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Sustainable Cities in a Changing Climate

Enhancing Urban Resilience

Al-Ghamdi, Sami G. (Editor)

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1. Edition January 2024
336 Pages, Hardcover
Practical Approach Book

ISBN: 978-1-394-20154-9
John Wiley & Sons

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Build and manage the sustainable cities of the future with this comprehensive guide

Climate change is among the biggest challenges facing today's cities, which are in turn a major factor in driving or mitigating climate change. It is no surprise then that urban planning authorities are under mounting pressure to create cityscapes suited to the 21st century.

Sustainable Cities in a Changing Climate offers a systematic overview of the environmental and sustainability challenges facing urban planners and policymakers, and how to meet those challenges. Beginning with an analysis of how climate change impacts built environments, it proceeds to offer quantitative analysis and practical solutions for strengthening urban resilience.

Sustainable Cities in a Changing Climate readers will also find:
* A future-oriented approach that accounts for both known and unknown threats
* Detailed discussion of threats including environmental changes, global pandemics, natural disasters, and more
* Case studies from around the globe, including biofuel generation in China and the 2022 World Cup in Qatar

Sustainable Cities in a Changing Climate is indispensable for environmental engineers, urban planners and policymakers, and advanced students in environmental planning and architecture.

List of Contributors xiii

About the Editor xv

Preface xvii

Abbreviations xix

Part I Climate Change and The Built Environment: Foundations and Implications 1

1 Understanding Climate Change Fundamentals: Exploring the Forces Shaping Our Planet's Future 3

Introduction 3

Recent Climate Change is Anthropogenic 5

Spatial Distribution of Global Warming 6

Modes of Climate Variability 6

Find, Read, and Process Climatic Data 8

Climate Models (GCMs and RCMs) 8

Pathways and Scenarios 10

Observations and Reanalysis 10

Visualizing and Processing Climatic Data 12

Conclusion 15

References 15

2 Advancing Urban Resilience and Sustainability Through the WRF-Urban Model: Bridging Numerical Modeling and Real-World Applications 17

Introduction 17

Nexus Between Urbanization and Climate Change 18

Urban Modeling Through WRF-Urban Model 19

Overview of the WRF-Urban Model 20

Applications of the WRF-Urban Model 20

Relevant Case Studies 21

Case Study 1: Urban Climate Modeling in Singapore Using WRF-Urban 21

Case Study 2: Summertime Air Conditioning Electric Loads Modeling in Beijing, China, Using WRF-Urban 21

Case Study 3: Coastal-Urban Meteorology Study in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Brazil, Using the WRF-Urban Model 22

Limitations of the WRF-Urban Model 22

Ways Forward for Improvement 23

Conclusions 24

References 25

3 Assessing and Projecting Climatic Changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region: Insights from Regional Climate Model (RCM) Simulations and Future Projections 29

Introduction 29

Methodology 31

GCMs vs. RCMs in Simulating MENA Temperature and Precipitation 32

RCMs Performance in Simulating MENA Climatic Changes 34

Projected Future Changes Over MENA-CORDEX 35

Conclusion 36

References 38

4 Building for Climate Change: Examining the Environmental Impacts of the Built Environment 39

Introduction 39

Embodied Carbon Emission in Building Environment 40

Embodied Carbon Emission for Selected Building Materials 40

Embodied Carbon Emission of Limestone Quarrying 41

Embodied Carbon Emission from Cement and Concrete Manufacturing 42

Embodied Carbon from Asphalt Production and Construction 44

Embodied Carbon Emission of Steel Production 45

Embodied Carbon Mitigation Strategies 46

MS1: Using Materials with a Lower Embodied Carbon 46

Precast Hollow-Core Slabs 48

Steel Framework System 48

Use of Unfired Brick 48

Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene 49

MS2: Reducing, Reusing, and Recovering-- Heavy Building Materials 49

MS3: Improvement in Design Phase and Efficient Construction 49

MS4: Carbon Sequestration 51

MS5: Extending the Building's Life 51

Operation Carbon Emissions in Building Environment 51

Operation Carbon Mitigation Strategies 52

Efficient HVAC Systems in Buildings 53

Renewable Resources Integration 53

Strategy for Water Use 54

Use of Lighting 54

Conclusion 55

References 56

5 Unveiling the Nexus: Human Developments and Their Influence on Climate Change 61

Introduction 61

Life Cycle Assessment for Environmental Impact 63

ReCiPe Impact Category: Climate Change 64

Energy Sector Impact on Climate Change 65

Case Study 1: Electricity Generation in Turkey 65

Case Study 2: Coal Power Plant with Carbon Capture Technology in Czech Republic 67

Case Study 3: Solar Power with Energy Storage 68

Emissions Savings from Energy Sector 69

Energy Efficiency Increase 70

Wind and Solar Plant Installation 71

Keep Running the Nuclear Plants 72

Freshwater Sector Impact on Climate Change 72

Case Study 1: Water Supply in Singapore 72

Case Study 2: Seawater Desalination in South Africa 73

Case Study 3: Multistage Flash Desalination in Qatar 73

Emission Savings from Water Sector 74

Groundwater Management 74

Energy Management in Water System 75

Smart Wastewater Treatment Technology 75

Concluding Remarks 75

References 76

Part II Quantifying Resilience and Its Qualities 79

6 Assessing Resilience in Urban Critical Infrastructures: Interdependencies and Considerations 81

Introduction 81

Individual Network Resilience 83

Transportation Network Resilience 84

Electrical Network Resilience 84

Water Network Resilience 85

Case Study About Individual System Resilience: Transportation Resilience During Mega Sport Events 86

Infrastructures Interdependencies and Resilience 88

Case Study About Interdependent Systems Resilience 90

Conclusion 92

References 93

7 Assessing Infrastructure Resilience: Approaches and Considerations 97

Introduction 97

Complex Networks 98

Types of Graphs 98

Directed and Undirected Graphs 99

Weighted and Unweighted Graphs 99

Main Applications in Resilience Assessment 100

Betweenness Centrality 100

Graph Percolation 101

Strengths and Limitations of Complex Networks 101

Simulation Approaches 101

System Simulation 102

Agent-Based Modeling 103

GIS-Based Approaches 103

Strengths and Limitations of Simulation Approaches 103

Other Approaches 104

Statistical Approaches 104

Optimization Approaches 104

Conclusion 105

References 105

8 Enhancing Buildings Resilience: A Comprehensive Perspective on Earthquake Resilient Design 111

Introduction 111

Structural Resilience Representation 112

Performance-Based Design (PBD) 114

Supporting Systems 115

Supporting Systems Within the Building 116

Beyond the Building Limits 116

Conclusion 117

References 118

9 Enhancing Built Environment Resilience: Exploring Themes and Dimensions 121

Introduction 121

Uncertainty 122

Risk Identification and Assessment 123

Resilience Capacities 123

Resilience Components 124

Types of Resilience 124

Ecological and Engineering Resilience 125

Community and Social Resilience 127

Specified and General Resilience 128

Critical Infrastructure Resilience 128

Technical Systems, Products, and Production Resilience 129

Resilience Dimensions and Capitals 129

Resilience Measuring 130

Conclusion 133

References 134

10 Unveiling Urban Resilience: Exploring the Qualities and Interconnections of Urban Systems 139

Introduction 139

Urban Resilience to Climate Change 140

Climate Change Impacts on Built Environment Systems 140

Temperature Rise 144

Sea Level Rise (SLR) 144

Interacting Stresses 144

Major Uncertainties and Interrelations 146

Resilience Qualities 146

Reflectivity 146

Robustness 147

Redundancy 147

Flexibility 147

Resourcefulness 148

Rapidity of Recovery 148

Inclusivity 148

Integration 148

Interrelation of Resilience Qualities 149

Conclusion 149

References 150

11 Quantifying Urban Resilience: Methods and Approaches for Comprehensive Assessment 155

Introduction 155

Urban Resilience 156

Resilience Strategies 156

Urban and Community Resilience Assessment 157

Resilience Assessment Approaches 159

Qualitative Resilience Assessment 160

Conceptual Frameworks 161

Semiquantitative Indices 163

Quantitative Resilience Assessment 163

General Resilience Approaches (Measures) 164

Deterministic Performance-based Approach 165

Probabilistic Performance-based Approach 165

Structural-based Models 165

Optimization Models 165

Simulation Models 165

Fuzzy Logic Models 166

Frameworks and Tools for Measuring Resilience 166

Conclusion 177

References 177

Part III Resilient Urban Systems: Navigating Climate Change and Enhancing Sustainability 183

12 Building Climate Resilience Through Urban Planning: Strategies, Challenges, and Opportunities 185

Introduction 185

Understanding Climate Change Impacts on Urban Areas 186

Urban Planning Strategies for Mitigating Climate Change Impacts 188

Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) 188

Fifteen Minutes City (FMC) 190

Compact Cities 190

Sustainable Land Use and Development Policies 191

Low-Impact Development (LID) 191

Sponge Cities 192

Green Infrastructure and Urban Greening Initiatives for Cool Cities 193

Waste Management and Recycling Systems, Public Participation, and Education 194

Risk Assessment and Adaptation in Urban Planning 195

Case Studies of Successful Climate-Responsive Urban Planning 200

Challenges and Opportunities 202

Major Key Points 203

Conclusion 204

References 204

13 Integrating Green-Blue-Gray Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Flood Risk Management: Enhancing Resilience and Advantages 207

Introduction 207

Green Infrastructure (GI) 208

Gray Infrastructure (GRAI) 209

Green-Blue-Gray Infrastructure Combination 209

Benefits of Combining Green-Blue-Gray Infrastructure (GBGI) Systems 209

Green-Blue-Gray Infrastructure (GBGI) for Flood Risk Management 210

Environmental Impacts of Floods and Green Climate Change Adaptation 210

Regional Progress in GBGI Nexus Research 211

Flood Risk Management Resilience 212

Conclusion 221

References 221

14 Enhancing Energy System Resilience: Navigating Climate Change and Security Challenges 227

Introduction 227

Adapting the Theory of Resilience to Energy Systems 229

Why Incorporate Resilience into Energy Systems? 234

What are the Threats to the Energy System? 235

Domains of Resilience Approaches to Energy Systems 237

Resilience Enhancement Approaches for Energy Systems 240

System Hardening 240

Distributed Generation 240

Energy Storage 241

Smart Grid Technology 241

Enhancing Energy Efficiency 242

Make Climate Resilience a Central Part of Energy System Planning 242

Conclusion 243

References 245

15 Building Resilient Health Policies: Incorporating Climate Change Impacts for Sustainable Adaptation 251

Introduction 251

Climate Change Impacts on Public Health 253

Infectious Diseases 254

Air Pollution 255

Extreme Events 256

Considerations in Health Policy Development 256

Reducing Carbon Emissions 256

Medical Interventions 257

Healthy Lifestyle 257

Monitoring 257

Proactive Approaches 258

Strengthening Institutions 258

Conclusion 259

References 259

16 Enhancing Resilience: Surveillance Strategies for Monitoring the Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases 263

Introduction 263

Vector-Borne Diseases 265

Environmental Factors and Vector-Borne Diseases 265

Climate Change Impacts on Vector-Borne Diseases 266

Surveillance Strategies 266

Monitoring of Human Cases 268

Identification of Pathogen Species 269

Distribution and Behavior of Vectors 269

Climatic and Environmental Changes 270

Control Measures 270

Policy Development 270

Conclusion 271

References 271

Glossary 277

Index 281
Sami G. Al-Ghamdi is Professor of Sustainable Built Environment and Climate Change Resilient Infrastructure at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia. He holds a PhD in Civil and Environmental Engineering from the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, and is a LEED-accredited professional who specializes in green building design and construction.

S. G. Al-Ghamdi, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia; University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA