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Soft-Switching Technology for Three-phase Power Electronics Converters

Xu, Dehong / Li, Rui / He, Ning / Deng, Jinyi / Wu, Yuying

IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering

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1. Edition January 2022
496 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-60251-4
John Wiley & Sons

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Soft-Switching Technology for Three-phase Power Electronics Converters

Discover foundational and advanced topics in soft-switching technology, including ZVS three-phase conversion

In Soft-Switching Technology for Three-phase Power Electronics Converters, an expert team of researchers delivers a comprehensive exploration of soft-switching three-phase converters for applications including renewable energy and distribution power systems, AC power sources, UPS, motor drives, battery chargers, and more. The authors begin with an introduction to the fundamentals of the technology, providing the basic knowledge necessary for readers to understand the following articles.

The book goes on to discuss three-phase rectifiers and three-phase grid inverters. It offers prototypes and experiments of each type of technology. Finally, the authors describe the impact of silicon carbide devices on soft-switching three-phase converters, studying the improvement in efficiency and power density created via the introduction of silicon carbide devices.

Throughout, the authors put a special focus on a family of zero-voltage switching (ZVS) three-phase converters and related pulse width modulation (PWM) schemes.

The book also includes:
* A thorough introduction to soft-switching techniques, including the classification of soft-switching for three phase converter topologies, soft-switching types and a generic soft-switching pulse-width-modulation known as Edge-Aligned PWM
* A comprehensive exploration of classical soft-switching three-phase converters, including the switching of power semiconductor devices and DC and AC side resonance
* Practical discussions of ZVS space vector modulation for three-phase converters, including the three-phase converter commutation process
* In-depth examinations of three-phase rectifiers with compound active clamping circuits

Perfect for researchers, scientists, professional engineers, and undergraduate and graduate students studying or working in power electronics, Soft-Switching Technology for Three-phase Power Electronics Converters is also a must-read resource for research and development engineers involved with the design and development of power electronics.

PREFACE

NOMENCLATURE

PART 1: FUNDAMENTAL OF SOFT SWITCHING

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Requirement for three-phase power conversions

1.1.1 Three-phase converters

1.1.2 Switching frequency vs. conversion efficiency and power density

1.1.3 Switching frequency and impact of soft-switching technology

1.2 Concept of soft-switching technique

1.2.1 Soft-switching types

1.2.2 Soft-switching technique for three phase converters

1.3 Applications of soft-switching to three-phase converters

1.3.1 Renewable energy and power generation

1.3.2 Energy storage systems

1.3.3 Distributed FACTS devices

1.3.4 Uninterruptible power supply

1.3.5 Motor drives

1.3.6 Fast EV Chargers

1.4 The topics of this book

References

Chapter 2 Basics of soft-switching three-phase converters

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Switching characteristics of three-phase converters

2.2.1 Control of three-phase converters

2.2.2 Switching transient process and switching loss

2.2.3 Diode turn-off and reverse recovery

2.2.4 Stray inductance on switching process

2.2.5 Snubber

2.3 Classification of soft-switching three-phase converters

2.4 DC-side resonance converters

2.4.1 Resonant DC link converters

2.4.2 Active-clamped resonant DC-link (ACRDCL) converter

2.4.3 ZVS-SVM active clamping three-phase converter

2.4.3.1. Active clamping DC-DC converter

2.4.3.2. Active-clamping three-phase converter

2.5 AC-side resonance converters

2.5.1 Auxiliary resonant commutated pole converter

2.5.2 Coupled-inductor zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) inverter

2.5.3 Zero-current-transition (ZCT) inverter

2.6 Soft-switching inverter with TCM control

2.7 Summary

References

Chapter 3 Soft-switching PWM control for Active Clamped Three-phase Converters

3.1 Introduction

3.2 PWM of three-phase converters

3.3 Edge-Aligned PWM

3.4 ZVS converter circuit with EA-PWM

3.4.1 Stage analysis

3.4.2 ZVS conditions

3.4.1.1 The 1st resonant stage

3.4.1.2 The 2nd resonant stage

3.4.1.3 Steady conditions

3.4.3 Impact of PWM scheme and load on ZVS condition

3.5 Control diagram of the converter with EA-PWM

3.6 ZVS-SVM

3.6.1 Vector sequence

3.6.2 ZVS-SVM scheme

3.6.3 Characteristics of the converter with ZVS-SVM

3.7 Summary

References

PART 2: ZVS-SVM APPLIED TO THREE-PHASE RECTIFIERS

Chapter 4 Three-phase Rectifier with Compound Active Clamping Circuit

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Operation principle of CAC rectifier

4.2.1 Space vector of three-phase grid voltage

4.2.2 Space vector modulation of three-phase converter

4.2.3 Switching scheme of CAC rectifier

4.3 Circuit analysis

4.3.1 Operation stage analysis

4.3.2 Resonant stages analysis

4.3.3 Steady state analysis

4.3.4 Soft switching condition

4.3.5 Control technique of compound active clamping three-phase rectifier

4.4 Prototype design

4.4.1 Specifications of a 40 kW rectifier

4.4.2 Parameter design

4.4.3 Experiment platform and testing results

4.5 Summary

References

Chapter 5 Three-phase Rectifier with Minimum Voltage Active Clamping Circuit

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Operation principle of MVAC rectifier

5.2.1 Space vector modulation of three-phase converter

5.2.2 Switching scheme of MVAC rectifier

5.3 Circuit analysis of MVAC rectifier

5.3.1 Operation stage analysis

5.3.2 Resonant stages analysis

5.3.3 Steady state analysis

5.3.4 Soft switching condition

5.3.5 Control technique of minimum voltage active clamping three-phase rectifier

5.4 Prototype design

5.4.1 Specifications of a 30 kW rectifier

5.4.2 Parameter design

5.4.3 Experiment platform and testing results

5.5 Summary

References

PART 3: ZVS-SVM APPLIED TO THREE-PHASE GRID INVERTERS

Chapter 6 Three-phase Grid Inverter with Minimum Voltage Active Clamping Circuit

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Operation Principle of MVAC inverter

6.2.1 Space vector of three-phase grid voltage

6.2.2 Space vector modulation of three-phase inverter

6.2.3 Switching scheme of MVAC inverter under unit power factor

6.2.4 Generalized space-vector-modulation method of MVAC inverter with arbitrary output

6.3 Circuit analysis

6.3.1 Operation stage analysis

6.3.2 Resonant stages analysis

6.3.3 Steady state analysis

6.3.4 Soft switching condition

4.3.2 Control technique of MVAC inverter

6.4 Design prototype

6.5.1 Specifications of a 30 kW inverter

6.5.2 Parameter design

6.5.3 Experiment results

6.5 Summary

Reference

Chapter 7 Three-phase Inverter with Compound Active Clamping Circuit

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Scheme of ZVS SVM

7.2.1 Switch commutations in main bridges of three-phase inverter

7.2.2 Derivation of ZVS SVM

7.3 Circuit analysis

7.3.1 Operation stage analysis

7.3.2 Resonant stages analysis

7.3.3 Steady state analysis

7.3.4 Soft switching condition

7.3.5 Resonant time comparison

7.4 Implementation of ZVS SVM

7.4.1 Regulation of short circuit stage

7.4.2 Implementation in digital controller

7.4.3 Control block diagram with ZVS SVM

7.5 Prototype design

7.5.1 Specifications of a 30 kW inverter

7.5.2 Parameter design

7.5.3 Experiment platform and testing results

7.6 Summary

References

Chapter 8 Loss Analysis and Optimization of a Zero Voltage Switching Inverter

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Basic operation principle of the CAC ZVS inverter

8.2.1 Operation stage analysis

8.2.2 ZVS condition derivation

8.3 Loss and dimension models

8.3.1 Loss model of IGBT devices

8.3.1.1 Conduction loss of IGBT devices

8.3.1.2 Switching loss of the IGBT devices

8.3.2 Loss and dimension models of resonant inductor

8.3.3 Loss and dimension models of the filter inductor

8.3.4 Dimension model of other components

8.3.4.1 Clamping capacitor

8.3.4.2 Heat sink

8.4 Parameters optimization and design methodology

8.4.1 Objective Function

8.4.2 Constrained Conditions

8.4.3 Optimization Design

8.5 Prototype and experimental results

8.6 Summary

References

Chapter 9 Design of the Resonant Inductor with Air Gap

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Fundamental of Inductor with Air Gap

9.3 Design Methodology

9.3.1 Cross-section area of the core Ac

9.3.2 Window area Ae

9.3.3 Area-product Ap

9.3.4 Turns of winding N

9.3.5 Length of the air gap lg

9.3.6 Winding loss Pdc

9.3.7 Core loss Pcore

9.3.8 Design procedure

9.4 Design Example

9.4.1 Barrel winding discussion

9.4.1.1 Winding position discussion

9.4.1.2 Winding thickness discussion

9.4.2 Flat winding discussion

9.4.2.1 Different pattern comparison

9.4.2.2 Winding position discussion

9.5 Design Verification

9.5.1 Simulation verification

9.5.2 Experimental verification

9.6 Summary

References

PART 4: IMPACT OF SIC DEVICE ON SOFT-SWITCHING GRID INVERTER

Chapter 10 Soft Switching SiC Three-phase Grid Inverter

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Soft-switching three-phase inverter

10.2.1 SVM scheme in hard switching inverter

10.2.2 ZVS-SVM scheme in soft switching inverter

10.2.3 Operation stages and ZVS condition of soft switching inverter

10.2.3.1 Operation stages analysis

10.2.3.2 ZVS condition derivation

10.3 Efficiency comparison of hard switching SiC inverter and soft switching SiC inverter

10.3.1 Parameters design of soft switching SiC inverter

10.3.1.1 AC filter inductor

10.3.1.2 Resonant parameters

10.3.1.3 DC filter capacitor

10.3.1.4 Clamping capacitor

10.3.1.5 Cores selection

10.3.1.6 Switching loss measurement

10.3.2 Comparison of two SiC inverters

10.3.2.1 Loss distributions

10.3.2.2 Efficiency stiffness

10.3.2.3 Passive components volumes

10.3.3 Experimental verification

10.3.3.1 Efficiency test 31

10.3.3.2 Passive components volumes comparison

10.4 Design of low stray inductance layout in soft switching SiC inverter

10.4.1 Oscillation model

10.4.2 Design of low stray inductance 7 in 1 SiC power module

10.4.3 7 in 1 SiC power module prototype and testing results

10.4.3.1 Stray inductance measurement

10.4.3.2 Voltage stress comparison

10.5 Design of low loss resonant inductor in soft switching SiC inverter

10.5.1 Impact of distributed air-gap

10.5.2 Optimal flux density investigation

10.5.3 Optimal winding foil thickness investigation

10.5.4 Resonant inductor prototypes and loss measurement

10.6 Summary

References

Chapter 11 Soft-switching SiC single-phase grid inverter with active power decoupling

11.1 Introduction

11.1.1 Modulation methods for single-phase inverter

11.1.2 APD in single-phase grid inverter

11.2 Operation principle

11.2.1 Topology and switching scheme

11.2.2 Stage analysis

11.3 Circuit analysis

11.3.1 Resonant stages analysis

11.3.2 Steady state analysis

11.3.3 Soft switching condition

11.3.4 Short-circuit current

11.4 Design prototype

11.4.1 Rated parameters of a 1.5 kW inverter

11.4.2 Parameter design

11.4.3 Experimental platform and testing results

11.5 Summary

References

Chapter 12 Soft-switching SiC Three-phase Four-wire Converter

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Operation principle

12.2.1 Commutations analysis

12.2.2 Operation scheme

12.2.3 Stage analysis

12.3 Circuit analysis

12.3.1 Resonant stage analysis

12.3.2 Steady state analysis

12.3.3 ZVS condition

12.4 Design prototype

12.4.1 Parameters design

12.4.2 loss analysis

12.4.3 Experimental results

12.5 Summary

References

APPENDIX

A.1 Basic of SVM

A.2 Switching patterns of SVM

A.3 Switching patterns of ZVS-SVM

A.4 Inverter loss models

A.4.1 Loss model of hard switching three-phase grid inverter

A.4.2 Loss model of soft switching three-phase grid inverter

A.5 AC filter inductance calculation

A.6 DC filter capacitance calculation
Dehong Xu, PhD, is Full Professor in College of Electrical Engineering at Zhejiang University.

Rui Li, PhD, is Full Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

Ning He, PhD, is Firmware Design Principal Engineer in Delta Electronics (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.

Jinyi Deng is a PhD student in Power Electronics in the College of Electrical Engineering at Zhejiang University.

Yuying Wu is a PhD student in Power Electronics in the College of Electrical Engineering at Zhejiang University.