John Wiley & Sons Membrane Technology and Applications Cover Membrane Technology and Applications Internationally acknowledged text on separation membrane techn.. Product #: 978-1-119-68598-2 Regular price: $114.02 $114.02 In Stock

Membrane Technology and Applications

Baker, Richard W.

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4. Edition December 2023
560 Pages, Hardcover
Practical Approach Book

ISBN: 978-1-119-68598-2
John Wiley & Sons

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Membrane Technology and Applications

Internationally acknowledged text on separation membrane technology, presenting current theory and practice, plus manufacturing and applications

The 4th Edition of Membrane Technology and Applications presents an authoritative, up-to-date overview of separation membranes, their theoretical underpinnings, manufacture, and use, beginning with a series of general chapters on membrane preparation, transport theory, and concentration polarization, then surveying the major areas of membrane application in separate chapters.

Written in a readily accessible style, each chapter offers a thorough treatment of its subject, from historical and theoretical backgrounds through to current and potential applications. Topics include reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, gas separation, pervaporation, electrodialysis, coupled and facilitated transport, and medical applications of membranes.

This new edition has been comprehensively updated, with substantial new material, figures, and references throughout to reflect the latest developments in the field. Major changes include:
* A new chapter on transport mechanisms in finely microporous membranes, with focus on gas transport
* A new chapter on membrane contactors
* A substantially expanded section on hyperfiltration applications, including pharmaceutical applications, in the reverse osmosis chapter
* Expanded treatment of membrane bioreactors, plus a new section on biotechnology applications, in the ultrafiltration chapter
* A new section in the gas separation chapter devoted to carbon dioxide capture from industrial process emissions, including power plant emissions
* Research areas that the author would work on if he were, once again, a 21-year-old graduate student.

Written by a leading expert with 50 years of experience, Membrane Technology and Applications provides balanced coverage of all aspects of the field, and is essential reading for all membrane enthusiasts, from neophyte graduate student to academic researcher to seasoned industry professional.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

1 Overview of Membrane Science and Technology 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Historical Development of Membranes 2

1.3 Membrane Transport Theory 4

1.4 Types of Membranes 6

1.4.1 Isotropic Membranes 8

1.4.2 Anisotropic Membranes 8

1.4.3 Membranes with Special Features 9

1.5 Membrane Processes 9

1.5.1 Reverse Osmosis, Ultrafiltration, Microfiltration 10

1.5.2 Electrodialysis 11

1.5.3 Gas Separation 12

1.5.4 Pervaporation 13

1.5.5 Hyperfiltration 14

1.5.6 Membrane Contactors 14

1.5.7 Carrier Transport 15

1.5.8 Medical Applications 16

References 17

2 Membrane Transport Theory - Solution-Diffusion 18

2.1 Introduction 18

2.2 The Solution-Diffusion Model 21

2.2.1 Molecular Dynamics Simulations 21

2.2.2 Concentration and Pressure Gradients in Membranes 25

2.2.3 Application of the Solution-Diffusion Model to Specific Processes 31

2.2.4 A Unified View 52

2.3 Structure-Permeability Relationships in Solution-Diffusion Membranes 56

2.3.1 Diffusion Coefficients 59

2.3.2 Sorption Coefficients in Polymers 68

2.4 Conclusions 74

References 75

3 Microporous Membranes - Characteristics and Transport Mechanisms 79

3.1 Introduction 80

3.2 Gas Separation in Microporous Membranes 81

3.2.1 Membrane Categories 81

3.2.2 Crystalline Finely Microporous Membranes 82

3.2.3 Amorphous Microporous Membranes 90

3.3 Gas Separation: Transport Mechanisms 95

3.3.1 Surface Adsorption and Diffusion 95

3.3.2 Knudsen Diffusion 98

3.3.3 Molecular Sieving 100

3.3.4 Pore Blocking 101

3.3.5 Summary 104

3.4 Liquid Permeation in Microporous Membranes 105

3.4.1 Screen Filters 105

3.4.2 Depth Filters 109

3.5 Conclusions and Future Directions 110

References 111

4 Membranes and Modules 115

4.1 Introduction 116

4.2 Isotropic Membranes 116

4.2.1 Isotropic Nonporous Membranes 116

4.2.2 Isotropic Microporous Membranes 118

4.3 Anisotropic Membranes 122

4.3.1 Phase Separation Membranes 123

4.3.2 Interfacial Polymerization Membranes 138

4.3.3 Solution-Coated Composite Membranes 143

4.3.4 Repairing Membrane Defects 147

4.4 Ceramic and Glass Membranes 149

4.4.1 Ceramic Membranes 149

4.4.2 Microporous Glass Membranes 152

4.5 Other Membranes 152

4.6 Hollow Fiber Membranes 153

4.7 Membrane Modules 156

4.7.1 Plate-and-Frame Modules 158

4.7.2 Tubular Modules 159

4.7.3 Spiral-Wound Modules 162

4.7.4 Hollow Fiber Modules 165

4.7.5 Other Module Types 167

4.8 Module Selection 168

4.9 Conclusions and Future Directions 170

References 171

5 Concentration Polarization 177

5.1 Introduction 177

5.2 Boundary Layer Film Model 180

5.2.1 Determination of the Peclet Number 187

5.3 Concentration Polarization in Liquid Separation Processes 189

5.4 Concentration Polarization in Gas Separation Processes 193

5.5 Concentration Polarization in Membrane Contactors and Related Processes 194

5.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 196

References 196

6 Reverse Osmosis (Hyperfiltration) 198

6.1 Introduction and History 199

6.2 Theoretical Background 201

6.3 Membrane Materials 204

6.3.1 Cellulosic Membranes 204

6.3.2 Noncellulosic Loeb-Sourirajan Membranes 206

6.3.3 Interfacial Composite Membranes 207

6.4 Membrane Performance 210

6.5 Reverse Osmosis Membrane Categories 211

6.5.1 Seawater Desalination Membranes 211

6.5.2 Brackish Water Desalination Membranes 213

6.5.3 Nanofiltration Membranes 213

6.5.4 Organic Solvent Separating Membranes 215

6.6 Membrane Modules 218

6.7 Membrane Fouling and Control 219

6.7.1 Silt 220

6.7.2 Scale 220

6.7.3 Biofouling 223

6.7.4 Organic Fouling 223

6.7.5 Pretreatment 223

6.7.6 Membrane Cleaning 224

6.8 Applications 225

6.8.1 Seawater Desalination 226

6.8.2 Brackish Water Desalination 228

6.8.3 Industrial Applications 229

6.8.4 Organic Solvent Separations 232

6.8.5 Conclusions and Future Directions 236

References 238

7 Ultrafiltration 241

7.1 Introduction and History 242

7.2 Characterization of Ultrafiltration Membranes 244

7.3 Membrane Fouling 246

7.3.1 Constant Pressure and Constant Flux Operation 246

7.3.2 Concentration Polarization 251

7.3.3 Fouling Control 259

7.4 Membranes 260

7.5 Tangential-Flow Modules and Process Designs 261

7.5.1 Modules 262

7.5.2 Process Design 264

7.6 Applications 266

7.6.1 Industrial Applications 268

7.6.2 Municipal Water Treatment/Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs) 274

7.6.3 Biotechnology 280

7.7 Conclusions and Future Directions 282

References 284

8 Microfiltration 287

8.1 Introduction and History 287

8.2 Background 288

8.2.1 Types of Membrane 288

8.2.2 Membrane Characterization 291

8.2.3 Microfiltration Membranes and Modules 297

8.2.4 Process Design 300

8.3 Applications 301

8.3.1 Sterile Filtration of Pharmaceuticals 302

8.3.2 Microfiltration in the Electronics Industry 303

8.3.3 Sterilization of Wine and Beer 304

8.4 Conclusions and Future Directions 304

References 304

9 Gas Separation 305

9.1 Introduction and History 306

9.2 Dense Polymeric Membranes 308

9.2.1 Theoretical Background 308

9.2.2 Structural Features and Considerations 315

9.3 Microporous Membranes 317

9.4 Membrane Modules 319

9.5 Process Design 320

9.5.1 Pressure Ratio 321

9.5.2 Stage-Cut 325

9.5.3 Multistep and Multistage System Designs 327

9.5.4 Recycle Designs 329

9.6 Applications 330

9.6.1 Hydrogen Separation 330

9.6.2 Air Separation 333

9.6.3 Natural Gas Separations 338

9.6.4 Organic Vapor/Gas Separations 347

9.6.5 To-Be-Developed Applications 348

9.7 Conclusions and Future Directions 353

References 355

10 Pervaporation/Vapor Permeation 359

10.1 Introduction and History 359

10.2 Theoretical Background 362

10.3 Membrane Materials and Modules 370

10.3.1 Membrane Characterization 370

10.3.2 Membrane Materials 370

10.3.3 Membrane Modules 375

10.4 Process Design 377

10.4.1 Basic Principles 377

10.4.2 Hybrid Distillation/Membrane Processes 380

10.5 Applications 382

10.5.1 Bioethanol and Solvent Dehydration 383

10.5.2 VOC/Water Separations 384

10.5.3 Separation of Organic Mixtures 385

10.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 390

References 390

11 Ion Exchange Membrane Processes 394

11.1 Introduction and History 395

11.2 Theoretical Background 396

11.2.1 Transport Through Ion Exchange Membranes 397

11.3 Chemistry of Ion Exchange Membranes 400

11.3.1 Homogeneous Membranes 402

11.3.2 Heterogeneous Membranes 404

11.4 Electrodialysis 405

11.4.1 Concentration Polarization and Limiting Current Density 405

11.4.2 Current Efficiency and Power Consumption 410

11.4.3 System Design 411

11.5 Electrodialysis Applications 414

11.5.1 Water Desalination 414

11.5.2 Continuous Electrodeionization and Ultrapure Water 414

11.5.3 Salt Recovery from Seawater 416

11.5.4 Other Electrodialysis Applications 416

11.6 Fuel Cells 417

11.7 Chlor-Alkali Processes 421

11.8 Other Electrochemical Processes 423

11.8.1 Water Splitting Using Bipolar Membranes 423

11.8.2 Redox Flow Batteries 424

11.8.3 Reverse Electrodialysis 427

11.9 Conclusions and Future Directions 428

References 428

12 Carrier Facilitated Transport 431

12.1 Introduction 431

12.2 Facilitated Transport 435

12.2.1 Membrane and Process Development 435

12.2.2 Theory 437

12.2.3 Membranes 440

12.2.4 Applications 442

12.3 Coupled Transport 446

12.3.1 Membrane and Process Development 446

12.3.2 Theory 451

12.3.3 Coupled Transport Membrane Characteristics 454

12.3.4 Applications 459

12.4 Conclusions and Future Directions 459

References 460

13 Membrane Contactors 464

13.1 Introduction 464

13.2 Contactor Modules 466

13.3 Applications of Membrane Contactors 468

13.3.1 Liquid/Liquid Contactor Applications 469

13.3.2 Liquid/Gas and Gas/Liquid Contactors 478

13.3.3 Gas/Gas Membrane Contactors 482

13.4 Conclusions and Future Directions 486

References 486

14 Medical Applications of Membranes 490

14.1 Introduction 490

14.2 Hemodialysis 491

14.3 Plasma Fractionation 495

14.4 Blood Oxygenators 496

14.5 Controlled Drug Delivery 497

14.5.1 Membrane Diffusion-Controlled Systems 499

14.5.2 Monolithic Systems 502

14.5.3 Biodegradable Systems 502

14.5.4 Osmotic Systems 503

References 509

15 Other Membrane Processes 512

15.1 Introduction 512

15.2 Metal Membranes 512

15.3 Ion-Conducting Membranes 516

15.4 Charge Mosaic Membranes and Piezodialysis 520

References 523

Appendix 525

Index 536
Dr. Richard W. Baker received his doctorate in physical chemistry in 1966 from Imperial College, London. In 1982, following industrial appointments at Amicon and Alza, and the co-founding of Bend Research, Dr. Baker founded his second company, MTR, where he served as president for 25 years. In 2007, Dr. Baker stepped aside as MTR's president, but remains active as Chief Scientist and a member of the Board of Directors. He is heavily engaged in MTR's ongoing development and commercialization of membrane-based carbon capture.

R. W. Baker, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc.