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Digital Forensics and Internet of Things

Impact and Challenges

Gehlot, Anita / Singh, Rajesh / Singh, Jaskaran / Sharma, Neeta Raj (Editor)

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1. Edition April 2022
288 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-76878-4
John Wiley & Sons

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DIGITAL FORENSICS AND INTERNET OF THINGS

It pays to be ahead of the criminal, and this book helps organizations and people to create a path to achieve this goal.

The book discusses applications and challenges professionals encounter in the burgeoning field of IoT forensics. IoT forensics attempts to align its workflow to that of any forensics practice--investigators identify, interpret, preserve, analyze and present any relevant data. As with any investigation, a timeline is constructed, and, with the aid of smart devices providing data, investigators might be able to capture much more specific data points than in a traditional crime. However, collecting this data can often be a challenge, as it frequently doesn't live on the device itself, but rather in the provider's cloud platform. If you can get the data off the device, you'll have to employ one of a variety of methods given the diverse nature of IoT devices hardware, software, and firmware. So, while robust and insightful data is available, acquiring it is no small undertaking.

Digital Forensics and Internet of Things encompasses:
* State-of-the-art research and standards concerning IoT forensics and traditional digital forensics
* Compares and contrasts IoT forensic techniques with those of traditional digital forensics standards
* Identifies the driving factors of the slow maturation of IoT forensic standards and possible solutions
* Applies recommended standards gathered from IoT forensic literature in hands-on experiments to test their effectiveness across multiple IoT devices
* Provides educated recommendations on developing and establishing IoT forensic standards, research, and areas that merit further study.

Audience

Researchers and scientists in forensic sciences, computer sciences, electronics engineering, embedded systems, information technology.

Preface xiii

1 Face Recognition-Based Surveillance System: A New Paradigm for Criminal Profiling 1

Payal Singh, Sneha Gupta, Vipul Gupta, Piyush Kuchhal and Arpit Jain

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Image Processing 6

1.3 Deep Learning 7

1.3.1 Neural Network 9

1.3.2 Application of Neural Network in Face Recognition 10

1.4 Methodology 10

1.4.1 Face Recognition 10

1.4.2 Open CV 11

1.4.3 Block Diagram 11

1.4.4 Essentials Needed 12

1.4.5 Website 12

1.4.6 Hardware 12

1.4.7 Procedure 12

1.5 Conclusion 16

References 17

2 Smart Healthcare Monitoring System: An IoT-Based Approach 19

Paranjeet Kaur

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Healthcare at Clinics 21

2.3 Remote Healthcare 21

2.4 Technological Framework 21

2.5 Standard UIs, Shows, and User Requirements 23

2.5.1 Advantages 23

2.5.2 Application 23

2.6 Cloud-Based Health Monitoring Using IoT 24

2.7 Information Acquisition 24

2.8 The Processing of Cloud 25

2.9 IoT-Based Health Monitoring Using Raspberry Pi 25

2.10 IoT-Based Health Monitoring Using RFID 26

2.10.1 Sensor Layer 27

2.10.2 Network Layer 28

2.10.3 Service Layer 28

2.11 Arduino and IoT-Based Health Monitoring System 28

2.12 IoT-Based Health Monitoring System Using ECG Signal 29

2.12.1 System Model 30

2.12.2 Framework 30

2.13 IoT-Based Health Monitoring System Using Android App 31

2.13.1 Transferring the Information to the Cloud 33

2.13.2 Application Controls 33

2.14 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 33

References 34

3 Design of Gesture-Based Hand Gloves Using Arduino UNO: A Grace to Abled Mankind 37

Harpreet Singh Bedi, Dekkapati Vinit Raju, Nandyala Meghanath Reddy C. Partha Sai Kumar

and Mandla Ravi Varma

3.1 Introduction 38

3.1.1 Block Diagram 38

3.1.2 The Proposed New Design 39

3.1.3 Circuit Diagram 40

3.2 Result and Discussion 40

3.2.1 Data Analysis 41

3.3 Conclusion 41

3.4 Future Scope 42

References 42

4 Playing With Genes: A Pragmatic Approach in Genetic Engineering 45

Prerna Singh and Dolly Sharma

4.1 Introduction 46

4.2 Literature Review 47

4.3 Methodology 48

4.3.1 Plasmid Method 48

4.3.2 The Vector Method 49

4.3.3 The Biolistic Method 49

4.4 Food and Agriculture 50

4.5 Impact on Farmers 53

4.6 Diseases: Gene Editing and Curing 54

4.7 Conclusion 56

4.8 Future Scope 56

References 57

5 Digital Investigative Model in IoT: Forensic View 59

Suryapratap Ray and Tejasvi Bhatia

5.1 Introduction 59

5.1.1 Artificial Neural Network 60

5.2 Application of AI for Different Purposes in Forensic Science 61

5.2.1 Artificial Intelligence for Drug Toxicity and Safety 61

5.2.2 Crime Scene Reconstruction 62

5.2.3 Sequence or Pattern Recognition 62

5.2.4 Repositories Building 63

5.2.5 Establishment of Connection Among the Investigating Team 63

5.2.6 Artificial Intelligence and Expert System in Mass Spectrometry 63

5.2.7 AI in GPS Navigation 65

5.3 Future of AI 66

5.4 Challenges While Implementing AI 67

5.4.1 Unexplainability of AI 67

5.4.2 AI Anti-Forensics 67

5.4.3 Connection Interruption Between the Cyber Forensics and AI Communities 67

5.4.4 Data Analysis and Security 68

5.4.5 Creativity 68

5.5 Conclusion 68

References 69

6 Internet of Things Mobility Forensics 73

Shipra Rohatgi, Aman Sharma and Bhavya Sharma

6.1 Introduction 74

6.2 Smart Device and IoT 75

6.3 Relation of Internet of Things with Mobility Forensics 76

6.3.1 Cyber Attack on IoT Data 77

6.3.2 Data Recovery from IoT Devices 78

6.3.3 Scenario-Based Analysis of IoT Data as Evidence 79

6.4 Mobility Forensics IoT Investigation Model 80

6.5 Internet of Things Mobility Forensics: A Source of Information 82

6.6 Drawbacks in IoT Devices Data Extraction 82

6.7 Future Perspective of Internet of Things Mobility Forensics 84

6.8 Conclusion 84

References 85

7 A Generic Digital Scientific Examination System for Internet of Things 87

Shipra Rohatgi and Sakshi Shrivastava

7.1 Introduction 88

7.2 Internet of Things 89

7.3 IoT Architecture 91

7.4 Characteristics of IoT 92

7.5 IoT Security Challenges and Factors of Threat 94

7.5.1 Effects of IoT Security Breach 95

7.6 Role of Digital Forensics in Cybercrime Investigation for IoT 96

7.6.1 IoT in Digital Forensic 96

7.6.2 Digital Forensics Investigation Framework for IoT Devices 98

7.6.3 Road Map for Issues in IoT Forensics 99

7.7 IoT Security Steps 102

7.7.1 How to Access IoT Security 103

7.8 Conclusion 107

References 108

8 IoT Sensors: Security in Network Forensics 111

D. Karthika

8.1 Introduction 111

8.2 Cybersecurity Versus IoT Security and Cyber-Physical Systems 112

8.3 The IoT of the Future and the Need to Secure 114

8.3.1 The Future--Cognitive Systems and the IoT 114

8.4 Security Engineering for IoT Development 115

8.5 Building Security Into Design and Development 115

8.6 Security in Agile Developments 116

8.7 Focusing on the IoT Device in Operation 117

8.8 Cryptographic Fundamentals for IoT Security Engineering 118

8.8.1 Types and Uses of Cryptographic Primitives in the IoT 118

8.8.1.1 Encryption and Decryption 119

8.8.1.2 Symmetric Encryption 120

8.8.1.3 Asymmetric Encryption 121

8.8.1.4 Hashes 122

8.8.1.5 Digital Signatures 123

8.8.1.6 Symmetric (MACS) 123

8.8.1.7 Random Number Generation 124

8.8.1.8 Cipher Suites 125

8.9 Cloud Security for the IoT 125

8.9.1 Asset/Record Organization 126

8.9.2 Service Provisioning, Billing, and Entitlement Management 126

8.9.3 Real-Rime Monitoring 126

8.9.4 Sensor Coordination 127

8.9.5 Customer Intelligence and Marketing 127

8.9.6 Information Sharing 127

8.9.7 Message Transport/Broadcast 128

8.10 Conclusion 128

References 129

9 Xilinx FPGA and Xilinx IP Cores: A Boon to Curb Digital Crime 131

B. Khaleelu Rehman, G. Vallathan, Vetriveeran Rajamani and Salauddin Mohammad

9.1 Introduction 132

9.2 Literature Review 132

9.3 Proposed Work 132

9.4 Xilinx IP Core Square Root 136

9.5 RTL View of the 8-Bit Multiplier 140

9.5.1 Eight-Bit Multiplier Simulation Results Using IP Core 144

9.6 RTL View of 8-Bit Down Counter 145

9.6.1 Eight-Bit Down Counter Simulation Results 145

9.7 Up/Down Counter Simulation Results 149

9.8 Square Root Simulation Results 150

9.9 Hardware Device Utilization Reports of Binary

Down Counter 154

9.10 Comparison of Proposed and Existing Work for Binary Up/Down Counter 156

9.10.1 Power Analysis of Binary Up/Down Counter 159

9.11 Conclusion 160

References 160

10 Human-Robot Interaction: An Artificial Cognition-Based Study for Criminal Investigations 163

Deepansha Adlakha and Dolly Sharma

10.1 Introduction 164

10.1.1 Historical Background 165

10.2 Methodology 167

10.2.1 Deliberative Architecture and Knowledge Model 167

10.2.1.1 Natural Mind 168

10.2.1.2 Prerequisites for Developing the Mind of the Social Robots 169

10.2.1.3 Robot Control Paradigms 169

10.3 Architecture Models for Robots 170

10.4 Cognitive Architecture 171

10.4.1 Taxonomy of Cognitive Architectures 172

10.4.1.1 Symbolic Architectures 172

10.4.1.2 The Emergent or the Connectionist Architecture 173

10.4.1.3 The Hybrid Architecture 173

10.4.2 Cognitive Skills 173

10.4.2.1 Emotions 173

10.4.2.2 Dialogue for Socially Interactive Communication 175

10.4.2.3 Memory in Social Robots 178

10.4.2.4 Learning 180

10.4.2.5 Perception 181

10.5 Challenges in the Existing Social Robots and the Future Scopes 187

10.5.1 Sensors Technology 187

10.5.2 Understanding and Learning from the Operator 187

10.5.3 Architectural Design 188

10.5.4 Testing Phase 189

10.5.5 Credible, Legitimate, and Social Aspects 189

10.5.6 Automation in Digital Forensics 190

10.6 Conclusion 190

10.7 Robots in Future Pandemics 194

References 194

11 VANET: An IoT Forensic-Based Model for Maintaining Chain of Custody 199

Manoj Sindhwani, Charanjeet Singh and Rajeshwar Singh

11.1 Introduction 200

11.2 Cluster Performance Parameters 201

11.3 Routing Protocols in VANET 202

11.3.1 Performance Metrics 202

11.3.2 Proposed Cluster Head Selection Algorithm 203

11.4 Internet of Vehicles 205

11.5 IoT Forensic in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks 206

11.6 Conclusion 207

References 207

12 Cognitive Radio Networks: A Merit for Teleforensics 211

Yogita Thareja, Kamal Kumar Sharma and Parulpreet Singh

12.1 Introduction 212

12.1.1 Integration of WSN with Psychological Radio 213

12.1.2 Characteristics of Cognitive Radio 214

12.2 Contribution of Work 216

12.2.1 Push-to-Talk 218

12.2.2 Digital Forensic-Radio Communication Equipment 219

12.2.3 Energy Harvesting Network 220

12.2.4 Challenges with the Use of Clusters in Cognitive Radio Networks 220

12.3 Conclusion and Future Scope 221

Acknowledgement 221

References 222

13 Fingerprint Image Identification System: An Asset for Security of Bank Lockers 227

Mahendra, Apoorva, Shyam, Pavan and Harpreet Bedi

13.1 Introduction 227

13.1.1 Design Analysis 230

13.2 Result and Discussion 231

13.3 Conclusion 232

13.4 Future Scope 234

References 235

14 IoT Forensics: Interconnection and Sensing Frameworks 237

Nidhi Sagarwal

14.1 Introduction 237

14.2 The Need for IoT Forensics 240

14.3 Various Types of Evidences Encountered 242

14.4 Protocols and Frameworks in IoT Forensics 242

14.5 IoT Forensics Process Model 243

14.6 Suggestive Solutions 248

14.7 Conclusion 249

References 249

15 IoT Forensics: A Pernicious Repercussions 255

Gift Chimkonda Chichele

15.1 Introduction: Challenges in IoT Forensics 255

15.2 Scope of the Compromise and Crime Scene Reconstruction 256

15.3 Device and Data Proliferation 256

15.4 Multiple Data Location and Jurisdiction Challenges 256

15.5 Device Type 257

15.6 Lack of Training and Weak Knowledge Management 257

15.7 Data Encryption 258

15.8 Heterogeneous Software and/or Hardware Specifications 258

15.9 Privacy and Ethical Considerations by Accessing Personal Data 258

15.10 Lack of a Common Forensic Model in IoT Devices 259

15.11 Securing the Chain of Custody 259

15.12 Lifespan Limitation 259

15.13 The Cloud Forensic Problem 259

15.14 The Minimum or Maximum Period in Which Data is Stored in the Cloud 260

15.15 Evidence Analysis and Correlation 260

15.16 Conclusion 260

References 262

About the Editors 263

Index 265
Anita Gehlot, PhD is an associate professor at Lovely Professional University with more than 12 years of experience in academics. She has published more than 70 research papers in refereed journals/conferences and 28 books in the area of Embedded Systems and Internet of Things.

Rajesh Singh, PhD is a professor at Lovely Professional University with more than 16 years of experience in academics. He has published more than 100 research papers in refereed journals/conferences.

Jaskaran Singh, PhD in Forensic Sciences from Amity University Noida, serves as the Head of Department of Forensic Sciences at Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India. He has more than 14 research publications, 13 patents, 3 copyrights, and one edited book to his credit.

Neeta Raj Sharma, PhD in Biochemistry from Jiwaji University, Gwalior. She is visiting professor at Birmingham City University, UK, and working in association with University of British Columbia, McGill University, Laval University, and University of Victoria in Canada. She has published more than 55 publications, 20 patents, 4 copyrights, and 2 edited books.

A. Gehlot, Uttaranchal University, India; R. Singh, Uttaranchal University, India; J. Singh, Sharda University, India; N. R. Sharma, Lovely Professional University, India