John Wiley & Sons Digital Transformations in the Challenge of Activity and Work Cover TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES AND HUMAN RESOURCES SET Coordinated by Patrick Gilbert The accelerating pace .. Product #: 978-1-78630-529-9 Regular price: $142.06 $142.06 In Stock

Digital Transformations in the Challenge of Activity and Work

Understanding and Supporting Technological Changes

Bobillier Chaumon, Marc-Eric (Editor)

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1. Edition February 2021
304 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-78630-529-9
John Wiley & Sons

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TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES AND HUMAN RESOURCES SET Coordinated by Patrick Gilbert

The accelerating pace of technological change (AI, cobots, immersive reality, connected objects, etc.) calls for a profound reexamination of how we conduct business. This requires new ways of thinking, acting, organizing and collaborating in our work. Faced with these challenges, the Human and Social Sciences have a leading role to play, alongside others, in designing, supporting and implementing these digital transformation projects. Their ambition is to participate in the development of innovative and empowering devices, that is to say, systems that are truly at the service of human beings and their activity, that empower these professionals to take action and that also provide occupational health services.

This book takes a multidisciplinary look at the challenges of these digital transformations, making use of occupational psychology, ergonomics, sociology of uses, and management sciences. This viewpoint also helps provide epistemological, methodological and empirical insights to better understand and support the changes at work.

Introduction xiii
Marc-Eric BOBILLIER CHAUMON

Part 1 Towards an Overview of Digital Transformations... 1

Chapter 1 Emerging Technologies and Issues for Activity and Occupational Health 3
Marc-Eric BOBILLIER CHAUMON

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 From properties to the uses of emerging technologies 4

1.3 Five paradoxes of the diffusion of technologies in/on the activity 8

1.3.1 Sense of loss of control over the activity vs increased control over the activity 8

1.3.2 Invisibility vs visibility of the activity 9

1.3.3 Increase in virtual teams vs isolation of employees 10

1.3.4 Nomadism vs a sedentary lifestyle at work 11

1.3.5 Detachment from activity vs proximity of work 12

1.4 Conclusion 14

1.5 References 15

Chapter 2 Collaborative Work Platforms: Challenges for Business Development 21
Nadia BARVILLE-DEROMAS and Marc-Eric BOBILLIER CHAUMON

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Two organizational challenges: empowering digital transformations and changing work practices 22

2.2.1 The co-configuration of work 22

2.2.2 Mobilizing social capital to make sharing more flexible 23

2.3 Stakes for the development of activity: knowing how to give meaning to a poly-contextual and multi-mediated activity 24

2.3.1 Networking, the power to act and meaning at work 24

2.3.2 Sharing a degree of collaborative intentionality in a multi-mediated situation, a skill in its own right 26

2.4 Conclusion 27

2.5 References 27

Chapter 3 Virtual Reality: Definitions, Characteristics and Applications in the Workplace 31
Camille SAGNIER, Émilie LOUP-ESCANDE and Gérard VALLÉRY

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Some elements of definition 32

3.2.1 The term "virtual reality" 32

3.2.2 The purpose of virtual reality 32

3.2.3 A functional definition of virtual reality 33

3.2.4 A technical definition of virtual reality 33

3.3 The main interaction devices 34

3.3.1 Display devices 35

3.3.2 Motion and position capture devices 35

3.3.3 Proprioceptive and cutaneous feedback devices 35

3.3.4 Sound input and presentation devices 36

3.4 The main areas of application of virtual reality 36

3.4.1 Applications in everyday life 37

3.4.2 Applications in various professional contexts 37

3.5 Applications of virtual reality in industry 38

3.6 Conclusion 40

3.7 References 40

Chapter 4 Robotization in Industries: A Focus on SMEs 45
Sandrine BERGER-DOUCE

4.1 Introduction 45

4.2 Focus on a robotization experiment in an industrial SME 46

4.2.1 The case study in the service of exploratory research 46

4.2.2 Presentation of the company 47

4.2.3 A mixed technological adventure 47

4.2.4 Lessons to be learned 48

4.3 Receiving support in order to better implement a robot: illustration by the Robot Start PME program 49

4.3.1 A program at the service of French industrial SMEs 50

4.3.2 An inspiring framework to support technological change 53

4.4 Conclusion 54

4.5 References 55

Chapter 5 Serious Games for Vocational Training: From Emotional Labor to Knowledge Transfer 57
Lydia MARTIN, Julian ALVAREZ and Antoine TALY

5.1 Introduction 57

5.2 Emotions, debriefing and learning 59

5.2.1 Emotional labor 59

5.2.2 Learning in a game 60

5.3 The context and framework of the Serious Escape Game (SEG) 61

5.3.1 Difficulty in gamification 61

5.3.2 The training system 62

5.3.3 A research-action approach 62

5.4 Results 63

5.4.1 Observations during gaming 63

5.4.2 Post-game discussions 64

5.4.3 Questionnaires 66

5.5 Discussion and conclusion 67

5.6 References 68

Chapter 6 The "Old" Issues of the "New" Artificial Intelligence Systems in Professional Activities 71
Tamari GAMKRELIDZE, Moustafa ZOUINAR and Flore BARCELLINI

6.1 Introduction 71

6.2 AI: elements of definition and recent developments 72

6.3 Functionalities and (potential) uses of new generation AI systems 74

6.4 The "new" generation of AI and the old challenges of transforming work situations 77

6.4.1 From the substitutive approach of automation to the complementary approaches of human-machine systems 77

6.4.2 The challenges of "new" AI systems in work situations 79

6.5 What are the approaches to designing and integrating AI systems in work situations? 81

6.6 Conclusion 83

6.7 References 83

Part 2 New Modalities and Forms of Work... 87

Chapter 7 Challenges in Deploying Telework: Benefits and Risks for Employees 89
Emilie VAYRE

7.1 Telework: definitions and characteristics 89

7.2 The benefits of teleworking 90

7.3 The constraints and risks of teleworking 91

7.4 The challenges of deploying telework in organizations 93

7.4.1 Deploying and experimenting with telework 93

7.4.2 Training of teleworkers and managers 96

7.4.3 Evaluating the deployment of telework 97

7.5 Conclusion 97

7.6 References 98

Chapter 8 The Reconfiguration of Managerial Practices through Digital Innovation: The Example of a Work Team in Site Renovation 101
Elodie CHAMBONNIÈRE and Jacqueline VACHERAND-REVEL

8.1 Introduction: when digital technology is used on renovation sites 101

8.2 At the heart of the renovation sites 103

8.2.1 Supervising in a complex and dynamic system 103

8.2.2 Guiding a worksite: a conductor's activity at the crossroads of various modes of prevention management 103

8.3 Understanding occupational risk prevention activity and prevention management 104

8.4 Ethnography of the activity on a renovation site 106

8.5 Confirming a culture of safety: prevention management 107

8.5.1 Management towards site supervision 108

8.5.2 Middle management 109

8.5.3 Local management: towards construction workers 109

8.6 Digital innovation in occupational risk prevention: restructuring of management practices 110

8.6.1 Hierarchical visits by management 110

8.6.2 Prevention visits by middle management 111

8.6.3 Close supervision of the construction workers 111

8.7 Conclusion: towards a better consideration of digital innovations in prevention management 113

8.8 References 114

Chapter 9 Integrating Collaborative Robotics into Work Situations: The Intentions of SME Managers in the Digital Transformation of their Companies 115
Anne-Cécile LAFEUILLADE, Flore BARCELLINI, Willy BUCHMANN and Tahar-Hakim BENCHEKROUN

9.1 Transformations in work situations seen through the prism of technocentric solutions 115

9.2 Models of leadership activity to understand change management processes 117

9.2.1 The activity of managers at the crossroads of different roles 117

9.2.2 Developing the intention of managers in change management processes: the contribution of the dialogical model of design 118

9.3 Methodology for data collection and analysis 121

9.4 Managers' desires in the face of reality: an encounter that helped to shape their intentions 123

9.4.1 Elements shaping managers' desires 123

9.4.2 The "conversation" between the desire and reality 124

9.5 The reality, a messenger from the past, in a modernization project 125

9.6 References 126

Chapter 10 The Role and Function of Technological Artifacts in Entrepreneurial Activity 129
Irène POIDI, Marc-Eric BOBILLIER CHAUMON and Jacqueline VACHERAND-REVEL

10.1 Introduction 129

10.2 Theoretical foundations 130

10.3 Methodology 132

10.4 Results 133

10.5 Discussion and conclusion 137

10.6 References 138

Part 3 Psychosocial and Socio-organizational Impacts of the Diffusion of Technology 141

Chapter 11 The New Physical Territories of Digital Activity 143
Maria IANEVA, Raluca CIOBANU and Chiara LAI

11.1 Introduction 143

11.2 Transformation of spaces and transformation of work and employment: "spatialized work" 145

11.3 From "spatialized work" to the division between space and work 146

11.4 Flexible work environments: from work to "activity" 147

11.4.1 The example of the design of the workspaces of a large company: the reconfiguration of work areas 148

11.4.2 From space allocation to the redefinition of associated tasks 149

11.5 What theoretical models for considering space and its transformations? 150

11.6 Conclusion 152

11.7 References 153

Chapter 12 Digital Work, Disposable Work? When Opportunities to Explore Threaten the Meaning of the Activity 155
Maxime BESENVAL and Alexandra BIDET

12.1 Introduction 155

12.2 The division of complex digital work 157

12.3 Chronic indeterminacy of the product 159

12.4 When the contingencies regime threatens work commitment 161

12.5 Conclusion 165

12.6 References 166

Chapter 13 Is the Obsolescence of the Skills of Older Employees an Inevitable Consequence of Digitalization? 169
Florence CROS, Marc-Eric BOBILLIER CHAUMON and Bruno CUVILLIER

13.1 Introduction 169

13.2 Aging, work, technologies and skills obsolescence: theoretical elements 170

13.2.1 The effects of aging 170

13.2.2 Aging associated with work 171

13.2.3 From the effects of technology on activity to the issue of the obsolescence of older workers' skills 171

13.3 Question and methodology 172

13.3.1 Study background and methods 172

13.3.2 Engeström's activity system model (1987) 173

13.4 Main results 174

13.4.1 The ASCT profession: a perception through the prism of age 174

13.4.2 Overcoming tensions to develop one's activity 176

13.5 Discussion and conclusion 177

13.5.1 Accelio, a vector of recognition for the ASCT profession? 178

13.5.2 Diverting to work better 178

13.6 References 179

Chapter 14 Are Work Collectives and Digital Exposure Compatible? 183
Pauline CROUZAT and Marc-Eric BOBILLIER CHAUMON

14.1 Collective activity: major developments 183

14.2 Engineering: a highly digitized environment 185

14.3 Problem of the study 185

14.4 The methodology used 186

14.5 Main results: virtually hyper-instrumented collective work for invisible work collectives 190

14.6 Discussion 191

14.7 Conclusion 192

14.8 References 193

Part 4 Approaches and Methods for Conducting Digital Transformations 195

Chapter 15 Prospective Ergonomics in Service of Technological Innovation 197
Jean-Marc ROBERT, Antoine MARTIN, Mitra TARAGHI, Clément COLIN, Masood MALDAR, Flavie BONNEVIOT and Eric BRANGIER

15.1 Introduction 197

15.2 A new form of intervention focused on creation and innovation 198

15.3 The context and challenges of prospective ergonomics 199

15.4 Foundations in several disciplines and fields of study 202

15.5 Prospective ergonomics intervention approach 203

15.6 Two cases of intervention 206

15.6.1 Anticipating future needs and uses related to energy systems that integrate hydrogen energy 206

15.6.2 The crowdsourcing approach 207

15.7 Conclusion 208

15.8 References 209

Chapter 16 Simulating Digital Activity in the Making: Elements of Methodology 211
Laurent VAN BELLEGHEM

16.1 Introduction 211

16.2 Digital activity 212

16.3 Simulating digital activity 213

16.4 Two illustrations of digital activity simulation 217

16.4.1 A giant digital tablet to welcome customers 217

16.4.2 RFID chips for lending books 219

16.5 Conclusion 222

16.6 References 223

Chapter 17 Managing Technological Change 225
Clotilde CORON and Patrick GILBERT

17.1 Introduction 225

17.2 Digital transformations, sources of threats and opportunities 226

17.3 Social and responsible management of new technologies 229

17.3.1 Social and responsible innovations 230

17.3.2 Digital and responsible technological innovation 230

17.4 A model for responsible leadership of technological change within organizations 232

17.4.1 Managing organizational and technological change 232

17.4.2 Responsible digital change management 233

17.5 Conclusion 234

17.6 References 235

Chapter 18 Exploring the Situated Acceptance of Emerging Technologies in and Concerning Activity: Approaches and Processes 237
Marc-Eric BOBILLIER CHAUMON

18.1 Introduction 237

18.2 Models of technological acceptability: outlines and approaches 239

18.2.1 Practical or instrumental acceptability 239

18.2.2 The social acceptability model 240

18.2.3 The situated acceptance approach 242

18.3 Frameworks for action and intervention to address situated acceptance 244

18.3.1 Evaluating the situated acceptance of technologies already in place to support the future technological transformation project 246

18.3.2 Exploring the acceptance of emerging technologies to co-construct the creation project in/by the activity 247

18.4 Conclusion 252

18.5 References 252

List of Authors 257

Index 261
Marc-Eric Bobillier Chaumon is the Chair of Occupation Psychology at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers in France. His research and work focuses on the uses and impacts of emerging technologies on workplace activities.