Wiley-VCH, Weinheim Nuclear and Radiochemistry Cover The fourth edition of this comprehensive yet accessible book on Nuclear and Radiochemistry is the cl.. Product #: 978-3-527-34905-0 Regular price: $372.90 $372.90 In Stock

Nuclear and Radiochemistry

Fundamentals and Applications

Kratz, Jens-Volker

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4. Edition October 2021
976 Pages, Hardcover
400 Pictures (150 Colored Figures)
Handbook/Reference Book

ISBN: 978-3-527-34905-0
Wiley-VCH, Weinheim

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The fourth edition of this comprehensive yet accessible book on Nuclear and Radiochemistry is the classic reference for the field and still without equal.

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The leading resource for anyone looking for an accessible and authoritative introduction to nuclear and radiochemistry

In the newly revised Fourth Edition of Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications, distinguished chemist Jens-Volker Kratz delivers a two-volume handbook that has become the gold standard in teaching and learning nuclear and radiochemistry. The books cover the theory and fundamentals of the subject before moving on the technical side of nuclear chemistry, with coverage of nuclear energy, nuclear reactors, and radionuclides in the life sciences.
This latest edition discusses the details and impact of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters, as well as new research facilities, including FAIR and HIM. It also incorporates new methods for target preparation and new processes for nuclear fuel recycling, like EURO-GANEX. Finally, the volumes extensively cover environmental technological advances and the effects of radioactivity on the environment.

Readers will also find:
- An accessible and thorough introduction to the fundamental concepts of nuclear physics and chemistry, including atomic processes, classical mechanics, relativistic mechanics, and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
- Comprehensive explorations of radioactivity in nature, radioelements, radioisotopes and their atomic masses, and other physical properties of nuclei
- Practical discussions of the nuclear force, nuclear structure, decay modes, radioactive decay kinetics, and nuclear radiation
- In-depth examinations of the statistical considerations relevant to radioactivity measurements

Written for practicing nuclear chemists and atomic physicists, Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications is also an indispensable resource for nuclear physicians, power engineers, and professionals working in the nuclear industry.

1 Fundamental Concepts
1.1 The Atom
1.2 Atomic Processes
1.3 Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus
1.4 Nuclear Decay Types
1.5 Some Physical Concepts Needed in Nuclear Chemistry
1.5.1 Fundamental Forces
1.5.2 Elements from Classical Mechanics
1.5.3 Relativistic Mechanics
1.5.4 The de Broglie Wavelength
1.5.5 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
1.5.6 The Standard Model of Particle Physics
1.5.7 Force Carriers

2 Radioactivity in Nature
2.1 Discovery of Radioactivity
2.2 Radioactive Substances in Nature
2.3 Nuclear Forensics

3 Radioelements and Radioisotopes and Their Atomic Masses
3.1 Periodic Table of the Elements
3.2 Isotopes and the Chart of Nuclides
3.3 Nuclide Masses and Binding Energies
3.4 Evidence for Shell Structure in Nuclei
3.5 Precision Mass Spectrometry

4 Other Physical Properties of Nuclei
4.1 Nuclear Radii
4.2 Nuclear Angular Momenta
4.3 Magnetic Dipole Moments
4.4 Electric Quadrupole Moments
4.5 Statistics and Parity
4.6 Excited States

5 The Nuclear Force and Nuclear Structure
5.1 Nuclear Forces
5.2 Charge Independence and Isospin
5.3 Nuclear Matter
5.4 Fermi Gas Model
5.5 Shell Model
5.6 Collective Motion in Nuclei
5.7 Nilsson Model
5.8 The Pairing Force and Quasi-Particles
5.9 Macroscopic-Microscopic Model
5.10 Interacting Boson Approximation
5.11 Further Collective Excitations: Coulomb Excitation, High-Spin States, Giant Resonances

6 Decay Modes
6.1 Nuclear Instability and Nuclear Spectroscopy
6.2 Alpha Decay
6.2.1 Hindrance Factors
6.2.2 Alpha-Decay Energies
6.3 Cluster Radioactivity
6.4 Proton Radioactivity
6.5 Spontaneous Fission
6.6 Beta Decay
6.6.1 Fundamental Processes
6.6.2 Electron Capture-to-Positron Ratios
6.6.3 Nuclear Matrix Elements
6.6.4 Parity Non-conservation
6.6.5 Massive Vector Bosons
6.6.6 Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix
6.7 Electromagnetic Transitions
6.7.1 Multipole Order and Selection Rules
6.7.2 Transition Probabilities
6.7.3 Internal Conversion Coefficients
6.7.4 Angular Correlations

7 Radioactive Decay Kinetics
7.1 Law and Energy of Radioactive Decay
7.2 Radioactive Equilibria
7.3 Secular Radioactive Equilibrium
7.4 Transient Radioactive Equilibrium
7.5 Half-life of Mother Nuclide Shorter than Half-life of Daughter Nuclide
7.6 Similar Half-lives
7.7 Branching Decay
7.8 Successive Transformations

8 Nuclear Radiation
8.1 General Properties
8.2 Heavy Charged Particles
8.3 Beta Radiation
8.4 Gamma Radiation
8.5 Neutrons
8.6 Short-lived Elementary Particles in Atoms and Molecules

9 Measurement of Nuclear Radiation
9.1 Activity and Counting Rate
9.2 Gas-Filled Detectors
9.2.1 Ionization Chambers
9.2.2 Proportional Counters
9.2.3 Geiger-Müller Counters
9.3 Scintillation Detectors
9.4 Semiconductor Detectors
9.5 Choice of Detectors
9.6 Spectrometry
9.7 Determination of Absolute Disintegration Rates
9.8 Use of Coincidence and Anticoincidence Circuits
9.9 Low-Level Counting
9.10 Neutron Detection and Measurement
9.11 Track Detectors
9.11.1 Photographic Emulsions and Autoradiography
9.11.2 Dielectric Track Detectors
9.11.3 Cloud Chambers
9.11.4 Bubble Chambers
9.11.5 Spark Chambers
9.12 Detectors Used in Health Physics
9.12.1 Portable Counters and Survey Meters
9.12.2 Film Badges
9.12.3 Pocket Ion Chambers
9.12.4 Thermoluminescence Dosimeters
9.12.5 Contamination Monitors
9.12.6 Whole-Body Counters

10 Statistical Considerations in Radioactivity Measurements
10.1 Distribution of Random Variables
10.2 Probability and Probability Distributions
10.3 Maximum Likelihood
10.4 Experimental Applications
10.5 Statistics of Pulse-Height Distributions
10.6 Setting Upper Limits When No Counts Are Observed

11 Techniques in Nuclear Chemistry
11.1 Special Aspects of the Chemistry of Radionuclides
11.1.1 Short-Lived Radionuclides and the Role of Carriers
11.1.2 Radionuclides of High Specific Activity
11.1.3 Microamounts of Radioactive Substances
11.1.4 Radiocolloids
11.1.5 Tracer Techniques
11.2 Target Preparation
11.3 Measuring Beam Intensity and Fluxes
11.4 Neutron Spectrum in Nuclear Reactors
11.4.1 Thermal Neutrons
11.4.2 Epithermal Neutrons and Resonances
11.4.3 Reaction Rates in Thermal Reactors
11.5 Production of Radionuclides
11.5.1 Production in Nuclear Reactors
11.5.2 Production by Accelerators
11.5.3 Separation Techniques
11.5.4 Radionuclide Generators
11.6 Use of Recoil Momenta
11.7 Preparation of Samples for Activity Measurements
11.8 Determination of Half-Lives
11.9 Decay-Scheme Studies
11.10 In-Beam Nuclear Reaction Studies

12 Nuclear Reactions
12.1 Collision Kinematics
12.2 Coulomb Trajectories
12.3 Cross-sections
12.4 Elastic Scattering
12.5 Elastic Scattering and Reaction Cross-section
12.6 Optical Model
12.7 Nuclear Reactions and Models
12.7.1 Investigation of Nuclear Reactions
12.7.2 Compound-Nucleus Model
12.7.3 Precompound Decay
12.7.4 Direct Reactions
12.7.5 Photonuclear Reactions
12.7.6 Fission
12.7.7 High-Energy Reactions
12.8 Nuclear Reactions Revisited with Heavy Ions
12.8.1 Heavy-Ion Fusion Reactions
12.8.2 Quasi-Fission
12.8.3 Deep Inelastic Collisions
12.8.4 "Simple" (Quasi-elastic) Reactions at the Barrier
12.8.5 "Complex" Transfer Reactions
12.8.6 Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions, the Phases of Nuclear Matter

13 Chemical Effects of Nuclear Transmutations
13.1 General Aspects
13.2 Recoil Effects
13.3 Excitation Effects
13.4 Gases and Liquids
13.5 Solids
13.6 Szilard-Chalmers Reactions
13.7 Recoil Labeling and Self-labeling

14 Influence of Chemical Bonding on Nuclear Properties
14.1 Survey
14.2 Dependence of Half-Lives on Chemical Bonding
14.3 Dependence of Radiation Emission on the Chemical Environment
14.4 Mössbauer Spectrometry

15 Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Reactors, Nuclear Fuel, and Fuel Cycles
15.1 Energy Production by Nuclear Fission
15.2 Nuclear Fuel and Fuel Cycles
15.3 Production of Uranium and Uranium Compounds
15.4 Fuel Elements
15.5 Nuclear Reactors, Moderators, and Coolants
15.6 The Chernobyl and Fukushima Accidents
15.7 Reprocessing
15.8 Radioactive Waste
15.9 The Natural Reactors at Oklo
15.10 Controlled Thermonuclear Reactors
15.11 Nuclear Explosives

16 Sources of Nuclear Bombarding Particles
16.1 Neutron Sources
16.2 Neutron Generators
16.3 Research Reactors
16.4 Charged-Particle Accelerators
16.4.1 Direct Voltage Accelerators
16.4.2 Linear Accelerators
16.4.3 Cyclotrons
16.4.4 Synchrocyclotrons, Synchrotrons
16.4.5 Radioactive Ion Beams
16.4.6 Photon Sources

17 Radioelements
17.1 Natural and Artificial Radioelements
17.2 Technetium and Promethium
17.3 Production of Transuranic Elements
17.3.1 Hot-Fusion Reactions
17.3.2 Cold-Fusion Reactions
17.3.3 48Ca-Induced Fusion Reactions
17.4 Cross-sections
17.5 Nuclear Structure of Superheavy Elements
17.6 Spectroscopy of Actinides and Transactinides
17.7 Properties of the Actinides
17.8 Chemical Properties of the Transactinides
17.8.1 Prediction of Electron Confi gurations and the Architecture of the Periodic Table of the Elements
17.8.2 Methods to Investigate the Chemistry of the Transactinides
17.8.3 Selected Experimental Results

18 Radionuclides in Geo- and Cosmochemistry
18.1 Natural Abundances of the Elements and Isotope Variations
18.2 General Aspects of Cosmochemistry
18.3 Early Stages of the Universe
18.4 Syntheses of Nuclei in Astrophysical Burning Processes
18.4.1 Evolution of Stars
18.4.2 Evolution of the Earth
18.4.3 Thermonuclear Reaction Rates
18.4.4 Hydrogen Burning
18.4.5 Helium Burning
18.4.6 Synthesis of Nuclei with A < 60
18.4.7 Synthesis of Nuclei with A > 60
18.5 The Solar Neutrino Problem
18.6 Absolute Neutrino Masses
18.6.1 From Pion Decay
18.6.2 From Tau Decay
18.6.3 From Nuclear beta-Decay
18.6.4 The Karlsruhe Tritium Experiment on the Neutrino Mass KATRIN
18.7 Interstellar Matter and Cosmic Radiation
18.7.1 Interstellar Matter
18.7.2 Cosmic Radiation
18.7.3 Radionuclides from Cosmic Rays
18.7.4 Cosmic-Ray Effects in Meteorites
18.7.5 Abundance of Li, Be, and B

19 Dating by Nuclear Methods
19.1 General Aspect
19.2 Cosmogenic Radionuclides
19.3 Terrestrial Mother/Daughter Nuclide Pairs
19.4 Natural Decay Series
19.5 Ratios of Stable Isotopes
19.6 Radioactive Disequilibria
19.7 Fission Tracks

20 Radioanalysis
20.1 General Aspects
20.2 Analysis on the Basis of Inherent Radioactivity
20.3 Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)
20.4 Activation by Charged Particles
20.5 Activation by Photons
20.6 Special Features of Activation Analysis
20.7 Isotope Dilution Analysis
20.8 Radiometric Methods
20.9 Other Analytical Applications of Radiotracers
20.10 Absorption and Scattering of Radiation
20.11 Radionuclides as Radiation Sources in X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XFA)
20.12 Analysis with Ion Beams
20.13 Radioisotope Mass Spectrometry
20.13.1 Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS)
20.13.2 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)
20.13.3 Measurements of Ionization Potentials

21 Radionuclides in the Life Sciences
21.1 Survey
21.2 Application in Ecological Studies
21.3 Radioanalysis in the Life Sciences
21.4 Application in Physiological and Metabolic Studies
21.5 Radionuclides Used in Nuclear Medicine
21.6 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
21.7 Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
21.8 Labeled Compounds

22 Radionuclides in the Geosphere and the Biosphere
22.1 Sources of Radioactivity
22.2 Mobility of Radionuclides in the Geosphere
22.3 Reactions of Radionuclides with the Components of Natural Waters
22.4 Interactions of Radionuclides with Solid Components of the Geosphere
22.5 Radionuclides in the Biosphere
22.6 Speciation Techniques with Relevance for Nuclear Safeguards, Verification, and Applications
22.6.1 Redox Reactions, Hydrolysis, and Colloid Formation of Pu(IV)
22.6.2 Investigation of the Homologs Th(IV) and Zr(IV)
22.6.3 Time-resolved Laser-induced Fluorescence
22.7 Conclusions

23 Dosimetry and Radiation Protection
23.1 Dosimetry
23.2 External Radiation Sources
23.3 Internal Radiation Sources
23.4 Radiation Effects in Cell
23.5 Radiation Effects in Humans, Animals, and Plants
23.6 Non-occupational Radiation Exposure
23.7 Safety Recommendations
23.8 Safety Regulations
23.9 Monitoring of the Environment
23.10 Geological Monitoring of Radioactive Waste

Index
Jens-Volker Kratz is a retired Professor of Nuclear Chemistry at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. He obtained his degrees in Chemistry at this university, followed by postdoctoral research with Glenn T. Seaborg at Berkeley. Before moving back to Mainz, he worked as a group leader between 1974 and 1982 at GSI in Darmstadt. He has published 350 scientific articles and two editions of this textbook. For 24 years, he served as editor of Radiochimica Acta. He was nominated Fellow of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and has received numerous prizes, including the Otto Hahn Award.