John Wiley & Sons Foam Engineering Cover Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much.. Product #: 978-0-470-66080-5 Regular price: $139.25 $139.25 In Stock

Foam Engineering

Fundamentals and Applications

Stevenson, Paul (Editor)

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1. Edition February 2012
548 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-0-470-66080-5
John Wiley & Sons

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Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research.

The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams.

The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

Key features:
* Foam fractionation is an exciting and emerging technology, starting to gain significant attention
* Discusses a vital topic for many industries, especially mineral processing, petroleum engineering, bioengineering, consumer products and food sector
* Links foam science theory to industrial applications, making it accessible to an engineering science audience
* Summarizes the latest developments in this rapidly progressing area of research
* Contains contributions from leading international researchers from academia and industry

About the Editor xv

Contributors xvii

Preface xix

1 Introduction 1

Paul Stevenson

1.1 Gas-Liquid Foam in Products and Processes 1

1.2 Content of This Volume 2

1.3 A Personal View of Collaboration in Foam Research 3

Part I Fundamentals 5

2 Foam Morphology 7

D. Weaire, S.T. Tobin, A.J. Meagher and S. Hutzler

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Basic Rules of Foam Morphology 7

2.3 Two-dimensional Foams 11

2.4 Ordered Foams 15

2.5 Disordered Foams 19

2.6 Statistics of 3D Foams 20

2.7 Structures in Transition: Instabilities and Topological Changes 21

2.8 Other Types of Foams 22

2.9 Conclusions 24

3 Foam Drainage 27

Stephan A. Koehler

3.1 Introduction 27

3.2 Geometric Considerations 29

3.3 A Drained Foam 33

3.4 The Continuity Equation 35

3.5 Interstitial Flow 36

3.6 Forced Drainage 38

3.7 Rigid Interfaces and Neglecting Nodes: The Original Foam Drainage Equation 41

3.8 Mobile Interfaces and Neglecting Nodes 43

3.9 Neglecting Channels: The Node-dominated Model 46

3.10 The Network Model: Combining Nodes and Channels 48

3.11 The Carman-Kozeny Approach 50

3.12 Interpreting Forced Drainage Experiments: A Detailed Look 51

3.13 Unresolved Issues 53

3.14 A Brief History of Foam Drainage 54

4 Foam Ripening 59

Olivier Pitois

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 The Very Wet Limit 59

4.3 The Very Dry Limit 61

4.4 Wet foams 65

4.5 Controlling the Coarsening Rate 69

5 Coalescence in Foams 75

Annie Colin

5.1 Introduction 75

5.2 Stability of Isolated Thin Films 76

5.3 Structure and Dynamics of Foam Rupture 78

5.4 What Are the Key Parameters in the Coalescence Process? 81

5.5 How Do We Explain the Existence of a Critical Liquid Fraction? 86

5.6 Conclusion 89

6 Foam Rheology 91

Nikolai D. Denkov, Slavka S. Tcholakova, Reinhard Höhler and Sylvie Cohen-Addad

6.1 Introduction 91

6.2 Main Experimental and Theoretical Approaches 93

6.3 Foam Visco-elasticity 95

6.4 Yielding 103

6.5 Plastic Flow 105

6.6 Viscous Dissipation in Steadily Sheared Foams 106

6.7 Foam-Wall Viscous Friction 112

6.8 Conclusions 114

7 Particle Stabilized Foams 121

G. Kaptay and N. Babcsán

7.1 Introduction 121

7.2 A Summary of Some Empirical Observations 123

7.3 On the Thermodynamic Stability of Particle Stabilized Foams 125

7.4 On the Ability of Particles to Stabilize Foams during Their Production 131

7.5 Design Rules for Particle Stabilized Foams 135

7.6 Conclusions 138

8 Pneumatic Foam 145

Paul Stevenson and Xueliang Li

8.1 Preamble 145

8.2 Vertical Pneumatic Foam 145

8.3 Horizontal Flow of Pneumatic Foam 158

8.4 Pneumatic Foam in Inclined Channels 162

8.5 Methods of Pneumatic Foam Production 162

9 Non-aqueous Foams: Formation and Stability 169

Lok Kumar Shrestha and Kenji Aramaki

9.1 Introduction 169

9.2 Phase Behavior of Diglycerol Fatty Acid Esters in Oils 173

9.3 Non-aqueous Foaming Properties 174

9.4 Conclusion 203

10 Suprafroth: Ageless Two-dimensional Electronic Froth 207

Ruslan Prozorov and Paul C. Canfield

10.1 Introduction 207

10.2 The Intermediate State in Type-I Superconductors 208

10.3 Observation and Study of the Tubular Intermediate State Patterns 211

10.4 Structural Statistical Analysis of the Suprafroth 215

Part II Applications 227

11 Froth Phase Phenomena in Flotation 229

Paul Stevenson and Noel W.A. Lambert

11.1 Introduction 229

11.2 Froth Stability 233

11.3 Hydrodynamic Condition of the Froth 235

11.4 Detachment of Particles from Bubbles 236

11.5 Gangue Recovery 238

11.6 The Velocity Field of the Froth Bubbles 241

11.7 Plant Experience of Froth Flotation 242

12 Froth Flotation of Oil Sand Bitumen 251

Laurier L. Schramm and Randy J. Mikula

12.1 Introduction 251

12.2 Oil Sands 251

12.3 Mining and Slurrying 253

12.4 Froth Structure 265

12.5 Physical Properties of Froths 272

12.6 Froth Treatment 274

12.7 Conclusion 278

13 Foams in Enhancing Petroleum Recovery 283

Laurier L. Schramm and E. Eddy Isaacs

13.1 Introduction 283

13.2 Foam Applications for the Upstream Petroleum Industry 284

13.3 Foam Applications in Wells and Near Wells 287

13.4 Foam Applications in Reservoir Processes 289

13.5 Occurrences of Foams at the Surface and Downstream 298

13.6 Conclusion 299

14 Foam Fractionation 307

Xueliang Li and Paul Stevenson

14.1 Introduction 307

14.2 Adsorption in Foam Fractionation 310

14.3 Foam Drainage 315

14.4 Coarsening and Foam Stability 316

14.5 Foam Fractionation Devices and Process Intensification 317

14.6 Concluding Remarks about Industrial Practice 324

15 Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in Foam 331

Paul Stevenson

15.1 Introduction 331

15.2 Non-Overflowing Pneumatic Foam Devices 334

15.3 Overflowing Pneumatic Foam Devices 336

15.4 The Waldhof Fermentor 338

15.5 Induced Air Methods 340

15.6 Horizontal Foam Contacting 341

15.7 Calculation of Specific Interfacial Area in Foam 342

15.8 Hydrodynamics of Pneumatic Foam 343

15.9 Mass Transfer and Equilibrium Considerations 345

15.10 Towards an Integrated Model of Foam Gas-Liquid Contactors 347

15.11 Discussion and Future Directions 349

16 Foams in Glass Manufacturing 355

Laurent Pilon

16.1 Introduction 355

16.2 Glass Foams in Glass Melting Furnaces 363

16.3 Physical Phenomena 365

16.4 Experimental Studies 373

16.5 Modeling 386

16.6 Measures for Reducing Glass Foaming in Glass Melting Furnaces 395

16.7 Perspective and Future Research Directions 400

17 Fire-Fighting Foam Technology 411

Thomas J. Martin

17.1 Introduction 411

17.2 History 413

17.3 Applications 415

17.4 Physical Properties 416

17.5 Chemical Properties 430

17.6 Testing 448

Concentration (CMC) 451

17.7 The Future 453

18 Foams in Consumer Products 459

Peter J. Martin

18.1 Introduction 459

18.2 Creation and Structure 463

18.3 Sensory Appeal 470

18.4 Conclusions 473

Index
Dr Paul Stevenson is Senior Lecturer at the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Paul has a First Class Chemical Engineering degree, and a PhD from the University of Cambridge. Paul has worked in the field of foam and its industrial applications for eight years, and has published extensively on the fundamentals of foam science and the use of foams in flotation and fractionation.

P. Stevenson, University of Auckland