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The Tactile Internet

Ali-Yahiya, Tara / Monnet, Wrya (Editor)

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1. Edition January 2022
256 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-78945-020-0
John Wiley & Sons

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The Tactile Internet will change the landscape of communication by introducing a new paradigm that enables the remote delivery of haptic data.

This book answers the many questions surrounding the Tactile Internet, including its reference architecture and adapted compression methods for conveying haptic information. It also describes the key enablers for deploying the applications of the Tactile Internet.

As an antecedent technology, the IoT is tackled, explaining the differences and similarities between the Tactile Internet, the Internet of Things and the Internet of Everything. The essentials of teleoperation systems are summarized and the challenges that face this paradigm in its implementation and deployment are also discussed.

Finally, a teleoperation case study demonstrating an application of the Tactile Internet is investigated to demonstrate its functionalities, architecture and performance.

Foreword xi
Ian F. AKYILDIZ

Preface xiii
Tara ALI-YAHIYA and Wrya MONNET

List of Acronyms xv

Chapter 1. Introduction to Tactile Internet 1
Tara ALI-YAHIYA

1.1. Human perception and Tactile Internet 2

1.2. The roadmap towards Tactile Internet 3

1.3. What is Tactile Internet? 5

1.4.Cyber-Physical Systems and TI 7

1.4.1.Physical world 7

1.4.2. Internet of Things 7

1.4.3.Communication 7

1.4.4.Storage and computation 8

1.4.5.Feedback 8

1.4.6.Smart computing 10

1.5.References 11

Chapter 2. Reference Architecture of the Tactile Internet 13
Tara ALI-YAHIYA

2.1. Tactile Internet system architecture 13

2.2. IEEE 1918.1 use cases 15

2.2.1.Teleoperation 16

2.2.2.Automotive 17

2.2.3. Immersive virtual reality (IVR) 17

2.2.4. Internet of drones 18

2.2.5. Interpersonal communication 18

2.2.6.Live haptic-enabled broadcast 19

2.2.7. Cooperative automated driving 19

2.3.Conclusion 20

2.4.References 20

Chapter 3. Tactile Internet Key Enablers 21
Tara ALI-YAHIYA

3.1. Introduction 21

3.1.1. The fifth-generation system architecture 21

3.1.2.Network slicing 23

3.1.3.Network function virtualization 25

3.1.4.Software-definednetworking 26

3.1.5.Edge computing 27

3.1.6. Artificial intelligence 29

3.2.Conclusion 31

3.3.References 31

Chapter 4. 6G for Tactile Internet 35
Pinar KIRCI and Tara ALI-YAHIYA

4.1. Introduction 35

4.2.The architecture of 6G 37

4.2.1.Network performance of 6G 38

4.2.2.Space network 39

4.2.3.Air network 40

4.2.4. Ground network 40

4.2.5.Underwater network 41

4.3. 6G channel measurements and characteristics 41

4.3.1.Optical wireless channel 41

4.3.2. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) channel 42

4.3.3.Underwater acoustic channel 43

4.3.4. Satellite channel 43

4.3.5.RF and terahertz networks in 6G 45

4.3.6. Visible light communication technology 48

4.3.7. Orbital angular momentum technology 48

4.4.6Gcellular Internet of Things 49

4.5. Energy self-sustainability (ESS) in 6G 50

4.6. IoT-integrated ultra smart city life 52

4.7.AI-enabled6Gnetworks 55

4.8. AI- and ML-based security management in super IoT 59

4.9.Security for6G 60

4.10. The WEAFMnecosystem(water, earth, air, fire micro/nano ecosystem) with 6G and Tactile Internet 61

4.11.References 63

Chapter 5. IoT, IoE and Tactile Internet 65
Wrya MONNET

5.1.From M2M to IoT 66

5.2. Classification of remote monitoring and control systems 66

5.3. IoT-enabling technologies 67

5.3.1. IoT hardware 67

5.3.2. IoT software 67

5.3.3. IoT connectivity 67

5.4. Architectural design and interfaces 68

5.5. IoT communication protocols 71

5.5.1. Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) 72

5.5.2. Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) 74

5.5.3. Data Distribution Service for real-time systems (DDS) 76

5.5.4. Open Mobile Alliance Device Management (OMA-DM) 79

5.6. Internet of Everything(IoE) 80

5.6.1. Enabling technologies for the IoE 81

5.7. Protocol comparisons and the readiness for TI 82

5.8. TI-IoT models and challenges 83

5.9.Edge computing in the IoT 85

5.9.1.Edge computing paradigms 86

5.10. Real-time IoT and analytics versus real time in TI 88

5.11.From IoT towards TI 88

5.12.Conclusion 90

5.13.References 91

Chapter 6. Telerobotics 95
Wrya MONNET

6.1. Introduction 95

6.2.Teleoperation evolution to telepresence 96

6.3.Telepresence applications 97

6.4. Teleoperation system components 99

6.4.1.Master domains 102

6.4.2. Network domain (communication channel) 102

6.4.3.Slave domain 102

6.5. Architecture of bilateral teleoperation control system 103

6.5.1. Classification of the control systems architectures 106

6.5.2. Discrete architecture with transmission delay 107

6.6. Performance and transparency of telepresence systems 110

6.6.1. Passivity and stability 110

6.6.2.Time delay issues 112

6.7. Other methods for time-delay mitigation 116

6.8.Teleoperation over the Internet 117

6.9. Multiple access to a teleoperation system 119

6.10.A use case 121

6.11.Conclusion 122

6.12.References 122

Chapter 7. Haptic Data: Compression and Transmission Protocols 127
Wrya MONNET

7.1. Introduction 127

7.2.Haptic perception 128

7.2.1.Human haptic perception 128

7.2.2. Telerobotic tactile and haptic perception 128

7.2.3. Tactile sensing for material recognition 129

7.2.4. Tactile sensing for object shape recognition 130

7.2.5. Tactile sensing for pose estimation 131

7.3. Haptic interfaces 133

7.3.1.Haptic interface for telepresence 133

7.3.2. Haptic and tactile sensors and actuators 135

7.4.Haptic compression 139

7.5.Haptic transport protocols 142

7.5.1.Application layer protocols 143

7.5.2.Transport layer protocols 146

7.6. Multi-transport protocols 149

7.7.Haptic transport protocol performance metrics 149

7.8.Conclusion 150

7.9.References 150

Chapter 8. Mapping Wireless Networked Robotics into Tactile Internet 155
Nicola Roberto ZEMA and Tara ALI-YAHIYA

8.1.Wireless networked robots 155

8.2.WNR traffic requisites 158

8.2.1.Types of traffic in WNRs 158

8.3.Traffic shaping and TI haptic codecs 160

8.3.1. Introduction 161

8.3.2.Mapping WNR control traffic toTI 161

8.4. WNRs in the Tactile Internet architecture 164

8.4.1.WNRs in the TI architecture and interfaces 165

8.5.Conclusion 169

8.6.References 170

Chapter 9. HoIP over 5G for Tactile Internet Teleoperation Application 173
Tara ALI-YAHIYA, WryaMONNET and Bakhtiar M. AMIN

9.1.Relatedworks 174

9.2. 5G architecture design for Tactile Internet 179

9.2.1. Tactile edge A 180

9.2.2.Network domain 182

9.2.3. Protocol stack of 5G integration with IEEE 1918.1 182

9.3.Haptics over IP 183

9.4.Teleoperation case study 185

9.4.1. Master to slave (uplink) data rate in edge A 187

9.4.2. Slave to master (downlink) data rate in edge B 187

9.4.3.Encapsulating the haptic data in HoIP 188

9.4.4. 5G network data and control handling 188

9.4.5.Case study operational states 190

9.4.6.Case study protocol stack 191

9.5.Simulation results 192

9.5.1. Simulation topology 193

9.5.2.NS3 network architecture 194

9.5.3.Simulation scenario 196

9.5.4.Simulation results 198

9.6.Conclusion 203

9.7.References 203

Chapter 10. Issues and Challenges Facing Low Latency in the Tactile Internet 209
Tara ALI-YAHIYA

10.1. Introduction 209

10.1.1. Technical requirements for the TI 211

10.2. Low latency in the Tactile Internet 212

10.2.1.Resource allocation 212

10.2.2.Mobile edge computing 213

10.2.3.Network coding 214

10.2.4.Haptic communication protocols 214

10.3. Intelligence and the Tactile Internet 216

10.4. Edge intelligent 216

10.5.Open issues 219

10.6.Conclusion 220

10.7.References 221

List of Authors 227

Index 229
Tara Ali-Yahiya is Associate Professor at Paris-Saclay University, France. She is deputy head of the Networking & Stochastic and Combinatorial Optimization Team at LISN Laboratory. She has an HDR, PhD and MSc in Telecommunications and was a post-doctoral researcher at Telecom SudParis.

Wrya Monnet is a faculty member of the CSE department at the University of Kurdistan Hewler, Iraq. He has 23 years of experience in industry and academia and has done post-doctoral research at Telecom SudParis, France. He worked as an R&D and embedded software engineer for 10 years.