John Wiley & Sons Disarmament and Decommissioning in the Nuclear Domain Cover Following the acquisition of the atomic bomb by five states, the United Nations began drafting sever.. Product #: 978-1-78630-721-7 Regular price: $142.06 $142.06 In Stock

Disarmament and Decommissioning in the Nuclear Domain

Amiard, Jean-Claude

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1. Edition October 2021
352 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-78630-721-7
John Wiley & Sons

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Following the acquisition of the atomic bomb by five states, the United Nations began drafting several treaties to limit nuclear proliferation. These efforts failed, as four more states also acquired nuclear weapons. In a similar vein, an attempt to limit atomic weapons - primarily within the two superpowers - was initiated.

While the number of weapons has decreased, the new bombs now being manufactured are more powerful and more precise, negating any reduction in numbers. In the field of civil nuclear use, all nuclear facilities (reactors, factories, etc.) have a limited lifespan. Once a plant is permanently shut down, these facilities must be decommissioned and dismantled.

These operations are difficult, time-consuming and costly. In addition, decommissioning generates large volumes of radioactive waste of various categories, including long-lived and high-activity waste. Risks to the environment and to health are not negligible during decommissioning. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have produced numerous publications with recommendations. Each state has its own decommissioning strategy (immediate or delayed) and final plan for the site - whether it be returning it to greenfield status or obtaining a nuclear site license with centuries-long monitoring.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Chapter 1 Nuclear Non-Proliferation 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The first countries to acquire the atomic bomb 2

1.3 The NPT 4

1.3.1 The functioning of the Treaty 5

1.3.2 Revision of the NPT 5

1.3.3 Successes of the NPT 6

1.3.4 Failures of the NPT 7

1.3.5 Future nuclear-weapon states 10

1.4 Other nuclear non-proliferation treaties 10

1.4.1 The CTBT Treaty 10

1.4.2 The TPNW 11

1.4.3 The Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT) 12

1.4.4 Regional disarmament treaties 14

1.5 Disarmament controls 15

1.5.1 Principle and practice of disarmament controls 15

1.5.2 NPT controls 17

1.6 Actions of NGOs 25

1.6.1 The main actions of NGOs for disarmament 26

1.6.2 NGOs and the Nobel Peace Prize 28

1.7 The military denuclearization of a state 29

1.7.1 South Africa: the example of the complete denuclearization of a country 29

1.7.2 Other states that have renounced nuclear weapons 31

1.8 Conclusions 32

Chapter 2 Disarmament of Atomic Weapons 35

2.1 Introduction 35

2.2 Limitations on the number of nuclear weapons 35

2.2.1 Bilateral disarmament agreements and treaties between the Americans and Soviets 36

2.2.2 Delivery of nuclear supplies 39

2.2.3 Controlling the delivery systems of atomic weapons 39

2.2.4 The Hague Code of Conduct (HCoC) 40

2.2.5 The disarmament of France 42

2.3 Nuclear deterrent forces 43

2.3.1 Land forces of nuclear deterrence 45

2.3.2 Air forces of nuclear deterrence 46

2.3.3 Oceanic nuclear deterrent forces 48

2.3.4 Nuclear weapon manufacturing sites 50

2.3.5 Nuclear weapon deployment and storage sites 53

2.3.6 The state of stocks of nuclear weapons and fissile materials 56

2.4 Disarmament controls 61

2.4.1 Controls of the CTBT 61

2.4.2 Bilateral controls 62

2.5 Conclusions 62

Chapter 3 International Recommendations and National Policies in Decommissioning 65

3.1 Introduction 65

3.1.1 Definitions of terms for end-of-life operations of a BNI 65

3.1.2 Stages in the life of a BNI 66

3.2 General principles of decommissioning and dismantling 67

3.2.1 The necessity and goals of decommissioning 67

3.2.2 IAEA recommendations 68

3.2.3 NEA work and publications 70

3.2.4 Decommissioning and dismantling strategies 70

3.2.5 Decommissioning planning 74

3.2.6 Duration of decommissioning 77

3.3 Lessons from the past 78

3.3.1 Experience in decommissioning 79

3.3.2 Structuring and organization of companies 80

3.3.3 Ongoing decommissioning challenges 80

3.3.4 Management of the unexpected in dismantling 80

3.3.5 The transmission of information 80

3.4 The decommissioning and dismantling policies of the various states 81

3.4.1 US policy 82

3.4.2 Russia's policy 83

3.4.3 Germany's policy 85

3.4.4 UK policy 86

3.4.5 France's policy 88

3.4.6 China 93

3.4.7 Sweden 93

3.4.8 Japan 95

3.4.9 Other states 95

3.5 Conclusions 99

Chapter 4 Procedures and Technologies Involved in Decommissioning 101

4.1 Introduction 101

4.2 The cost of dismantling 101

4.2.1 International recommendations 102

4.2.2 The American example 105

4.2.3 The British example 106

4.2.4 The French example 108

4.2.5 The Russian example 109

4.3 The production of radioactive waste 109

4.3.1 The channels planned for the management of radioactive waste 110

4.3.2 Material release thresholds 112

4.4 The environmental and health risks of dismantling 114

4.4.1 Assessment of environmental and health risks during decommissioning 115

4.4.2 Environmental impact studies 117

4.4.3 Total remediation of the site 119

4.4.4 Health impacts of decommissioning 123

4.4.5 Social impacts of decommissioning 124

4.4.6 Regulatory provisions 126

4.5 Nuclear decommissioning techniques 127

4.5.1 Cutting techniques 127

4.5.2 Decontamination techniques 128

4.5.3 Automation or remote operation 129

4.5.4 Remediation processes for civil engineering structures 129

4.5.5 The main demolition techniques 130

4.6 Technical innovations in nuclear decommissioning 131

4.6.1 Research and development policies in the field of decommissioning 131

4.6.2 Industrial organization in the field of nuclear decommissioning 133

4.6.3 Management of radioactive contamination 134

4.6.4 Numerical simulations in the field of nuclear decommissioning 136

4.6.5 Cutting of large parts 139

4.6.6 Automation in the field of nuclear decommissioning 140

4.6.7 Estimating radiation doses 142

4.7 Conclusions 142

Chapter 5 The Dismantling of Military Nuclear Facilities 145

5.1 Introduction 145

5.2 The decommissioning of military plants at the beginning of the nuclear fuel cycle 146

5.2.1 The decommissioning of military uranium enrichment plants 146

5.2.2 Decommissioning of plutonium-producing reactors 150

5.2.3 Decommissioning of tritium-producing reactors 157

5.2.4 Decommissioning of fissile fuel fabrication plants 158

5.3 The decommissioning of military spent fuel reprocessing plants 159

5.3.1 The dismantling of US reprocessing plants 160

5.3.2 The UP1 plant in Marcoule, France 160

5.3.3 The dismantling of other military reprocessing plants around the world 163

5.4 Decommissioning and decontamination of military sites 163

5.4.1 US military facilities 164

5.4.2 The dismantling of Soviet and Russian military nuclear facilities 174

5.4.3 The dismantling of French military nuclear facilities 176

5.4.4 The decontamination of the British site of Maralinga 178

5.5 The destruction of atomic weapons and their vectors 178

5.5.1 The deconstruction of atomic bombs 178

5.5.2 American disarmament 179

5.5.3 Russian disarmament: international collaboration 180

5.5.4 Disarmament of submarines and other military nuclear vessels 181

5.5.5 Denuclearization of rocket bases 190

5.6 Conclusions 191

Chapter 6 The Dismantling of Electronuclear Reactors 193

6.1 Introduction 193

6.1.1 The various types of electronuclear reactors 194

6.2 The dismantling of graphite-moderated reactors 195

6.2.1 Decommissioning of French nuclear power reactors (UNGG) 195

6.2.2 The dismantling of British reactors 200

6.2.3 The dismantling of the RMBK sector 202

6.3 The dismantling of the pressurized water system (PWR) 203

6.3.1 The dismantling of German reactors 204

6.3.2 The dismantling of American reactors 205

6.3.3 The dismantling of French reactors 206

6.3.4 Reactor decommissioning in other countries 207

6.3.5 The dismantling of WWER reactors 207

6.4 Dismantling the heavy water sector 210

6.5 Dismantling of the boiling water reactor sector 212

6.6 Dismantling following a nuclear accident 217

6.6.1 IAEA and NEA recommendations 220

6.6.2 The dismantling of Three Mile Island 221

6.6.3 The dismantling of Chernobyl 222

6.6.4 The decommissioning of Fukushima 223

6.6.5 Decommissioning of other damaged nuclear facilities 224

6.7 Future reactor shutdowns 225

6.8 Conclusions 227

Chapter 7 The Decommissioning of Research Reactors and Other Basic Nuclear Facilities 229

7.1 Introduction 229

7.2 The dismantling of experimental reactors around the world 230

7.2.1 The main roles of experimental reactors 230

7.2.2 The global overview of experimental reactors 231

7.2.3 The main types of experimental reactors 233

7.2.4 Major incidents and accidents involving research reactors 235

7.2.5 Cost 236

7.2.6 Some examples of the decommissioning of experimental reactors 236

7.2.7 Heavy water research reactors (HWRR) 238

7.2.8 Fast neutron reactors 240

7.2.9 Other research reactors 240

7.3 Decommissioning and dismantling of fourth-generation reactors 242

7.3.1 The dismantling of the fast neutron reactor (FNR) industry 243

7.3.2 High-temperature nuclear reactors 247

7.3.3 The other fourth-generation sectors 248

7.4 The dismantling of first-generation prototype reactors 249

7.4.1 PWR reactors 250

7.4.2 The dismantling of the boiling water reactor (BWR) process 252

7.4.3 The dismantling of the gas reactor sector (AGR) 252

7.4.4 Dismantling the heavy water industry 253

7.4.5 The dismantling of prototype reactors from various sectors 255

7.5 The dismantling of basic nuclear fuel cycle facilities 256

7.5.1 The dismantling of extraction mines 256

7.5.2 The dismantling of enrichment plants 257

7.5.3 The dismantling of conversion and manufacturing plants 259

7.5.4 The dismantling of reprocessing plants 260

7.6 Decommissioning of other basic nuclear facilities 263

7.6.1 The centers of nuclear studies 263

7.6.2 The centers of industrial operation 266

7.6.3 Service facilities 269

7.6.4 Interim nuclear waste storage centers 270

7.6.5 Other BNIs in the dismantling stage 271

7.7 Conclusions 273

General Conclusions 275

List of Acronyms 287

References 295

Index 333
Jean-Claude Amiard is a Doctor of Radioecology, Emeritus Research Director at the CNRS (University of Nantes, France) and former Associate Professor in Quebec and China. He is the author of more than 250 publications, 80 books or book chapters and 150 presentations at international conferences.