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Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

Materials, Methods and Applications

Rajasekar, R. / Moganapriya, C. / Mohankumar, A. (Editor)

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1. Edition November 2021
400 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-75060-4
John Wiley & Sons

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MATERIALS FOR SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION

This book provides professionals and students with a resource on the basic principles and applications of solar energy materials and processes, as well as practicing engineers who want to understand how functional materials operate in solar energy conversion systems.

The demand for energy is increasing daily, and the development of sustainable power generation is a critical issue. In order to overcome the energy demand, power generation through solar energy is booming. Many research works have attempted to enhance the efficiency of collection and storage of solar energy and, as a result, numerous advanced functional materials have been developed for enhancing the performance of solar cells.

This book has compiled and broadly explores the latest developments of materials, methods, and applications of solar energy. The book is divided into 2 parts, in which the first part deals with solar cell fundamentals and emerging categories, and the latter part deals with materials, methods, and applications in order to fill the gap between existing technologies and practical requirements. The book presents detailed chapters including organic, inorganic, coating materials, and collectors. The use of modern computer simulation techniques, conversion and storage processes are effectively covered. Topics such as nanostructured solar cells, battery materials, etc. are included in this book as well.

Audience The book is aimed at researchers in materials science, chemistry, physics, electrical and mechanical engineering working in the fields of nanotechnology, photovoltaic device technology, and solar energy.

Preface xv

Part 1: Solar Cells - Fundamentals and Emerging Categories 1

1 Introduction to Solar Energy Conversion 3
Manivannan Rajendran, Moganapriya Chinnasamy, Suresh Muthusamy and Manikandan Kumaran Nair

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Forms of Energy 5

1.3 Solar Radiation 6

1.4 Heat Transfer Principles 7

1.4.1 Conduction 7

1.4.2 Convection 7

1.4.3 Radiation 7

1.5 Basic Laws of Radiation 8

1.5.1 Stefan-Boltzmann Law 8

1.5.2 Planck's Law 9

1.5.3 Wien's Displacement Law 9

1.6 Solar Energy Conversion 9

1.6.1 Sources of Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy 10

1.6.2 Differentiate Between Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources 10

1.7 Photo-Thermal Conversion System 11

1.7.1 Flat Plate Collector 11

1.7.2 Evacuated Solar Collector 15

1.8 Thermal Applications 15

1.8.1 Solar Water Heating Systems 17

1.8.2 Steam Generation 20

1.9 Solar Drying 21

1.9.1 Natural Circulation Methods 23

1.9.2 Forced Circulation Systems 25

1.10 Photovoltaic Conversion 25

1.10.1 Photovoltaic Effect 26

1.10.2 Applications 27

1.11 Photovoltaic Thermal Systems 27

1.12 Conclusion 28

References 28

2 Development of Solar Cells 33
Mohan Kumar Anand Raj, Rajasekar Rathanasamy and Moganapriya Chinnasamy

Abbreviations 33

2.1 Introduction 34

2.2 First-Generation PV Cells 34

2.2.1 Single-Crystalline PV Cells 35

2.3 Second-Generation Solar PV Technology 36

2.3.1 Amorphous Silicon PV Cell 36

2.3.2 Cadmium Telluride PV Cell 37

2.3.3 Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide PV Cells 38

2.4 Third-Generation PV Cells 38

2.4.1 Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide PV Cell 40

2.4.2 Dye Sensitized PV Ccell 40

2.4.3 Organic PV Cell 42

2.4.4 Perovskite PV Solar Cells 43

2.4.5 Polymer Photovoltaic Cell 43

2.4.6 Quantum Dot Photovoltaic Cell 43

2.5 Conclusion 44

References 45

3 Recycling of Solar Panels 47
Sathish Kumar Palaniappan, Moganapriya Chinnasamy, Rajasekar Rathanasamy and Samir Kumar Pal

Abbreviations 48

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 PV and Recycling Development Worldwide 52

3.2.1 Causes of Inability in Solar PV Panel 54

3.3 Current Recycling and Recovery Techniques 55

3.3.1 Methods for Recycling 55

3.3.2 Physical Separation 55

3.3.3 Thermal and Chemical-Based Treatment 56

3.4 Strategies for Recycling Processes 63

3.5 Approaches for Recycling of Solar Panel 65

3.5.1 Component Repair 66

3.5.2 Module Separation 66

3.5.3 Decomposition of Silicon and Precious Industrial Minerals From Modules 68

3.6 Global Surveys in PV Recycling Technology 71

3.7 Ecological and Economic Impacts 76

3.7.1 Evolutionary Factors 77

3.7.2 Socio-Economic Concerns 77

3.8 Conclusion 78

References 79

4 Multi-Junction Solar Cells 87
Mohanraj Thangamuthu, Tamilvanan Ayyasamy and Santhosh Sivaraj

Abbreviation 87

4.1 Introduction 88

4.1.1 Theory of Multi-Junction Cells 89

4.2 Key Issues for Realizing the Efficiency of MJCs 91

4.2.1 Preference of Top Layer Materials and Enhancing the Quality 91

4.2.2 Low-Loss Tunneling Junction for Intercell Connection and Preventing Impurity Diffusion From Tunneling Junction 92

4.2.3 Lattice-Matching Between Cell Materials and Substrates 92

4.2.4 Effectiveness of Wide-Bandgap Back Surface Field (BSF) Layer 92

4.3 Structure of Multi-Junction Cell 93

4.3.1 Multi-Junction Cell With BSF Layer 96

4.3.2 Optimization of BSF Layers 98

4.4 Novel Materials for Multi-Junction Cells 98

4.5 Applications 100

4.6 Conclusions 102

References 102

5 Perovskite Solar Cells 107
Santhosh Sivaraj, Rajasekar Rathanasamy, Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan and Mugilan Thanigachalam

5.1 Introduction 108

5.2 Structure and Working 112

5.3 Fabrication of Simple Perovskite Solar Cell 115

5.4 Fabrication Methods 117

5.4.1 Spin Coating 122

5.4.2 Blade Coating 122

5.4.3 Slot-Die Coating 122

5.4.4 Inkjet Printing 123

5.4.5 Screen Printing 123

5.4.6 Electrodeposition 123

5.4.7 Vapor-Phase Deposition 123

5.5 Stability of Perovskite Solar Cell 124

5.6 Losses in Solar Cells 124

5.7 Conclusion 126

References 127

6 Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 133
Viswapriya Shanmugam, Rajasekar Rathanasamy, Saratha Raman and Abbas Ganesan

Abbreviations 134

6.1 Introduction 134

6.2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) 135

6.2.1 The Structure and Operation Principle 136

6.2.2 Performance Parameters of DSSCs 137

6.2.2.1 Open Circuit Voltage 138

6.2.2.2 Short Circuit Current 138

6.2.2.3 Fill Factor 138

6.2.2.4 Efficiency 138

6.3 Dye (Photosensitizer) 138

6.3.1 Natural Dyes 139

6.3.2 Plant Pigments 146

6.3.2.1 Anthocyanin 146

6.3.2.2 Chlorophylls 147

6.3.2.3 Betalain 147

6.3.2.4 Carotenoids 147

6.3.3 Photoconversion Efficiency of Natural Dyes Employed as Dye Sensitizers--Notable Studies 148

6.4 Conclusion 162

References 162

Part 2: Materials, Methods and Applications 169

7 Organic Materials and Their Processing Techniques 171
Raja Gunasekaran, Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan, Saravanakumar Jaganathan and Harikrishnakumar Mohan Kumar

7.1 Introduction 172

7.2 Organic Materials 173

7.2.1 Organic Solar Cell 174

7.2.2 Challenges in Organic Solar Cells 174

7.2.3 Focus Area to Overcome the Challenges 174

7.2.4 Operation of Organic Solar Cells 174

7.2.5 Organic Solar Cell Device Architecture 176

7.2.5.1 Single Active-Layer Device 176

7.2.5.2 Double Active-Layer Device 176

7.2.5.3 Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cell 177

7.3 Electrical Characteristics of OPVs 178

7.3.1 Open-Circuit Voltage 178

7.3.2 Short-Circuit Current 179

7.3.3 Maximum Power Point 179

7.3.4 Fill Factor 179

7.3.5 Power Conversion Efficiency 179

7.3.6 Quantum Efficiency 180

7.4 Potential Materials for OPV Applications 180

7.4.1 Electron-Donor Materials 180

7.4.2 Electron-Acceptor Materials 183

7.5 Conclusion 184

References 185

8 Inorganic Materials and Their Processing Techniques 189
Manivasakan Palanisamy, Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan and Harikrishnakumar Mohan Kumar

8.1 Introduction 190

8.2 Functional Inorganic Materials 191

8.3 Comprehensive Processing Strategy 192

8.4 Solid-Phase Processing 194

8.4.1 Ceramic Method 194

8.4.2 Microwave Technique 195

8.4.3 Combustion Synthesis 196

8.4.4 Mechanochemical Synthesis 197

8.4.5 Carbothermal Reduction 198

8.4.6 Friction Consolidation 199

8.4.7 3D Printing Technique 200

8.4.8 Nanolithography Technique 201

8.5 Solution-Phase Processing 202

8.5.1 Sol-Gel Process 202

8.5.2 Hydrothermal and Solvothermal Process 203

8.5.3 Sonochemical Synthesis 204

8.5.4 Surface Coating Technique 206

8.5.5 Spray Pyrolysis Technique 207

8.5.6 Electroplating and Electrodeposition Process 208

8.5.7 Liquid Printing Technique 209

8.5.8 Liquid-Phase Laser Ablation Technique 210

8.5.9 Electrospinning and Electrospraying Technique 212

8.6 Gas-Phase Processing 213

8.6.1 Physical Vapor Deposition Technique 213

8.6.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique 215

8.6.3 Inert Gas Condensation Technique 216

8.6.4 Molecular Beam Epitaxy Technique 218

8.6.5 Gas-Phase Flame Spray Pyrolysis 219

8.7 Challenges in Nanomaterial Production and Processing 221

8.8 Conclusion and Perspectives 222

References 222

9 2D Materials for Solar Cell Applications 227
Shrabani De, Sourav Acharya, Sumanta Sahoo, Ashok Kumar Das and Ganesh Chandra Nayak

9.1 Introduction 228

9.2 Fundamental Principles of Solar Cell 231

9.3 Fabrication Methods for the Generation of Solar Cell 234

9.3.1 Spin Coating 234

9.3.2 Spray Coating 237

9.3.3 Doctor Blading 238

9.3.4 Slot-Die Coating 238

9.3.5 Vacuum Deposition/Chemical Vapor Deposition 240

9.3.6 Screen Printing 241

9.4 Introduction to 2D Materials 242

9.4.1 Graphene 242

9.4.2 Boron Nitride 244

9.4.3 Molybdenum Disulfide 244

9.4.4 MXenes 245

9.4.5 Other 2D Materials 246

9.5 Solar Cell Application of 2D Materials 246

9.5.1 2D Materials for Organic Solar Cells 246

9.5.2 2D Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells 249

9.5.3 2D Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) 251

9.5.4 2D Materials for Other Solar Cell 255

9.6 Conclusions 256

References 257

10 Nanostructured Materials and Their Processing Techniques 269
Tamilvanan Ayyasamy, Abubakkar Abdul Jaffar, Selvakumar Pandiyaraj, Mohanraj Thangamuthu and Thangavel Palaniappan

10.1 Introduction 269

10.2 The Need for Solar Energy 270

10.2.1 Solar Photovoltaic Cell 271

10.2.2 Solar Thermal Heating 272

10.3 Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 273

10.4 Nanotechnology in Solar Energy 273

10.4.1 Nanomaterials 274

10.4.2 Properties of Nanomaterials 275

10.4.3 Nanofluids 275

10.5 The Outlook of Nanomaterials in the Performance of Solar Cells 276

10.6 Photovoltaic-Based Nanomaterials and Synthesis Techniques 277

10.6.1 Sol-Gel Method 278

10.6.2 Hydrothermal Method 280

10.6.3 Solvothermal Technique 281

10.6.4 Co-Precipitation Technique 283

10.6.5 Magnetron Sputtering 284

10.6.6 Spin Coating 286

10.6.7 Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique 287

10.6.7.1 Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Method 289

10.6.7.2 Plasma-Enhanced Vapor Deposition Method 290

10.7 Nanofluids in Solar Collectors 290

10.8 Nanofluids in Solar Stills 292

10.9 Conclusion 293

References 293

11 Coating Materials, Methods, and Techniques 299
Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan, Raja Gunasekaran, Manju Sri Anbupalani and Sathish Kumar Palaniappan

11.1 Introduction 300

11.2 Thin Film Deposition Techniques 301

11.2.1 Advantages of Thin Films 301

11.3 Anti-Reflection Thin Films 302

11.4 Methods of Thin Film Growth 303

11.4.1 Physical Vapor Deposition 304

11.4.2 Thermal Evaporation Process 304

11.4.3 Pulsed Laser Deposition 304

11.4.4 Sputter Deposition 304

11.4.5 Chemical Vapor Deposition 305

11.4.6 Plasma-Enhanced CVD Method 305

11.4.7 Electrochemical Deposition 305

11.4.8 Sol-Gel Thin Film Formation 306

11.5 Thin Film Characterization 308

11.5.1 X-ray Diffraction 308

11.5.2 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy 309

11.5.3 Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis 310

11.5.4 UV-Visible Spectroscopy 311

11.5.5 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope 312

11.5.6 High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope 314

11.5.7 Atomic Force Microscopy 314

11.5.8 Four-Probe Technique 317

11.6 Performance Analysis of ARC Coated Solar Cells 317

11.7 Conclusion 320

References 320

12 Anti-Reflection Coating 323
Ragavendran Asokan, Rajasekar Rathanasamy, Saravanakumar Jaganathan and Mohan Kumar Anand Raj

12.1 Introduction 324

12.2 Anti-Reflection Coating 326

12.2.1 Types of Anti-Reflection Coating 329

12.2.2 Textured Coating 330

12.2.3 Anti-Reflection Coating With Self-Cleaning 331

12.3 Perspectives on ARC Materials 331

12.3.1 Silicon-Based Material 332

12.3.2 TiO2-Based Material 332

12.3.3 Carbon-Based Material 333

12.3.4 Gallium-Based Material 333

12.3.5 Polymer-Based Material 333

12.3.6 Organic-Based Material 334

12.4 Techniques for Coating ARC 334

12.4.1 Sol-Gel Technique 334

12.4.1.1 Spin Coating Technique 334

12.4.1.2 Dip Coating Technique 335

12.4.1.3 Meniscus Coating Technique 336

12.4.2 Physical Vapor Deposition 337

12.4.2.1 Thermal Evaporation Technique 337

12.4.2.2 Electron Beam Technique 338

12.4.3 RF and DC Magnetron Sputtering Technique 338

12.4.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition 339

12.4.5 Electrospinning Technique 339

12.4.6 Spray Pyrolysis Technique 341

12.4.7 Lithography 341

12.4.8 Comparison of Coating Techniques 342

12.5 Literature Studies: Impact of ARC on Performance of Solar Cell 343

12.6 Conclusion 345

References 346

13 Thermal Energy Storage and Its Applications 353
Veerakumar Chinnasamy, Sathish Kumar Palaniappan, Mohan Kumar Anand Raj, Manivannan Rajendran and Honghyun Cho

13.1 Introduction 354

13.2 Types of ES 354

13.2.1 Mechanical ES 354

13.2.1.1 Flywheel Storage 355

13.2.1.2 Pumped Water Storage 355

13.2.1.3 Compressed Air Storage 355

13.2.2 Electrochemical ES 355

13.2.3 Thermal Energy Storage 356

13.2.4 Advantages of TES 356

13.3 Methods of TES 357

13.3.1 Sensible Heat Storage 357

13.3.1.1 Properties of SHS Materials 357

13.3.2 Latent Heat Storage 358

13.3.2.1 Properties of LHS Materials or PCMs 359

13.3.2.2 Classification of PCMs 359

13.3.3 Thermochemical ES 362

13.4 Applications of TES 362

13.4.1 SHS Applications 362

13.4.1.1 Solar Pond 362

13.4.1.2 Solar Water Heating 363

13.4.1.3 Packed Rock Bed Storage 363

13.4.2 Latent Heat Storage Applications 365

13.4.2.1 Encapsulation of PCM 365

13.4.2.2 Solar Water Heater With LHS 367

13.4.2.3 TES for Building Application 367

13.4.2.4 Numerical Studies on TES 370

13.5 Conclusion 374

References 375

Index 379
R. Rajasekar PhD, Professor and Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College (an Autonomous Institution under Anna University), Tamilnadu, India. He obtained his PhD from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, and specializes in materials science and engineering, renewable energy, surface coating on solar cells, and tribological performance of carbide inserts. He has published more than 100 research articles in reputed international journals, as well as more than 30 book chapters.

C. Moganapriya PhD, is an associate professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College (An Autonomous Institution under Anna University), Tamilnadu, India. She completed her PhD in 2019, and her current research area includes surface engineering of solar cells for performance enhancement of power conversion efficiency and tribological performance of cutting tool insert by adopting several hard coating materials. She has published 13 research articles and 15 book chapters with international publishers.

A. Mohan Kumar PhD, is an associate professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College (An Autonomous Institution under Anna University), Tamil Nadu. He completed his postgraduate degree at Government College of Engineering, Salem. His research areas are the characterization of reinforced composite materials, composite machining polymer coatings, and nanocomposite coatings. He has published 13 research articles and book chapters.

R. Rajasekar, Kongu Engineering College (An Autonomous Institution under Anna University), Tamilnadu, India; C. Moganapriya, Kongu Engineering College (An Autonomous Institution under Anna University), Tamilnadu, India; A. Mohankumar, Kongu Engineering College (An Autonomous Institution under Anna University), Tamilnadu, India