John Wiley & Sons Polymers and Additives in Extreme Environments Cover The book includes chapters on aqueous environments including polymeric membranes for water purificat.. Product #: 978-1-119-85137-0 Regular price: $195.33 $195.33 In Stock

Polymers and Additives in Extreme Environments

Application, Properties, and Fabrication

Fink, Johannes Karl

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1. Edition September 2021
528 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-85137-0
John Wiley & Sons

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The book includes chapters on aqueous environments including polymeric membranes for water purification and wastewater treatment; extreme pressure environments such as oils and lubricants for combustion engines as well as materials used for deep drilling such as surfactants, scale inhibitors, foaming agents, defoamers, proppants, fracturing fluids; extreme temperatures is subdivided in high and low temperature applications including gasketing materials, fuel tank sealants, expulsion bladders, fuel cell materials, and on the other hand, cold weather articles and thermoregulatory textiles; electrical applications include solar cell devices, triboelectric generators, fuel cell applications, electrochromic materials and batteries; medical applications include polymers for contact lenses, materials for tissue engineering, sophisticated drug delivery systems; aerospace applications include outer space applications such as low temperature and pressure, also cosmic rays, outgassing, and atomic erosion, as well as materials for electrostactic dissipative coatings and space suits; a final chapter detailing materials that are used in other extreme environments, such as adhesives, and polymeric concrete materials.

Preface xi

1 Materials for Extreme Environments 1

References 23

2 Aqueous Environments 29

2.1 Water Purification 29

2.1.1 Synthetic Membranes 29

2.1.2 Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment 31

2.1.3 Removal of Phenolic Compounds 36

2.2 Polymer Membranes 36

2.2.1 Functional Polymer Membranes 39

2.2.2 Membranes with Intrinsic Microporosity 41

2.2.3 Transport Mechanisms 44

2.2.4 Materials for Membranes 45

2.2.5 Robeson Plot 49

References 50

3 Extreme Pressure Environments 57

3.1 Engine Oils 57

3.1.1 Block Copolymer Nanoparticles 57

3.1.2 Heavy Duty Applications 59

3.1.3 Oil Degradation in a Combustion Engine 59

3.2 Extreme Pressure Lubricant Additives 60

3.2.1 Inorganic Polymers 63

3.3 Deep Drilling 66

3.3.1 Surfactants 67

3.3.2 Scale Inhibitors 68

3.3.3 Foaming Agents 69

3.3.4 Defoamers 69

3.3.5 Crosslinking Agents 70

3.3.6 Gel Stabilizers 72

3.3.7 Gel Breakers 72

3.3.8 Biocides 73

3.3.9 Proppants 73

3.3.10 Fracturing Fluids 73

3.3.11 Thickeners 74

3.3.12 Friction Reducers 74

3.3.13 Fluid Loss Additives 76

3.3.14 Emulsifiers 77

3.3.15 Demulsifiers 78

3.3.16 Clay Stabilization 78

3.3.17 pH Control Additives 79

3.4 Automotive Applications 80

3.4.1 Airbags 80

3.4.2 Silicone Rubber Sponge 103

References 107

4 Extreme Temperature 117

4.1 High-Temperature Environments 117

4.1.1 Solvent-Resistant Elastomers 117

4.1.2 Processable Silicone Composites 118

4.1.3 Polymer-Derived Ceramics 120

4.1.4 Membrane Fuel Cells 121

4.2 Low-Temperature Environments 124

4.2.1 Cold Weather Articles 124

4.2.2 Low-Temperature Thermal Insulation Garment 128

4.3 Thermoregulatory Textile 132

4.3.1 Integrated Garment System 134

References 135

5 Electrical Applications 137

5.1 Ionic Liquids 137

5.1.1 Monomers 138

5.1.2 Carbon Dioxide Separation 141

5.1.3 Polymeric Ionic Liquids 142

5.1.4 Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids 146

5.1.5 Computer Simulation 147

5.2 Solar Cell Devices 148

5.2.1 History of Photovoltaics 148

5.2.2 High-Performance Organic Photovoltaics 149

5.2.3 Naphthodithiophene 153

5.2.4 Stability 154

5.3 Triboelectric Nanogenerators 159

5.3.1 Triboelectric Polymers 161

5.3.2 Paper-Based Generator 164

5.3.3 Spherical Triboelectric Nanogenerator 165

5.4 Fuel Cell Applications 168

5.5 Conductive Nanocomposites 170

5.6 Electrochromic Materials 170

5.7 Batteries 171

5.7.1 Cathode Polymers 171

5.7.2 Polymeric Electrolytes 175

5.7.3 Polymer Interlayers 177

5.7.4 Polymer Separators 178

5.7.5 Protective Polymers 180

References 181

6 Medical Applications 197

6.1 Contact Lenses 197

6.1.1 History of Contact Lenses 197

6.1.2 Materials 198

6.1.3 Monomers 199

6.1.4 Soft Lenses 205

6.1.5 Functional Contact Lenses 238

6.1.6 Fabrication Methods 258

6.2 Tissue Engineering 272

6.2.1 Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering 275

6.2.2 Coating of an Implantable Device 275

6.3 Drug Delivery Systems 276

6.3.1 Pharmaceutical Cocrystals 277

6.3.2 Drug-Eluting Stents 278

6.3.3 Microchamber for Bacteria-Based Drug Delivery 278

6.3.4 Polymer Microspheres 279

6.3.5 Inhalable Particles 287

6.3.6 Microfabricated Drug Delivery Systems 287

6.3.7 Oral Drug Delivery 288

6.3.8 Nasal Delivery and Diagnostics 290

6.3.9 Transdermal Drug Delivery Devices 291

6.3.10 Drop-on-Demand System 296

6.3.11 Pulmonary Drug Delivery 297

6.3.12 Microchip Drug Delivery 298

6.3.13 Microchannels Drug Delivery 298

6.3.14 Printing Poorly Soluble Drugs 299

6.3.15 Fabrication of Personalized Doses 300

6.3.16 Pharmaceutical Bilayer Tablets 300

6.3.17 Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing 301

6.3.18 Three-Dimensional Printing 302

6.3.19 Bioabsorbable Stent with Prohealing Layer 303

6.3.20 Electrolytic Deposition 304

6.4 Polymeric Materials for Surface Modification 304

6.4.1 Porous Polymer Particles 311

6.5 Nanomaterials 312

6.5.1 Photosensitive Nanoparticles 314

6.5.2 Crosslinked Polymeric Nanoparticles 317

6.6 Other Fabrication Methods 320

6.6.1 Controlled Spreading 320

6.6.2 Thermal Inkjet Spray Freeze-Drying 321

6.6.3 Drug-Loaded Polymer Microparticles with Arbitrary Geometries 322

6.6.4 Microarray Technology 322

6.6.5 Biphasic Inks 322

6.6.6 Contact Lenses 329

6.6.7 Dip-Pen Nanolithography 333

6.6.8 Direct-Write Lithographic Printing of Peptides and Proteins 333

References 334

7 Drug Delivery 347

7.1 Biodegradable Polymers 347

7.2 Sustained Release Technology 347

7.2.1 Acacia 350

7.2.2 Carrageenan 353

7.2.3 Cellulose 354

7.2.4 Chitosan 355

7.2.5 Gellan Gum 355

7.2.6 Guar Gum 355

7.2.7 Hyaluronic Acid Derivatives 356

7.2.8 Khaya Gum 357

7.2.9 Locust Bean Gum 357

7.2.10 Pectin 358

7.2.11 Xanthan Gum 359

7.2.12 Electrospinning 359

7.2.13 Drug Release from Electrospun Fibers 360

7.3 Tissue Engineering 362

7.3.1 Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering 363

7.4 Tissue Markers 364

7.5 Hydrogels 366

7.6 Microporous Materials 367

7.7 Implants 370

7.7.1 Inflammatory Problems with Implants 370

7.7.2 Eye Implants 371

7.7.3 Thermosetting Implants 372

7.7.4 Neurotoxin Implants 380

7.7.5 Water-Soluble Glass Fibers 380

7.8 Shape-Memory Polymers 380

7.8.1 Shape-Memory Polyesters 382

7.9 Stents 383

7.9.1 Surface Erosion 384

7.9.2 Tubular Main Body 385

7.9.3 Multilayer Stents 386

7.10 Thermogelling Materials 386

7.11 Wound Dressings 387

7.12 Bioceramics 387

7.13 Conjugates 389

References 390

8 Aero and Space Applications 397

8.1 Technical Standards 397

8.2 Aerospace Applications 403

8.2.1 Components for Airplanes 403

8.2.2 Polymer Matrix Composites 405

8.2.3 Nanocomposites 405

8.2.4 Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymers 406

8.2.5 Sealants for Aerospace Fuel Tanks 411

8.2.6 Leak Detection 418

8.2.7 Antistatic Applications 418

8.2.8 Electroactive Polymers 419

8.2.9 Shape-Memory Polymers 419

8.3 Outer Space Applications 427

8.3.1 Disadvantages of Polymers 428

8.3.2 Solar Cells 430

8.3.3 Antenna Reflector 433

8.3.4 Polymeric Coating 434

8.3.5 Space Suits 439

8.3.6 Electrostactic Dissipative Coatings 440

References 444

9 Other Environments 455

9.1 Adhesives 455

9.1.1 Lignin 455

9.1.2 Mussel-Inspired Adhesives 456

9.1.3 Supramolecular Polymer Adhesives 457

9.2 Extreme pH 457

9.2.1 Hydrolytic Degradation 457

9.2.2 Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes 458

9.2.3 Pulp and Paper Production 460

9.2.4 Polymeric Micelles 462

9.2.5 pH-Stable Stationary Phases 463

9.3 Concrete 467

9.3.1 Metakaolin and Polymers 467

9.3.2 Polymer-Modified Mortar 469

9.3.3 Functionalized Poly(vinyl alcohol) 469

9.3.4 Polymer Concrete 470

9.3.5 Influence of Humidity 471

9.3.6 Polymer Emulsions and Fibers 473

9.3.7 Lightweight Cement 475

9.3.8 Recycling Control 476

References 477

Index 483

Acronyms 483

Chemicals 487

General Index 505
Johannes Karl Fink is Professor of Macromolecular Chemistry at Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria. His industry and academic career spans more than 30 years in the fields of polymers, and his research interests include characterization, flame retardancy, thermodynamics and the degradation of polymers, pyrolysis, and adhesives. Professor Fink has published many books on physical chemistry and polymer science including A Concise Introduction to Additives for Thermoplastic Polymers (Wiley-Scrivener 2009), The Chemistry of Biobased Polymers, 2nd edition (Wiley-Scrivener 2019), and 3D Industrial Printing with Polymers (Wiley-Scrivener 2019) and The Chemistry of Environmental Engineering (Wiley-Scrivener 2020).