Cancer Treatment 501
Nivedita Pujari S., Joy Hoskeri H., Anand I. Torvi and Arun K. Shettar

24.1 Introduction 501

24.2 Types of Polysaccharides Used in Cancer Treatment 502

24.2.1 Animal Polysaccharides 502

24.2.2 Vegetal Polysaccharides 503

24.2.3 Microorganism and Fungi Polysaccharides 503

24.3 Mechanism of Polysaccharides as Anticancer Agent 504

24.3.1 Actions of Polysaccharides as Immunological Functioning 504

24.3.2 Role of Polysaccharides in Cell Signaling 505

24.3.3 Effect of Polysaccharides in Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest 506

24.3.4 Antitumor Effect of Polysaccharides 506

24.4 Usage of Polysaccharides in Preclinical and Clinical Models of Cancer 507

24.4.1 In-Vitro Cell Line Model 507

24.4.2 Polysaccharides as Antitumor/Anticancer in Animal Model Study 508

24.4.3 Clinical Trials of Polysaccharides in Cancer Treatment 508

24.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 510

References 510

25 Application of Chitosan-Based Catalysts for Heterocycles Synthesis and Other Reactions 517
Yadavalli Venkata Durga Nageswar, Nelson L.C. Domingues, Ramesh Katla and Rakhi Katla

25.1 Introduction 517

25.2 Recent Research Reports 518

25.2.1 Furans 518

25.2.2 Pyrazoles 518

25.2.3 Imidazoles 519

25.2.4 Oxazoles 520

25.2.5 Thiazoles 521

25.2.6 Triazoles 522

25.2.7 Tetrazoles 523

25.2.8 Pyridines 524

25.2.9 Quinolines 524

25.2.10 Pyrazines 525

25.2.11 Pyrimidines 525

25.2.12 Quinazolines 527

25.2.13 Phthalazines 527

25.2.14 Perimidines 527

25.2.15 Pyrans 528

25.2.16 Coumarins 530

25.2.17 Chromenes 530

25.2.18 Other Reactions 531

25.2.18.1 Oxidations 531

25.2.18.2 Reductions 533

25.2.18.3 Coupling/Condensation Reactions 533

25.2.18.4 Isomerization 537

25.2.18.5 Ring Opening 538

25.3 Conclusion 538

References 539

26 Preparation and Applications of Polysaccharide-Based Composites 543
Sadaf Ahmad, Bushra Anees Palvasha, Bakar bin Khatab Abbasi, Muhammad Shahid Nazir, Majid Niaz Akhtar, Zaman Tahir and Mohd Azmuddin Abdullah

26.1 Introduction 544

26.2 Types 544

26.2.1 Cellulose 544

26.2.2 Starch 545

26.2.3 Glycogen 545

26.2.4 Chitin 545

26.2.5 Pectin 546

26.3 Importance 546

26.4 Fabrication and Applications of Polysaccharide-Inorganic-Based Composites 547

26.4.1 Cellulose-Inorganic Materials 547

26.4.2 Starch-Inorganic Materials 553

26.4.3 Pectin-Inorganic Materials 557

26.4.4 Chitin and Chitosan-Inorganic Materials 559

26.4.5 Polysaccharides-Metal Organic Frameworks 561

26.5 Recent Applications 564

26.6 Conclusion 565

References 566

27 Polysaccharide-Based Liquid Crystals 573
Sumaira Saleem, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad Mudassir Iqbal, Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Muhammad Arshad Raza, Zahid Shafiq and Haseeba Razzaq

27.1 Introduction 573

27.2 Polysaccharides-Based Liquid Crystals 575

27.2.1 Cellulose-Based Liquid Crystals 575

27.2.2 Liquid Crystals From Cellulose Derivatives 578

27.2.3 Amylose-Based Liquid Crystals 579

27.2.4 Dextrin-Based Liquid Crystals 582

27.2.5 Chitin-Based Liquid Crystals 584

27.2.6 Schizophyllan-Based Liquid Crystals 585

27.3 Conclusion 586

References 586

28 Patents on Polysaccharide Applications 591
Nadhratun Naiim Mobarak, Sharifah Nabihah Syed Jaafar and Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed

28.1 Introduction 591

28.2 Polysaccharides in Medical Application 595

28.3 Polysaccharides in Cosmetic Application 597

28.4 Polysaccharides in Battery Components 600

28.5 Polysaccharides in Paper Manufacture 601

28.6 Conclusion 601

References 602

29 Applications of Polysaccharides in Controlled Release Drug Delivery System 607
Muhammad Harris Shoaib, Muhammad Sikandar, Farrukh Rafiq Ahmed, Fatima Ramzan Ali, Faaiza Qazi, Rabia Ismail Yousuf, Asma Irshad, Sabahat Jabeen and Kamran Ahmed

29.1 Introduction 607

29.2 Polysaccharides From Plant Sources and Their Derivatives 608

29.2.1 Cellulose 608

29.2.2 Cellulose Derivatives 609

29.2.2.1 Cellulose Ethers 609

29.2.2.2 Cellulose Esters 612

29.2.3 Hemicellulose 613

29.2.3.1 Mannans 614

29.2.4 Starch 617

29.2.5 Pectin 618

29.2.6 Lignin 619

29.2.7 Inulin 620

29.3 Gums 620

29.3.1 Exudate Gums 620

29.3.1.1 Gum Arabic (Gum Acacia) 620

29.3.1.2 Gum Tragacanth 621

29.3.1.3 Gum Karaya 621

29.3.2 Mucilage Gums 622

29.3.2.1 Okra Gum 622

29.3.2.2 Khaya Gum 622

29.3.2.3 Hakea Gum 622

29.3.2.4 Cassia tora Gum 623

29.3.2.5 Albizia Gum 623

29.3.2.6 Prunus cerasoides Gum 623

29.3.2.7 Tamarind Gum 623

29.3.2.8 Cissus populnea Gum 624

29.4 Polysaccharides From Algal Sources 624

29.4.1 Alginates 624

29.4.2 Galactans 626

29.4.3 Carrageenan 626

29.4.4 Agar 627

29.4.5 Agarose 628

29.5 Polysaccharides From Fungal Sources 629

29.5.1 Scleroglucan 629

29.5.2 Beta-Glucan 629

29.5.3 Pullulan 630

29.6 Polysaccharides From Animals Sources and Their Derivatives 631

29.6.1 Chitin 631

29.6.2 Chitosan 632

29.6.3 Hyaluronic Acid 633

29.6.4 Glycogen 633

29.6.5 Chondroitin Sulfate 633

29.6.6 Dermatan Sulfate 634

29.6.7 Gelatin 634

29.7 Polysaccharides From Microorganisms 635

29.7.1 Curdlan 635

29.7.2 Xanthan Gum 636

29.7.3 Gellan Gum 637

References 637

30 Applications of Polysaccharides in Nutrition and Medicine 657
Nivedita Pujari S., Arun K. Shettar and Joy Hoskeri H.

30.1 Introduction 657

30.2 Sources of Polysaccharides 658

30.2.1 Polysaccharides in Dietary Fibers 658

30.2.2 Polysaccharides in Plants 659

30.2.3 Polysaccharides in Algae and Lichens 659

30.2.4 Polysaccharides in Fungi 660

30.2.5 Polysaccharides From Bacteria 661

30.2.6 Polysaccharides From Other Sources 662

30.3 Role of Polysaccharides in Nutrition 662

30.3.1 Polysaccharides in Food 662

30.3.2 Polysaccharides as Energy Sources 663

30.3.3 Health Impact of Polysaccharides 664

30.3.4 Nutritional Aspect of Polysaccharides 664

30.4 Biomedical Applications of Polysaccharides 665

30.4.1 Polysaccharides as Antimicrobial and Antiviral 665

30.4.2 Polysaccharides as Antitumor/Anticancer 666

30.4.3 Polysaccharides as Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hypercholesterolemic Agents 667

30.4.4 Polysaccharides as Antidiabetic Agents 669

30.4.5 Polysaccharides as Immune Modulator Agent 670

30.4.6 Polysaccharides as Anti-Inflammatory Agent 671

30.4.7 Polysaccharides as Neuro-Protective Agent 672

30.4.8 Polysaccharides as a Source of Antioxidant 672

30.4.9 Polysaccharides in Wound Healing and Wound Dressing 673

30.5 Conclusion 674

References 674

31 Synthetic Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines: Progress and Achievements 683
Rafig Gurbanov

31.1 A Brief History of Vaccination 683

31.2 The Leverage of Synthetic Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines Over Natural Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines 684

31.3 The Principles of Synthetic Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines 686

31.3.1 Tumor Vaccines 689

31.3.2 Leishmaniasis Vaccines 690

31.3.3 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccines 690

31.3.4 Bacterial Vaccines 691

31.4 The Opportunities and Prospects of Synthetic Polysaccharide-Based Vaccine Technologies 692

References 694

32 Polysaccharides Derived From Natural Sources: A Panacea to Health and Nutritional Challenges 701
Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji, Muhammad Akram, Olugbenga Samuel Michael, Khuram Shahzad, Ayodele Eugene Ayeni, Sidra Hasan, Juliana Bunmi Adetunji, Syed Muhammad Hasan, Inamuddin, Mathew Olaniyan and Musa Abidemi Muhibi

32.1 Introduction 702

32.2 Different Types of Polysaccharides Derived From Different Natural Sources 703

32.2.1 Polysaccharides Derived From Plants and Their Applications 704

32.2.2 Animal Derived Polysaccharides and Their Applications 705

32.2.2.1 Chitosan and Chitin 705

32.2.2.2 Heparin and Heparin Sulfates 706

32.2.2.3 Hyaluronic Acid 707

32.2.3 Microorganisms Derived Polysaccharides and Their Applications 707

32.2.3.1 Alginate 707

32.2.3.2 Dextran 708

32.2.3.3 Fucoidans 708

32.2.3.4 Spirulina 708

32.2.4 Homoglycans 709

32.2.4.1 Starch and Hetastarch 709

32.2.4.2 Cellulose 709

32.2.4.3 Inulin 710

32.2.4.4 Chitin and Chitosan 710

32.2.4.5 Glycogen 712

32.2.4.6 Heteroglycans and Other Polysaccharides 712

32.2.4.7 Glycosaminoglycans Significance 715

32.2.4.8 Chondroitin Sulfates 715

32.2.4.9 Hyaluronic Acid 715

32.2.4.10 Alginic Acid 715

32.2.4.11 Mucopolysaccharidoses 717

32.3 Production, Extraction and Purification of Polysaccharides 718

32.3.1 Solid State Fermentation 719

32.3.2 Submerged Fermentation 719

32.3.3 Extraction and Purification Process of Polysaccharides 720

32.4 Specific Examples of Polysaccharides and Their Various Applications in Nutrition and Medicine 720

32.4.1 Schizophyllan 720

32.4.1.1 Antitumor Activity of Schizophyllan 721

32.4.1.2 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Schizophyllan 721

32.4.1.3 Immunomodulatory Activity of Schizophyllan 721

32.4.1.4 Prebiotic Potential of Schizophyllan 722

32.4.2 Pleuran and Others Polysaccharides From Pleurotus spp. 722

32.4.2.1 Specific Nutritional and Beneficial Functions of Pleurotus Polysaccharides 722

32.4.3 Scleroglucan 723

32.4.3.1 Applications for Nutritional and Medicinal Purposes Derived From Scleroglucan 723

32.4.4 Curdlan 724

32.4.5 Other Essential Polysaccharides With Medical Significance 725

32.5 Conclusion and Recommendation to Knowledge 725

References 725

Index 739
Inamuddin PhD is an assistant professor at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and is also an assistant professor in the Department of Applied Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has extensive research experience in multidisciplinary fields of analytical chemistry, materials chemistry, electrochemistry, renewable energy and environmental science. He has published about 150 research articles in various international scientific journals, 18 book chapters, and edited 60 books with multiple well-known publishers.

Mohd Imran Ahamed PhD is in the Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has published several research and review articles in SCI journals. His research focuses on ion-exchange chromatography, wastewater treatment and analysis, actuators and electrospinning.

Rajender Boddula PhD is currently working for the Chinese Academy of Sciences President's International Fellowship Initiative (CAS-PIFI) at the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing). His academic honors include multiple fellowships and scholarships, and he has published many scientific articles in international peer-reviewed journals, edited books with numerous publishers and has authored 20 book chapters.

Tariq Altalhi PhD is Head of the Department of Chemistry and Vice Dean of Science College at Taif University, Saudi Arabia. He received his PhD from the University of Adelaide, Australia in 2014. His research interests include developing advanced chemistry-based solutions for solid and liquid municipal waste management, converting plastic bags to carbon nanotubes, and fly ash to efficient adsorbent material.

Inamuddin, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; M. I. Ahamed, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; R. Boddula, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing)