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Remediation of Heavy Metals

Sustainable Technologies and Recent Advances

Selvasembian, Rangabhashiyam / Thokchom, Binota / Singh, Pardeep / Jawad, Ali H. / Gwenzi, Willis (Editor)

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1. Edition February 2024
320 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-85355-8
John Wiley & Sons

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Remediation of Heavy Metals

Meet the challenge of contaminated water with a range of sustainable tools

The treatment of water which has been polluted by heavy metals is an increasingly significant environmental challenge in an industrialized global economy. The ongoing revolution in green technologies, however, has seen a range of sustainable methods emerge for treating water, soils, and other parts of the environment polluted by trace metals. By putting these methods into practice, environmental researchers and industrial professionals can improve water quality, and public health globally.

Remediation of Heavy Metals offers a clear, accessible reference on these methods and their applications. It offers an overview of the major effects of heavy metal contamination and works through each of the methods or protocols available to remediate soil and minimize pollution at the source.

Remediation of Heavy Metals readers will also find:
* Comparison of different approaches for heavy metal removal
* Detailed discussion of physical, chemical, and biological remediation methods
* Case studies demonstrating proper remediation

Remediation of Heavy Metals provides key knowledge for environmental scientists, environmental toxicologists, and other researchers or industrial professionals working in heavy metal removal, as well as advanced graduate students in these areas.

Rangabhashiyam Selvasembian, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Sciences, SRM University-AP, Amaravati, India

Binota Thokchom, PhD, DST-Inspire faculty member at the Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India.

Pardeep Singh, PhD, Assistant Professor in the Department of Environmental Science, PGDAV College University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

Ali H. Jawad, PhD, Associate Professor in the Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia.

Willis Gwenzi, PhD, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bio-economy e.V. (ATB), Potsdam, Germany, and Universität Kassel, Witzenhausen, Germany.

List of Contributors xi

Editors' Biography xv

Preface xvii

1 Release, Detection, and Toxicology of Heavy Metals: A Review of the Main Techniques and Their Limitations in Environmental Remediation 1
Dison S. P. Franco, Jordana Georgin, and Chandrasekaran Ramprasad

1.1 Introduction to Heavy Metals: An Overview 1

1.2 Industrial Application of Different Metal Ions 5

1.3 Conclusion 5

References 8

2 Heavy Metals Contamination in Environment 15
Deeksha Aithani and Jyoti Kushawaha

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Heavy Metals in Water 17

2.3 Heavy Metals in Soil 19

2.4 Heavy Metals in Biota 23

2.5 Heavy Metals in Air 25

2.6 Conclusion 25

References 27

3 A Brief Study of the Effects of Heavy Metals and Metalloids on Food Crops 31
Ngangbam R. Devi

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Sources of Heavy Metals in Soils and Food Crops 32

3.3 Impacts on Soil-Plants/Food Crops 35

3.3.1 Metal Ions Transportation in Plants 36

3.4 Heavy Metals and Soil Microbes 37

3.5 Effect of Chromium (Cr) on Plants 38

3.6 Effect of Lead (Pb) on Plants 38

3.7 Effect of Arsenic (As) on Plants 38

3.8 Effect of Cadmium (Cd) on Plants 38

3.9 Effect of Mercury (Hg) on Plants 39

3.10 Effect of Nickel (Ni) on Plants 39

3.11 Future Perspectives 39

3.12 Conclusion 40

References 41

4 Impact of Heavy Metals on Human Health 47
Retwik Parui, Geetmani S. Nongthombam, Maimur Hossain, Laxmi R. Adil, Rajdikshit Gogoi, Soumalya Bhowmik, Debika Barman, and Parameswar K. Iyer

4.1 Introduction 47

4.2 Mercury 48

4.2.1 Source and Entry of Mercury Metal into Our Body 48

4.2.2 Biological Impact of Mercury Metal 49

4.2.2.1 Sulfhydryl Affinity 49

4.2.2.2 ROS Generation Ability 49

4.2.2.3 Nephrotoxicity 50

4.2.2.4 Neurotoxicity 51

4.2.2.5 Cardiotoxicity 51

4.2.3 Detection and Remedial Techniques for Mercury Metals 51

4.3 Arsenic 52

4.3.1 Source and Entry of Arsenic Metal into Our Body 52

4.3.2 Biological Impact of Arsenic Metal 52

4.3.3 Detection and Remedial Techniques for Arsenic Metals 53

4.4 Iron 54

4.4.1 Source and Entry of Iron Metal into Our Body 54

4.4.2 Biological Impact of Iron Metal 54

4.4.3 Detection and Remedial Techniques for Arsenic Metals 55

4.5 Manganese 55

4.5.1 Source and Entry of Manganese Metal into Our Body 55

4.5.2 Biological Impact of Manganese Metal 56

4.5.3 Detection and Remedial Techniques for Manganese Metals 57

4.6 Zinc 57

4.6.1 Source and Entry of Zinc Metal into Our Body 58

4.6.2 Biological Impact of Zinc Metal 58

4.6.3 Detection and Remedial Techniques for Zinc Metals 59

4.7 Lead 59

4.7.1 Sources and Exposure of Lead Metal 60

4.7.2 Health and Biological Impact of Lead 60

4.7.3 Detection and Control of Lead Exposure 61

4.8 Chromium 62

4.8.1 Sources and Exposure of Chromium 62

4.8.2 Health and Biological Impact of Chromium 63

4.8.3 Safety Limits and Control 63

4.9 Copper 64

4.9.1 Source and Entry of Copper Metal into Our Body 64

4.9.2 Utility and Biological Impact of Copper 65

4.9.3 Detection and Remedial Techniques of Copper 67

4.10 Cadmium 67

4.10.1 Source and Entry of Cadmium Metal into Our Body 67

4.10.2 Toxicology of Cadmium Poisoning 68

4.10.3 Detection and Remedial Techniques of Cadmium 69

4.11 Nickel 70

4.11.1 Source and Entry of Nickel Metal into Our Body 70

4.11.2 Toxicology of Nickel Poisoning 70

4.11.3 Remedial Techniques 72

4.12 Radioactive Heavy Metals 72

4.12.1 Source of Radioactive Heavy Metals 72

4.12.2 Utility and Biological Impact of Radioactive Metal on Health 73

4.12.3 Detection and Remedial Techniques 74

4.13 Conclusion 74

References 74

5 Different Approaches for Detecting Heavy Metal Ions 83
Ziaul Hasan, Arif Jamal, and Tauseef Hassan

5.1 Introduction 83

5.2 Detection 84

5.3 Methods of Detection 86

5.3.1 Spectroscopic Detection 86

5.3.1.1 Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 87

5.3.1.2 Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 88

5.3.1.3 Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry 89

5.3.1.4 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry 89

5.3.2 Electrochemical Methods of Detection 89

5.3.2.1 Potentiometry 91

5.3.2.2 Amperometry 92

5.3.2.3 Voltammetry 93

5.3.2.4 Galvanostatic Techniques 96

5.3.3 Optical Methods of Detection 98

5.3.3.1 Indicator Dye-Based Sensors 99

5.3.3.2 Ionophore-Based Sensors 99

5.3.3.3 Review on Optical Sensors 99

5.4 Conclusion 101

References 101

6 Remediation of Heavy Metals in Environmental Resources Using Physical Methods 109
C. Arun, A. Sethupathy, R.V. Hemavathy, and Chandrasekaran Ramprasad

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 Toxicity of HMs 113

6.3 Physical Methods for Remediation of HMs from Wastewater 113

6.4 Coagulation and Flocculation 114

6.5 Ion Exchange 114

6.6 Adsorption 115

6.7 Membrane Filtration 115

6.8 Conclusion 116

References 116

7 Chemical Approaches to Remediate Heavy Metals 123
Ayushi Singhal, Arpana Parihar, Vedika Khare, Gagan Kant Tripathi, and Raju Khan

7.1 Introduction 123

7.2 Sources of Heavy Metal 125

7.2.1 Natural Sources 125

7.2.1.1 Rocks 125

7.2.1.2 Soil 127

7.2.1.3 Water 127

7.2.2 Anthropogenic Sources 128

7.2.2.1 Agricultural Activities 128

7.2.2.2 Sewage Effluents 129

7.2.2.3 Bio-Solids 129

7.2.2.4 Industrial Activities 129

7.2.2.5 Mining 129

7.2.2.6 Coal and Petroleum Combustion 130

7.2.2.7 Indoor and Urban Environments 130

7.3 Chemical Remediation Technique for Heavy Metal Contamination in the Environment 130

7.3.1 Chemical Precipitation 131

7.3.1.1 Hydroxide Precipitation 131

7.3.2 Coagulation 132

7.3.3 Ion Exchange 134

7.3.4 Electrochemical Method 135

7.4 Current Challenges and Future Perspectives 138

7.5 Conclusions 140

Acknowledgments 141

References 141

8 Carbon-Based Absorption Materials for Heavy Metal Removal 149
Ching T. Moi and Ruhima Khan

8.1 Introduction 149

8.2 Sources of Heavy Metal in Water 150

8.2.1 Human Health and Heavy Metal Toxicity 150

8.2.2 Toxicity of Mercury 151

8.2.3 Toxicity of Lead 151

8.2.4 Toxicity of Arsenic 152

8.2.5 Toxicity of Chromium 152

8.2.6 Toxicity of Cadmium 153

8.3 Effects of Water Environmental Chemistry on Heavy Metal Removal 153

8.3.1 Temperature 153

8.3.2 pH Value 154

8.3.3 Ionic Strength and Coexisting Ions 154

8.4 Carbon-Based Nanomaterials 155

8.4.1 Graphene and Derivatives 156

8.4.2 Activated Carbon 156

8.4.3 Carbon Nanotubes 157

8.4.4 SWCNTs in the Purification of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Water 157

8.4.5 MWCNTs in the Purification of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Water 157

8.4.6 Fullerenes 158

8.5 Adsorption Mechanisms 159

8.5.1 Physical Adsorption 159

8.5.2 Electrostatic Interaction 159

8.5.3 Ion Exchange 160

8.5.4 Surface Complexation 160

8.5.5 Precipitation/Coprecipitation 160

8.6 Conclusion and Outlook 162

References 162

9 Industrial Waste-Derived Materials for Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Polluted Water 169
Rahul Sharma, Pinki R. Agrawal, Chankit, Chanchal, Ittishree, Vinod Kashyap, Ashok K. Sharma, and V. Alagesan

9.1 Introduction 169

9.2 Industrial Wastes: Origin, Amount, and Harmful Effects 171

9.3 Sources of Heavy Metal Contamination in Water Sources 175

9.3.1 Natural Sources 175

9.3.2 Anthropogenic Sources 176

9.3.2.1 Environmental and Health Hazards of Heavy Metal Contamination 176

9.3.2.2 Regulatory Legislations and Permissible Limits of Heavy Metals in Water 181

9.3.2.3 Remediation Technologies for Water Pollution 182

9.4 Sequestration of Heavy Metals Using Industrial Waste-Derived Adsorbents 185

9.5 Conclusion 188

References 189

10 Biological Remediation of Heavy Metals from Acid Mine Drainage--Recent Advancements 199
Suparna Datta, Keisham Radhapyari, Snigdha Dutta, Rinkumoni Barman, and Anadi Gayen

10.1 Introduction 199

10.2 Acid Mine Drainage 200

10.2.1 Overview of Acid Mine Drainage 200

10.2.2 Environmental Effects of Acid Mine Drainage 201

10.2.3 Remediation Options/Technologies 202

10.3 Role of Microorganisms in the Formation and Remediation of AMD 202

10.3.1 Role of Microorganisms in the Formation of Acid Mine Drainage 202

10.3.2 Role of Microorganisms in the Remediation of AMD 204

10.4 Bioremediation of Heavy Metals in AMD 206

10.4.1 Arsenic 206

10.4.1.1 Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Arsenic Removal 206

10.4.1.2 Improved Technology for As Removal by SRB 208

10.4.1.3 Novel Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria for Arsenic Removal 208

10.4.1.4 Passive Bioremediation for Arsenic (A Field-Pilot) 212

10.4.1.5 Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor 214

10.4.1.6 Continuous Flow Bioreactor for Arsenic Removal 222

10.4.2 Copper 222

10.4.2.1 Preventive Methods Relying on Inhibition of Oxidation of Sulfide Minerals 224

10.4.2.2 Bioremediation of Cu Relying on Sulfate Reduction 224

10.4.2.3 Bioremediation of Cu Relying on Selective Metal Recovery 227

10.4.2.4 Bioremediation of Cu by Using Microalgae and Fungi 227

10.4.3 Zinc, Cadmium, and Lead 229

10.4.3.1 Bioremediation of Zinc with Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium 229

10.4.3.2 Compost-Based Bioremediation of Zinc and Lead 229

10.4.3.3 Cadmium Bioremediation by Bacterially Assembled Bio Polyester Nanobeads 229

10.4.4 Bioremediation of Manganese and Iron 230

10.4.4.1 Application of Iron- and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria (FMOB) 232

10.4.4.2 Compost and Waste Biomaterials 232

10.4.4.3 Application of SRB and Yeast in Bioremediation of AMD 232

10.5 Bottlenecks and Future Prospects 234

10.6 Conclusions 234

Abbreviations 235

References 235

11 Phytoremediation and Microbe-Assisted Removal of Heavy Metals 247
Sathya Albert Manoharan and Priya Dharshini Veeraragavan

11.1 Introduction 247

11.2 Popular Floral Profiles in Phytoremediation 249

11.2.1 Heavy Metal Defense Mechanisms in Plants 249

11.2.1.1 Avoidance 249

11.2.1.2 Tolerance 251

11.2.2 Major Phytoremediation Pipelines by Plants 251

11.2.3 Sequential Process of Phytoimmobilization 252

11.2.4 Phytostabilization 253

11.2.5 Phytoextraction 253

11.2.6 Phytovolatilization 254

11.2.7 Rhizo/Phytofiltration 254

11.3 Assistance of Microorganisms in Phytoremediation 255

11.4 Microbial and Plant Symbiosis in Phytoremediation 256

11.5 Phyto-Microbe Contributory Roles 259

11.6 Conclusion 260

References 261

12 Recycling and Disposal of Spent Metal(loid)-Laden Adsorbents: Current and Emerging Technologies, and Future Directions 275
Willis Gwenzi, Jerikias Marumure, Zakio Makuvara, and Tinoziva T. Simbanegavi

12.1 Introduction 275

12.2 Nature and Health Concerns/Risks of Spent/Used Adsorbents 276

12.2.1 Nature 276

12.2.1.1 Carbonaceous Adsorbents 277

12.2.1.2 Metal/Metal Oxide and Their Composite Adsorbents 277

12.2.1.3 Metal/Metal Oxide-Organic Composites 278

12.2.1.4 Metal-Organic Frameworks 278

12.2.2 Potential Environmental Health Risks 278

12.3 Current Recycling and Disposal Technologies 279

12.3.1 Regeneration and Recycling as Adsorbents 280

12.3.2 Land/Soil Application 280

12.3.3 Landfilling 280

12.3.4 Cement Stabilization/Solidification 281

12.4 Emerging Technologies 281

12.4.1 Novel Catalysts 282

12.4.2 Novel Construction Materials 282

12.4.3 Solid Fuels 282

12.4.4 Re-Engineered Adsorbents 283

12.4.5 Novel Raw Materials 283

12.5 Looking Ahead: Future Perspectives and Research Directions 284

12.5.1 Opportunities and Challenges 284

12.5.2 Knowledge Gaps and Future Research Directions 284

12.6 Conclusions and Outlook 286

Acknowledgments 286

References 287

Index 291
Rangabhashiyam Selvasembian, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Sciences, SRM University-AP, Amaravati, India

Binota Thokchom, PhD, DST-Inspire faculty member at the Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India.

Pardeep Singh, PhD, Assistant Professor in the Department of Environmental Science, PGDAV College University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

Ali H. Jawad, PhD, Associate Professor in the Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia.

Willis Gwenzi, PhD, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bio-economy e.V. (ATB), Potsdam, Germany, and Universität Kassel, Witzenhausen, Germany.

R. Selvasembian, SRM University-AP, Amaravati, India; B. Thokchom, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India; P. Singh, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India; A. H. Jawad, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia; W. Gwenzi, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bio-economy e.V. (ATB), Potsdam, Germany, and Universit¿t Kassel, Witz